Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held on 26 October 2010 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic site of the prehistoric hill fort and Ravanjska Vrata necropolis with stećak tombstones (the lower and upper necropolises), Municipality Kupres, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the graves and 68 stećak tombstones (43 in the lower necropolis and 25 in the upper).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 75/110. 3088/4 and 3088/5, Land Register entry no. 360, title deed no. 270 cadastral municipality Ravno, Municipality Kupres, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:
- all works are prohibited other than investigative and conservation-restoration works, including those designed for the presentation of the monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
- the removal of lichen and moss from the stećaks is prohibited;
- by way of exception to the preceding paragraph, lichen and moss may be removed from the stećak tombstones where necessary in order to study their epigraphic or decorative elements, subject to a preliminary study and with the approval of the relevant ministry. The study shall be based on biological, chemical, physical and other analyses found by a conservator to be necessary, and shall include appropriate conservation measures and an assessment of the impact of cleaning methods on the stone;
- the zone is a potential archaeological site, and in consequence investigative works must be conducted in the presence of an archaeologist;
- the dumping of waste is prohibited.
The Government of the Federation shall be responsible in particular for ensuring that the following measures are carried out:
- conducting a geodetic survey of the site;
- producing a plan for the repair, restoration and conservation of the site;
- producing a Management Plan for the site.
Stage I of the production of a detailed Management Plan entails drawing up a project for clearing the necropolis, with emergency protection measures, to include clearing and refurbishing the necropolis so as to determine the exact number, size and position of the stećaks and to identify any decorations on them.
All movable artefacts found during the course of the archaeological survey shall be deposited in the nearest museum able to provide the necessary personnel, material and technical conditions or in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, processed, and suitably presented.
All movable and immovable archaeological material found during the course of the archaeological investigations shall be professionally processed.
Upon completion of the archaeological works the archaeologist leading the investigations shall submit a report to the Commission and to the institution that conducted the investigations.
The archaeologist leading the investigations must have access to all the movable and immovable archaeological material found during the course of the investigations and until his/her report is completed, for a period not exceeding three years.
All immovable finds shall be conserved in situ as the archaeological investigations proceed, and the movable archaeological material shall be conserved and placed for safe keeping in a suitable storage facility.
Upon receipt of a report on the investigations conducted, the Commission shall identify which movable artefacts shall be subject to protection measures to be determined by the Commission.
The removal of the movable artefacts referred to in para. 1 above from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.
By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 7 of this Clause, if the leader of the investigations determines that a given artefact must be processed abroad, and provides evidence to that effect to the Commission, the Commission may permit the temporary removal of the artefact from the country subject to detailed conditions for its export, treatment while out of the country and return to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
All executive and area development planning acts are hereby revoked to the extent that they are not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VI of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.kons.gov.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, and Ljiljana Ševo.
26 October 2010
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 30 September 2010 the Chair of the Commission to Preserve the Natural and Cultural Heritage of Kupres Municipal Council, Mrs Branka Magaš, submitted a proposal/petition to designate the Ravanjska Vrata necropolis with stećak tombstones (the lower and upper necropolises), Kupres Municipality, as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
Statement of significance
The Kupres region, along with the Duvno polje somewhat to the south, is characterized by the Dalmatian type of gabled (sarcophagus-like) stećak, which first feature in the late mediaeval burial grounds of the Cetina and Imotski regions, and was later adopted in the poljes of western and south-western Bosnia. Whereas this type of stećak is typical of the central Cetina river basin, those of the upper Cetina are closer, stylistically and typologically, to those of Knin and Drniš in Croatia and of the Livno polje in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Ravanjska Vrata necropolis with stećak tombstones is located in the gap known as Ravanjska Vrata between the Vukovo and Ravno poljes. There are 68 tombstones in the necropolis – 43 in the lower and 25 in the upper necropolis.
The most common decorative motifs are bands and borders, rosettes, crosses and crescent moons, followed by fleur-de-lis, hunting and round-dance scenes, a hand with a sword, two women, a man with a horse, a scrolling vine and a twisted circular garland.
A hill fort stands on the elevation known as Crljenac where the upper necropolis is located, and the quarry where the stone was extracted for the tombstones is nearby.
II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- details of the current condition and use of the property, including a description, architectural survey and photographs,
- an inspection of the current condition of the property,
- a copy of the cadastral plan,
- a copy of the Land Register entry,
- historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
Pursuant to Article V para. 2 of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 37 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission, before rendering a final decision designating a property as a national monument, the Commission is required to provide the owner of the proposed monument, the person submitting the petition, the institutions responsible for heritage, professional and academic institutions, experts and scholars, as well as other interested parties, to express their views. Accordingly, the Commission sent a letter ref. 05.1-35.2-10/10-190 dated 5 October 2010 requesting documentation and views on the designation as a national monument of the necropolis with stećak tombstones at Ravanjska Vrata, Kupres Municipality, to Kupres Municipality, department of urbanism and cadastral affairs, the Federal Ministry of Regional Planning and the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport.
In response, the Commission has received the following documentation:
- letter ref. 07-40-4-3850-1/10 of 13 October 2010 from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport notifying the Commission that the property listed as Ravanjska Vrata 1, Mušići, Kupres Municipality, is not under statutory protection.
- the Commission sent a letter ref. 05.1-36.1.7/11-110 dated 22 September 2011 to Kupres Municipality, department of urbanism and cadastral affairs and the Land Registry office of the Municipal Court, requesting a copy of the cadastral plan for the wider area, together with the Land Register entries for the same area
- under cover of letter ref. 068-2-Rz-11-000418 of 29 September 2011 the Land Register entries for the cadastral plots in question were supplied by the Land Registry office of the Tomislav branch of the Municipal Court in Livno
- under cover of letter ref. 05/2-30-1-834/11 of 23 September 2011 a copy of the cadastral plan for c.p. 75/110, 3088/4 and 3088/5 was supplied by Kupres Municipality, department of urbanism and cadastral affairs,
- the views of the owner had not been received at the time this Decision was rendered
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The necropolis with stećci (pl. of stećak), is located in Ravanjska Vrata, the gap about 100 m wide between Gradac (the end of Ravašnica) and Gradina, which connects the Vukovo and Ravno poljes.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 75/110. 3088/4 and 3088/5, Land Register entry no. 360, title deed no. 270 cadastral municipality Ravno, Municipality Kupres, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The harsh climate would seem to make this area undesirable for permanent human habitation, but physical remains in various places all over the Kupres Plateau constitute persuasive evidence that it has in fact been inhabited since prehistoric times. Indeed, prehistoric remains are the most numerous; there are hill forts at Pogana Glavica, Velika and Mala Gradina in Vrili, a hill fort at Crljenac and Ravno, stone tumuli at Jeljan and Dvorišći, earth mounds in the Kupres polje, and some fifty groups of stećci, more than a thousand tombstones in all.
The most interesting archaeological find in the Kupres area is from the earth mound at Pustopolje, near Gornji Malovani, dating from around 1800 BCE(1).
Of interest among the remains dating from Antiquity on the Kupres Plateau are the stretches of Roman roads, which have survived in good condition over a fair distance(2). The best known Roman road in this part of the world was the Salt Road, linking the Janje and Rama valleys, which no doubt crossed the Tomislavgrad to Bugojno road in Roman times.
The stretch of the road from Vaganj to Varbara-Rumbok is still in use, though not following the ancient route exactly; instead, it leaves it here and there, rejoining it several dozen metres later. The abandoned section of the Roman road north of Gornji Malovani can still be traced with ease.
When the Bugojno to Livno road was being laid in 1892, the buried ruins of a Roman house used as a guardhouse were found where the Velika Vrata cutting is now located. In addition to bricks, the finds included coins, a fibula, a stylus and a ring(3).
In 1447 an appeal was sent to the Pope by the Bosnian bishopric requesting that an indulgence be issued for the church of the Holy Trinity in Vrili, i.e. in Otinovci(4).
In a work dating from 1855, Djelovanje franjevaca u BiH vol. I p. 102, M. Batinić records that King Stjepan Tomaš, wishing to prove his commitment to the Roman Catholic Church, built a new church and procured church vestments, but adds a note to the effect that the Vrila in question could be near Tešanj, since as of that date no remains of a church had been discovered. In 1887 the parish priest of Otinovci, Vladimir Dolić, discovered the remains of the church of the Holy Trinity(5).
The mediaeval trade road linking Split with the Vrbas valley ran through Kupres, following much the same route as today, which is similar to the Roman road (Stražanj-Malovani-Kupres polje-Kupres-Velika Vrata).
The Venetian diplomat Catarino Zeno refers in his 1550 travelogue to Kupres as “castel Cuprus.”
In the Ottoman period, Kupres was a walled town with three towers or bastions(6).
According to Hamdija Kreševljaković, Kupres was a small town dating from the 17th century, which was fortified in the 18th and abandoned in 1840.
The area consisting of the Kupres, Rilići, Vukovo and Ravno poljes, with over 40 necropolises and several isolated tombstones, a total of 1055 recorded stećak tombstones, is a typical region of western Bosnia, and the one that has been most fully investigated(7). Slab-shaped stećci predominate both in total number and in most of the necropolises, followed by chest-shaped stećci, quite small on average and only a few with plinths; there are relatively few gabled (sarcophagus-shaped) stećci. The Kupres stećci are relatively elaborately decorated, with so-called pure decoration, social and religious symbols, and figural scenes: borders, fleur-de-lis, rosettes, stars, crescent moons, crosses, cable twist, a hand with a sword, a shield with a sword, a sword, arcades, elders’ staffs, hands, an anchor, a jousting scene, a round-dance, a hunting scene, individual human figures, animal figures, and other scenes.
The necropolises of Kupres usually stand alongside old Roman and mediaeval roads, on earth mounds and tumuli. According to Ante Milošević, the Kupres area, like the Duvno polje somewhat further south, features the Dalmatian type(8) of gabled tombstone, originally appearing in the late mediaeval burial grounds of the Cetina and Imotski frontier region, preceding the appearance of the same form in the poljes of western and south-western Bosnia. These Dalmatian-type tombstones are concentrated in two regions, Trilj-Imotski and Duvno-Kupres(9).
2. Description of the property(10)
The lower necropolis is in the Ravanjska Vrata gap itself, and contains 43 stećci; right next to it is the upper necropolis, with 25. About 800 m to the south is a necropolis at Trišića njiva, while about the same distance to the north, on the Vukovo side, is the Konopi necropolis.
Description of the stećci (lower necropolis)
Stećak no. 1, measuring 165x77x24 cm, leaning off true, partly below ground.
Stećak no. 2, sunken, largely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 3, small chest, measuring 75x41x32 cm, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 4, chest, measuring 160x100x 32 cm, top cracked, covered in places with moss and lichen.
Stećak no. 5, chest, measuring 168x105x60 cm, lop-sided, sinking, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 6, sunken, damaged, of indeterminate shape.
Stećak no. 7, chest, measuring 155x95x 40 cm, top decorated but the motif cannot be made out, damaged, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 8, chest, measuring 170x115x35 cm, top cracked all over, covered in places with moss and lichen.
Stećak no. 9, gabled, measuring 123x 150x86 cm, on its side, covered in places with moss and lichen, the side with a barely visible decoration of a band edged with incised lines between which is an incised zigzag line.
Stećak no. 10, chest, measuring 120x68x95 cm, surfaces cracked, covered in places with moss and lichen.
Stećak no. 11, sunken, top cracked, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 12, sunken, top cracked, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 13, sunken, of indeterminate shape.
Stećak no. 14, sunken, covered with soil.
Stećak no. 15, slab, measuring 170x80x15 cm, part of the top badly damaged, decoration visible in places (a band edged with two lines within which are diagonal lines).
Stećak no. 16, sunken.
Stećak no. 17, slab, measuring 100x95x25 cm, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 18, tall chest, measuring 105x185x70 cm, overturned, damaged, covered in places with moss and lichen, barely visible decoration (impossible to make out).
Stećak no. 19, chest, measuring 210x90x30, leaning off true, top damaged.
Stećak no. 20, small chest, measuring 105x65x30, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 21, gabled, measuring135x120x68 cm, on its side, decoration impossible to make out.
Stećak no. 22, tall chest, measuring 135x80x55 cm, visible surfaces cracked.
Stećak no. 23, sunken, top damaged.
Stećak no. 24, sunken, top damaged.
Stećak no. 25, sunken, top damaged.
Stećak no. 26, chest, measuring 150x70x48, split into two.
Stećak no. 27, sunken, top cracked.
Stećak no. 28, visible measurements 155x75 cm, sinking.
Stećak no. 29, almost completely sunken and covered with soil.
Stećak no. 30, chest, measuring 180x100x40 cm, all surfaces badly damaged.
Stećak no. 31, sunken, almost completely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 32, sunken, top damaged (cracked over the entire surface).
Stećak no. 33, sinking, damaged.
Stećak no. 34, sunken, top cracked, of indeterminate shape.
Stećak no. 35, chest, measuring 160x70x40 cm, top damaged.
Stećak no. 36, tone, leaning off true, top damaged, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 37, chest, measuring160x120x35, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 38, chest, measuring 170x98x46 cm, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 39, chest, measuring 180x128x42 cm, top damaged as are the corners, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 40, chest, measuring 190x145x50 cm, covered in places with moss and lichen, barely visible traces of decoration on the top (a band edged with two incised lines, a zigzag line between).
Stećak no. 41, gabled, measuring170x128x85 cm, covered with moss, decorated with a band with zigzag lines running horizontally around all four sides of the “roof,” and with a hunting scene in relief on the side: a hunter on horseback, holding a spear which he is throwing at a deer; a dog pursuing the deer.
Stećak no. 42, slab, measuring 170x80x25 cm, split across the middle into two.
Stećak no. 43, chest, measuring 155x86x36 cm, leaning off true, sinking, top cracked.
The upper necropolis is right next to the lower, on an area of high ground known as Crljenica, about 50 m from the lower necropolis. It contains 25 stećci, in no specific east-west arrangement. The necropolis is completely surrounded by quantities of stone and rocks of varying sizes, so that the stećci blend into their surroundings.
Description of the stećci (upper necropolis)
Stećak no. 1, sunken, top damaged, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 2, sunken, top damaged, covered with moss and lichen.
Stećak no. 3, almost completely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 4, almost completely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 5, visible measurements 200x100 cm, leaning off true, top damaged (cracked).
Stećak no. 6, overturned stećak of which the edge is 175 cm long, protruding from the ground.
Stećak no. 7, gabled, almost completely sunken, with only the “roof” visible above ground, also visible a cross in relief on the roof.
Stećak no. 8, chest, measuring 175x85x40 cm, top damaged, covered with lichen, barely visible decoration in relief of a hand and crescent moon.
Stećak no. 9, chest, overturned, length of the edge protruding above ground 170 cm.
Stećak no. 10, sunken, top damaged, covered with moss and lichen.
Stećak no. 11, sunken, top damaged, covered with moss and lichen.
Stećak no. 12, gabled on separate plinth, of good workmanship, rather narrower at the base, measuring 160x134x88 cm, covered with lichen, sunken on the south side. The “roof” is slightly curved, and has eaves at the ends and sides, decorated. The south-east side bears a jousting scene in relief, both knights on horseback, the scene set within arcades. The north-west side also bears a scene in relief, of two human figures in arcades. The south-west end, which is rather more crudely carved and cracked, bears a stylized plant motif in relief – two lines, curving outwards and then inwards and then outwards again, terminating in a trefoil. The decoration on the other end is unrecognizable.
Stećak no. 13, almost completely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 14, almost completely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 15, gabled, overturned, the side decorated with a barely visible jousting scene with two knights.
Stećak no. 16, almost completely covered with soil, top covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 17, leaning off true, almost completely covered with soil, top covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 18, leaning off true, tone, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 19, gabled on a separate plinth, of good workmanship, rather narrower at the base, measuring 182x120x100 cm, covered with lichen, decorated. The south-east side bears a jousting scene in relief set in arcades, very similar to the decoration on stećak no. 12. The roof pane bears a barely visible star and crescent moon. The south-west end is decorated in relief with a large equilateral triangle from the top of which rises a fleur-de-lis. Towards the top the sides of the triangle turn into two serpentine lines that widen, curving upwards, then narrow and curve downwards and outwards, ending in trefoils. Within the triangle is a cross with a forked lower upright.
Stećak no. 20, chest, measuring 180x95x50 cm, top damaged, decoration on the top barely noticeable (relief cross).
Stećak no. 21, gabled, overturned, surfaces cracked, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 22, almost completely covered with soil.
Stećak no. 23, chest, measuring180x100x45 cm, surfaces quite badly cracked, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 24, gabled with separate plinth, on its side, surfaces cracked, covered with lichen.
Stećak no. 25, chest, surfaces cracked, covered with lichen.
A prehistoric hill fort stands on Crljenac hill, above Ravanjska Vrata. The remains of dry walling and numerous pottery sherds have been found on the surface. The hill fort probably dates from the Bronze Age(11).
3. Legal status to date
The Regional Plan for BiH to 2000 lists twenty sites of necropolises with stećci (1077 stećci in all) in the Kupres area as Category III monuments, without precise identification.
4. Research and conservation-restoration works
In the 1950s the National Museum in Sarajevo embarked on a systematic study of the necropolises with stećci in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Šefik Bešlagić states that there is a group of 43 stećci (20 slabs, 20 chests and three gabled) at Ravanjska Vrata (the gap between the Vukovo and Ravno poljes), of good workmanship and lying north-west/south-east. Eighteen are decorated – five slabs, ten chests and three gabled. The most common decorative motifs are bands and borders, rosettes, crosses and crescent moons, followed by fleur-de-lis, hunting and round-dance scenes, a hand with a sword, two women, a man with a horse, a scrolling vine and a twisted circular garland. The quarry where the stećci were cut was nearby. Just to the west of this necropolis, at Ravanjska Vrata, is a necropolis on the slope known as Crljenica, with 25 stećci (ten slabs, eight chests and seven gabled), lying both north-south and east-west. Fifteen of these are decorated – five slabs, five chests and five gabled. The most common motifs are rosettes, crescent moons, circular garlands and crosses; jousting scenes in arcades and fleur-de-lis stand out on account of their workmanship. There are also scrolling vines with trefoils, a hand, a shield with a sword, a border of zigzag bands, the figure of a deer and a scene with two human figures in arcades. There is also a prehistoric hill fort at Crljenac(12).
5. Current condition of the property
The findings of an on-site inspection conducted on 1 October 2010 are as follows:
- the 78 stećci described in this decision were identified (lower necropolis with 43 and upper with 25),
- some of the stećci are almost completely sunken,
- some of the stećci have been overturned,
- the stećci are in poor condition, largely covered with plant organisms (moss and lichen) which are destroying the structure of the stone; as a result many of the decorations are no longer visible (no longer preserved),
- some of the stećci are leaning off true,
- some of the stećci are sinking into the ground,
- a few of the stećci are of indeterminate shape, plant organisms having broken up the stone,
- some of the stećci are visibly damaged with shallow or deep cracks or the top surface damaged.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.i. quality of workmanship
C.v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D.iv. evidence of a certain type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
E.ii. religious value
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Ownership documentation(13)
- Copy of cadastral plan for c.p. 75/110, 3088/4 and 3088/5, scale 1:62509, and c.p. 2223, issued on 22 October 2010 and 23 September 2011 by Kupres Municipality, department of urbanism and cadastral affairs, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Copy of title deed no. 270, c.m. Ravno, issued on 22 October 2010 by Kupres Municipality, department of urbanism and cadastral affairs
- Copy of Land Register entry no. 360, issued by the Land Registry office of the Tomislav branch of the Municipal Court in Livno
- Photographs taken on 1 October 2010 by archaeologist Silvana Čobanov using Canon 1000D digital camera
- Technical documentation
- Technical drawings of the property (plan of the necropolis and drawings of the stećak tombstones), measured and surveyed on 1 October 2010 by architect Arijana Pašić and archaeologist Silvana Čobanov
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1953 Basler, Đuro. “Kupres,” Jnl of the National Museum n.s. 8. Sarajevo: 1953
1964 Bešlagić, Šefik. Kupres, Srednjevjekovni nadgrobni spomenici (Kupres, mediaeval tombstones). Sarajevo: 1954
1971 Bešlagić, Šefik. Stećci, kataloško-topografski pregled (Stećak tombstones, a catalogue and topographical survey). Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1971
1980 Redžić, Husref (ed.) Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina, phase B – valorization of natural, cultural and historical assets. Sarajevo: Institute for Architecture and Town and Country Planning of the Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo and the Planning Authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, 1980
1988 Borivoj Čović, (ed.) Arheološki leksikon BiH (Archaeological lexicon of BiH), Vol. 2. Sarajevo: 1988
1999 Petrinec, Maja. Prapovijesno razdoblje, Arheološka zbirka Franjevačkog muzeja u Livnu (Prehistoric period, Archaeological collection of the Franciscan Museum in Livno). Livno: 1999
2009 Lovrenović, Dubravko. Stećci, Bosansko i humsko mramorje srednjeg vijeka (Stećci, Bosnian and Hum mediaeval memorials). Sarajevo: Rabic, 2009.
(1) Maja Petrinec, Prapovijesno razdoblje, Arheološka zbirka Franjevačkog muzeja u Livnu, Livno: 1999, 21.
(2) Đuro Basler, “Kupres,” Jnl of the National Museum n. s. 8, Sarajevo: 1953, 338.
(3) Šefik Bešlagić, Kupres, Srednjevjekovni nadgrobni spomenici, Sarajevo: 1954, 156.
(4) Šefik Bešlagić, op.cit., Sarajevo: 1954, 157.
(5) For more on the church see the Decision designating the archaeological site of Otinovci with the remains of 5th, 15th and 19th century churches in Kupres Municipality (decision no. 05.1-2-142/07-4, adopted at the 35th session, held from 20 to 27 November 2011 (Official Gazette of BiH no. 89/09).
(6) Šefik Bešlagić, op.cit., Sarajevo: 1954, 158.
(7) Dubravko Lovrenović, Stećci, Bosansko i humsko mramorje srednjeg vijeka. Sarajevo: Rabic, 2009, 205.
(8) Dubravko Lovrenović, op.cit, Sarajevo:2009, 208
(9) Dubravko Lovrenović, op.cit, Sarajevo:2009, 208.
(10) Given the current altered state of the necropolis, the description in this Decision is of its current condition; for its former condition see Šefik Bešlagić, Kupres, Srednjevjekovni nadgrobni spomenici, Sarajevo: 1964.
(11) Borivoj Čović, (ed.), Arheološki leksikon BIH, Vol. 2., Sarajevo: 1988, 175.
(12) Šefik Bešlagić, Stećci, kataloško-topografski pregled, Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1971, 123.
(13) Translator's note: in the local language version of the decision the ownership documentation is listed under Technical documentation, no doubt in error.