Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the Official Gazette of BiH, no. 53/08.
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 29 January to 4 February 2008 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic site of the Orthodox church of Vračevica (church of the Healing Saints) with a prehistoric mound (tumulus) in Gomiljani, Trebinje, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of a prehistoric grave mound (tumulus), one stećak tombstone and the Orthodox church of Vračevica (church of the Healing Saints).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 748/4 (old survey), title deed no. 34, Land Register entry no. 73, cadastral municipality Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina(1).
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:
- all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, including works designed to display the monument, with the approval of the ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority),
- the site of the National Monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes,
- works of any kind to the infrastructure are prohibited unless with the approval of the relevant ministry and subject to the expert opinion of the heritage protection authority,
- all building and works of any kind that could have the effect of altering the site or the area are prohibited, as is the erection of temporary or permanent structures not designed solely to protect and present the National Monument,
- the removal of stone from the grave mound is prohibited, as is its use for any purpose whatsoever,
- the stećak tombstones are not to be moved or relocated,
- all interventions that could pose a threat to the National Monument are prohibited,
- burials less than five metres from the prehistoric grave mound and stećak tombstone are prohibited.
The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible drawing up a programme of systematic archaeological investigations and conservation of the National Monument, to include a geodetic survey of the current condition of the property, and for drawing up and implementing a programme for the presentation of the National Monument.
Emergency protection measures for the church:
- clearing the immediate area around the church of self-sown vegetation,
- identifying and making a detailed record of the fragments of the church inside or in the immediate environs of the building,
- structural repairs to the church,
- temporary protection from the direct effect of the elements or conservation and reconstruction of the roof of the church.
On-going protection measures for the church:
- drawing up a project for the conservation and presentation of the church,
- conservation and presentation works on the church with the approval of the relevant ministry responsible and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.
The Government of Republika Srpska, the relevant ministry and the heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II – V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 688.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
30 January 2008
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a decision to add the church of the Healing Saints (Vračevića) in the village of Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje to the Provisional List of National Monuments under serial no. 688
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry);
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc;
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The village of Gomiljani is 4 km as the crow flies west of Trebinje. It is believed to have been named after its many mounds (gomila). Gomiljani is at an altitude of 313 m, latitude 42º 42' 245" and longitude 18º 18' 041". The Orthodox church of Vračevica (church of the Healing Saints) in the village lies west-east and is surrounded by a stone boundary wall.
Behind the church, in the eastern part of the area within the wall, is a prehistoric grave mound (tumulus), with a height of about 5 m, a diameter of 3164 m, a circumference of 9945 m, and an area of 788.15 sq.m. In addition, there is a single stećak tombstone outside the church.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 748/4 (old survey), title deed no. 34, Land Register entry no. 73, cadastral municipality Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina(2).
It has been established scientifically that the grave mounds in Bosnia and Herzegovina belong to the prehistoric Illyrians, and as a result they are also known as Illyrian tumuli. Grave mounds of this type survive in nine mediaeval necropolises in the Trebinje area (Bjelač, Gola Glavica, Orah, Začula, Zaplanik, Bijela, Rapti, Gomiljani and Hum). There are two each in Bjelač and Začula, three in Bijela, and numerous old stone mounds in Gomiljani.
The inhabitants of this area found it hard to give up their custom of burials in grave mounds, so that the majority of mediaeval necropolises came into being on or beside grave mounds. This is why there are old church sites on top of some grave mounds in mediaeval burial grounds (Bjelač, Orah, Bijela), or in some cases beside them (Ilijina glavica near Gola Glavica, Začula, Zaplanik and Hum). It would seem that new places of worship – Christian churches – were built on the site of old pagan shrines. Stećak tombstones were set up beside many of these churches on grave mounds (Orah, Začula, Zaplanik and Hum); indeed, it is only on the church sites at Ilijina glavica near Gola Glavica and in Bjelač that there are none.
Stećak tombstones were placed on the graves in most of the mediaeval necropolises in the župa (county) of Trebinje – only three out of the total of 26 had (and have) no stećak tombstones (Svinja, Ilijina glavica near Gola Glavica and Bijelač). In the villages of Svinja and Orah there are graves covered by smallish amorphous stone slabs, where Greek crosses (crux immissa) can barely be made out faintly incised on the east face of the headstone. The majority of these tombstones are ordinary stećci (pl. of stećak), rarely with epitaphs (Taleža, Zaplanik, Bijela, Bobovište and Hum). As well as the great many stećak tombstones in the Trebinje area, there are also a number of upright stone crosses (Uskoplje 1, Bobovište 2, Hum 3) and one on a seat carved into the living limestone rock (Gornji Turani) (Đ. Tošić, 46-47).
Grave mounds are usually made of stone or earth. There are about 200 Illyrian graves in Mosko, and a few in Krtinje as well. They are rectangular in shape, some with roofing slabs and others simply surrounded with stone. The skeletons in these mounds are laid north-east/south-west. Bronze artefacts have also been found in them. There are mounds of this kind in Gomiljani, in Rapti near Trebinje, and elsewhere.
Excavations were conducted in the late 19th century in Mosko and Krtinje. In Mosko, three mounds were excavated. One was nine metres in diameter and contained two graves lying side by side, surrounded by stone and covered with a slab. The skeletons were lying north-east/south-west, with their heads to the north-east. The second mound was twelve metres in diameter, and was found to contain four skeletons laid facing the four points of the compass, heads outwards and feet in the middle. The graves were surrounded by stone and covered with slabs. Here, fragments of jewellery were found, the remains of a chain made of bronze wire and two large and one small button. The third mound was nine metres in diameter and was found to contain three graves laid alongside each other east-west, with the heads of the deceased to the west.
The remains of an iron spear, a rather large single-bladed knife and the entire blade of an iron knife 95 mm long were found along with ten hemispherical buttons.
Similar buttons have been found at Glasinac and in Čapljina, and appear to have been used over a long time in the Hallstadt period.
One of the mounds in Krtinje was six metres in diameter, and contained a single grave surrounded by stone and covered with a slab. The skeleton was lying east-west, with the head to the west.
The mounds in the village of Gomiljani have not been excavated. It is said, on the basis of a superficial examination, that they contain nothing but skeletons. There are no signs of incineration.
Some say, however, that in such mounds in the village of Arslanagića Most and in Hrupjeli there are signs of incineration, and that coins and shards from pottery vessels have been found in the graves (V.J. Korać, 1966, 17-18).
The Orthodox church of Vračevica (the church of Healing Saints)(3) is of the type of single-nave church with a semicircular apse and shallow pointed vaulted roof. This type of building, with all its variations, first appeared in the coastal regions in the early 13th and late 14th century (D. Demonja). Masons from Dubrovnik, who had been working on both religious and secular buildings in Bosnia and Herzegovina since mediaeval times, introduced the architectural forms of the single-naved church into the architecture of old Herzegovina from the latter half of the 15th to the end of the 17th century.
In Herzegovina at this time, single-nave churches of both Orthodox and Catholic provenance were built, for which purpose masons from Dubrovnik were hired. These churches are all of a similar size, with the difference between them featuring in the method of transferring the lateral thrust. In Popovo polje alone, a relatively small area, there are three old monasteries and 36 old churches, as well as many still older church sites owned by the Zahum Herzegovina eparchy.
There is very little historical information on the church of Vračevica (church of the Healing Saints). The church was built in the 15th century, as shown by two inscriptions scratched into the plaster on the south wall and the northern part of the west wall – V L]TO Z 7000 (i.e. in the summer of 7000 counting from the Creation, or 7000-5508 = 1492 AD), providing evidence for determining a terminus ante quem of 1492 for Vračevica(4). By analogy with this dating for Vračevica, the other two churches in Gomiljanji, Đurđevica and Kostadinovica, also date from the 15th century.
In addition, a cross is incised into the plaster on the west wall, with a cryptogram in which the letters NI KA can be made out.
The church is dedicated to Healing Saints (vrač, hence the name Vračevica), probably Cosma and Damian(5).
2. Description of the property
Grave mounds are funerary monuments built of substantial groups of limestone. They are conical in outline, and usually contain or are erected over human graves. This kind of mound is known in the region as gomila. However, no graves or human remains have been found in or beneath some stone mounds; it is not known whether such mounds were cenotaphs or were built for some other reason. It is known that some stone mounds were erected for kinsmen who were killed or died elsewhere but whose bodies were not returned for burial on the site where the mound was built. Some stone mounds are also believed by some to mark boundaries (P. Oreč, 1978, 182).
The scholarly terms used to denote stone mounds include barrow, mound, burial mound, tumulus and hill (the terms used in the local language are gomila, gromila, kamena gomila, grobna gomila, tumulus and humka) (Ibidem, 238).
The grave mounds in Bosnia appear smaller and lower than those in Herzegovina, which are of colossal proportions. First to conduct a systematic study of the burial grounds in southern Herzegovina was Dr. Lušan on behalf of the Anthropological Society of Vienna, very soon after the Austro-Hungarian occupation. All that he collected was some cranial material, which is housed in the Imperial Court Museum.
The stone barrows, which measure 30-40 m in diameter at the base and 4-5 m in height, mounds with [or of] one 20 m, unlike those in Glasinac which are rarer in southern Herzegovina are among the smaller [of their kind](6). Though not as close together as those at Glasinac, these Herzegovina mounds are found over a large area from Glamoč to Montenegro, and from the Neretva and Vrbas rivers to the sea. Judging from the size of the graves, they probably contain not one but several graves. These mounds, which now appear to be uneven piles of stone, were once built to a certain design. Their interior construction differs from that of the mounds at Glasinac. The deceased buried beneath the mounds were not laid on the bare earth but in coffins made of sizeable uncut slabs with another similar slab as a lid (Ć.Truhelka 1893, 231).
The absence of bronze in these cists and the shards of coarse pottery indicate that they were in existence even before the Bronze Age, and can indubitably be regarded as much older than the Glasinac mounds, since Greek culture came to these coastal regions earlier and overlaid or displaced the enchoric culture (Ibidem, 234).
Judging from the documentation assembled so far, burial under stone barrows or tumuli was the prevailing form of burial throughout the Bronze Age in Herzegovina. Earth mounds are also recorded, but are rare, as are those of earth and stone. No other kind of grave that could be attributed to the Bronze Age has yet been found (B.Čović 1978, 134).
The early Bronze Age graves that have been studied in greatest detail so far are a group of tumuli in the Trebinje – Bileća area: Čepelica, Orah and several sites in Ljubomir. They consist of stone-and-earth or mainly stone tumuli (in Ljubomir). Main pure stone tumuli have been excavated in Čepelica and Orah, along with one small earth mound (Orah).
The deceased were usually buried in coffins composed of stone slabs, in the foetal position. There is also evidence of incinerations (Ljubomir). As a rule the structure of the tumuli consists of a simple mound of stone and earth, or stone alone, over the grave.
In some cases a ring of large stones was found around the edge of the tumulus, and in one case (Orah, tumulus 1), a specially built stone platform on which there were two coffin-like graves.
The tumuli are usually quite large, 12 to 25 m in diameter. Typically, there are no grave goods in the actual graves. There are quantities of pottery shards scattered around the foot of the tumuli as well as on the surface of and in the mound itself, as the remains of various rituals accompanying the burial and the erection of the tumulus, and also probably of later wakes or after-funeral feasts. Culturally speaking, most of the typical movable artefacts belong to the same type as that found in tumuli around the source of the Cetina in central Dalmatia (the Cetina cultural group). Also of the same kind are the shape of the tumuli and graves and the ritual itself, the use of pottery, and certain other details. This suggests that the Cetina cultural group, appearing as it did in Dalmatia and at the far eastern boundary of Herzegovina, was widespread throughout Herzegovina, or at least in southern Herzegovina. This, however, gives rise to what seems to be a primarily methodological problem. The Cetina cultural group is so far known only from its graves; there are no known settlements in Herzegovina that might provide identical material. Hill fort settlements in western Herzegovina (apart from a few fragments on Trostruka gradina – “triple hill fort”) lack typical Cetina material, but feature many shapes of vessel, and even ornamental techniques and motifs, not found either in the tumuli around the source of the Cetina or in those around Bileća and Trebinje. The data suggests that some of the stone tumuli scattered throughout Herzegovina as small groups or isolated barrows must belong to the Bronze Age (Ibidem, 139-140).
Given that there is good evidence for burials beneath tumuli during the late Bronze Age in Herzegovina, it would seem logical to conclude that this type of grave, which evolved in the early Bronze Age, continued to be used during the middle Bronze Age in this region. The grave in tumulus no. V at Gorica near Malo polje, not far from Mostar, possibly belongs to that period. The grave goods it contained – a large pot with two curved and two horizontal handles – could equally well belong typologically to the early or the middle Bronze Age, but the fact that the tomb is of normal size (suggesting that the deceased was buried with limbs outstretched, not in the crouched or foetal position) would indicate a certain departure from the prevailing ritual in early Bronze Age times, and suggest a rather later date in the middle Bronze Age (Ibidem, 141-143).
A tumulus in Rabina, near Nevesinje, in which a bronze dagger with a tang-like handle was found, belongs to the late Bronze Age. A note by V. Radimski records that a bronze celt (adze) and bronze knife were found in a tumulus near Polog (Mostar) in 1891. This too would thus be a burial beneath a late Bronze Age tumulus. The 7th century graves found in Đulići in Gubavica (Buna, near Mostar) indicate that, at least there, east of the Neretva, burials beneath tumuli continued into the early Iron Age (in eastern Herzegovina it persisted for longer in the Iron Age). In western Herzegovina, the method of burial is different. It has been found that in western Herzegovina, as in south-western Bosnia and central Dalmatia, during the Iron Age the dead were usually buried in flat graves. There are indications from central Dalmatia, on the other hand, of burials both beneath tumuli and in flat graves in the late Bronze Age.
It is to be expected, therefore, that both types of grave dating from the late Bronze Age could be found in western Herzegovina – tumuli and flat graves (Ibidem, 145).
The prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) is behind the church of the Healing Saints, to the east. Behind it, again to the east, a stone boundary wall was built surrounding the burial ground. The local macadam road runs along that east side. Small stone shelters have been built, probably in modern times, on the mound. The mound is 31.64 m in diameter and about five metres in height, with a circumference of 99.45 metres and an area of 788.15 sq.m. The lower parts of the mound and those closer to ground level are overgrown with grass, and around it is low thorny scrub, weeds and even sizeable trees. Other than the stone forming a crown at the top, there are no signs of a grave. Outside the church, about three metres away, is a single stećak tombstone, half buried in stone, of poor workmanship, damaged and without decoration. The stećak measures 125 x 59 cm with 17 cm visible above ground.
The burial ground, surrounded by a stone boundary wall, is overgrown with weeds and sizeable trees. To the left just inside the entrance, which is from the north, is a grave of modern date, and on the way to the church the burial ground contains another three graves also of modern date.
About ten metres to the south of the church is an area surrounded by stone, also a grave, the age of which is hard to determine. This grave measures 245 x 85 cm. The burial ground also contains a few small heaps of stone and the four graves of modern date already referred to.
Vračevica (church of the Healing Saints)
The church known as Vračevica (the church of the Healing Saints) lies west-east, with its entrance at the west end. In layout it belongs to the type of single-naved church, rectangular in ground plan with a semicircular apse(7).
The church is a simple, modestly-sized structure, measuring about 4.85 x 6.90 m on the outside, not counting the apse.
The church has massive stone walls of relatively evenly cut, roughly finished blocks in mortar binder, laid in regular courses and left exposed on the outside.
The building has a gabled roof, and the apse a semi-dome. The church was clad with stone slabs, the remains of which can still be seen on the roof. Structurally, the unevenly slightly pointed vault transfers the load to the massive side walls(8).
There are two rows of openings in the church. Below are rectangular windows in the south wall and the apse, the openings formed from stone blocks. Above, directly over the portal, is a window in the west, entrance end of the building. This tall, narrow window opening is also formed of stone blocks.
The rectangular portal at the west end of the church, which is 70 cm wide, has massive stone doorjambs and lintel. The jambs measure about 50 x 140 cm, and the lintel about 90 x 40 cm.
Over the portal is a slightly pointed relieving arch. This moulded arch, which is 16 cm wide, rests on stone consoles, and is 50 cm high and 65 cm wide.
Inside the building, part of the old stone floor has survived at the east end, where part of the stone altar has been toppled. The rectangular niche of the proscomidion, with a stone slab beside it, is in the east corner of the north wall, and the diaconicon niche is in the east corner of the south wall(9).
3 Legal status to date
During the procedure prior to the adoption of a final decision on designation, the records on the protection of the property were inspected and the findings are as follows:
The Regional Plan for BiH to 2000 does not list the prehistoric mounds in Gomiljani in Trebinje Municipality as a monument.
The church of the Healing Saints (Vračevića) in the village of Gomiljani, Trebinje Municipality, is on the Provisional List of National Monuments of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments under serial no. 688.
A letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport dated 19 February 2008 states that the church of the Healing Saints (Vračevića) in Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, was neither listed nor on the Register of cultural monuments of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
4 Research and conservation and restoration works
The mounds in the village of Gomiljani have not been excavated. It is said, on the basis of a superficial examination, that they contain nothing but skeletons. There are no signs of incineration.
No investigative or conservation and restoration works have been conducted and there is no documentation on any renovations of the property.
5. Current condition of the property
The following are the findings from an on-site inspection conducted on 17 January 2008:
- the lower parts of the grave mound and those closer to ground level are overgrown with grass, and around it is low thorny scrub, weeds and even sizeable trees,
- the stone on the mound itself has been scattered around and use to make small shelters (small trench-like structures),
- layers of moss are growing all over the mound, on which vegetation (low-growing grass) is beginning to take root,
- Vračevica (the church of the Healing Saints) is in rather poor condition,
- only traces of the stone slab roof cladding survive,
- constant exposure to the elements has led to damage to the walls and rain penetrating into the building,
- the property is almost completely inaccessible on three sides because of the dense self-sown vegetation,
- small trees have taken root on the walls and roof of the building,
- there are the remains of a cross outside the entrance to the building, possibly from a bell tower.
6. Specific risks
- deterioration resulting from long years of lack of maintenance of the site,
- adverse weather conditions,
- self-sown vegetation,
- collapse of the church.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
D.iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
E.ii. religious value
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/landscape value
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.i. form and design
G.ii. material and content
G.iv. traditions and techniques
G.v. location and setting
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan,
- Copy of land register entry,
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1893. Truhelka, Ćiro. “Opaske o megalitičkim gromilama hercegovačkim” (Notes on Herzegovina Megalithic Mounds), Jnl of the National Museum, 1893.
1966. Korać, J. Vojislav. Trebinje - Istorijski pregled I, period do dolaska Turaka (Trebinje – A Historical Overview I, to the arrival of the Turks). Trebinje: 1966.
1978. Čović, Borivoj. "Bronzano doba u Hercegovini – stanje i problemi istraživanja" (The Bronze Age in Herzegovina – condition and problems of research), Tribunia 4. Trebinje: 1978.
1978. Oreč, Petar. “Prapovijesna naselja i grobne gomile (Posušje, Grude i Lištica)” (Prehistoric Settlements and Grave Mounds [Posušje, Grude and Lištica]), Jnl of the National Museum, Arch. n.s. vol XXXII/1977. Sarajevo: 1978.
1998. Tošić, Đuro. Trebinjska oblast u srednjem vijeku (The Trebinje District in Mediaeval Times). Belgrade: Institute of History, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, special edition, vol. 30, 1998.
2002. Ševo, Ljiljana. Pravoslavne crkve i manastiri u Bosni i Hercegovini do 1878 godine (Orthodox Churches and Monasteries in BiH to 1878). Banja Luka: 2002
(1) Transferred from Land Register entry no. 251, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 31 January 2007
(2) Transferred from Land Register entry no. 251, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 31 January 2007
(3) For more historical background on single-naved churches in Herzegovina, see the Decision designating the historic building of the Catholic church of St Anne in Gradac near Neum as a national monument.
(4) Ljiljana Ševo, Pravoslavne crkve i manastiri u Bosni i Hercegovini do 1878 godine, 197
(5) Ibidem, 197
(6) Translator’s note: this sentence, which remains unclear in this amended version of the Decision, is therefore translated literally.
(7) The condition of the church is so poor that it was impossible to determine whether or not it had a bell tower.
(8) There is a similar transfer of load in the Catholic church of St Anne in Gradac near Neum. Other churches with slightly pointed vaults are the churches of St Nicholas in Srđevići near Gacko, St Nicholas in Kolanjevići (Grančarevo), St Sava in Miruši (the Trebišnjica valley), St Nicholas in Domaševo (Ljubomir), the Archangel Michael in Ugarci (Ljubomir), the Cerement of the Virgin in Mosko (Ljubomir), the Dormition of the Virgin in Turmenti (Zupci), St Petka in Grab (Zupci), and St George in Prljači (Gorica, Trebinje) – which is to say that it is not an unusual feature in eastern Herzegovina
(9) Ljiljana Ševo, op.cit., 197