Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V, Para. 4, Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 Para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 6 to 10 July 2004, the Commission issued a
D E C I S I O N
The natural and architectural ensemble of the residential complex of the Velagić family in Blagaj near Mostar is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument comprises the residential buildings of the Velagić family, with lodge, stables, mills, fulling mill and natural surroundings – part of the riverbed and bank of the river Buna situated within the protected area, a branch of the Buna with an eyot, and gardens.
The National Monument is located on cadastral plot nos. 1423, 1424, 1443/1, 1443/2, 1442, 1441/1, 1441/2, 1441/3, 1437, 1438, 1435, 1439, 1434, 1440, 1436, 1433, 1447, 1448, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1452, 1453, 1454, 1455, 1456, 1457, (new survey), corresponding to cadastral plot nos. 3/41, 3/42, 3/43, 3/44, 3/47, 3/48, 3/49, 3/50, 3/51, 3/65, 3/67, 3/73, 3/102, 3/103, 3/162 (old survey), cadastral municipality Blagaj, City of Mostar, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Official Gazette of the Federation of B&H", nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the resources needed to draw up and implement the necessary technical documentation for the rehabilitation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument the following measures are hereby stipulated:
Protection Zone I consists of the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision. In this Zone the following protection measures shall apply:
Ÿ all works are prohibited other than works for the technical maintenance of the buildings, conservation and restoration works, and works to reconstruct destroyed or missing elements of the buildings, including those designed to display the Monument, with the approval of the Federal ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);
Ÿ all building and works of any kind that could have the effect of altering the site or the townscape and landscape are prohibited, as is the erection of temporary or permanent structures not designed solely to protect and present the National Monument
Ÿ all parts constructed of inappropriate materials (concrete, reinforced concrete, tiles etc.) shall be replaced by components made of traditional materials;
Ÿ the National Monument may be used for its original purpose, together with its presentation for educational and cultural purposes provided that such use does not jeopardize the National Monument or its natural surroundings. The Monument shall be open to the public in a manner to be determined by agreement between the heritage protection authority and the owner of the building.
Protection Zone II consists of an area to the north of the site designated as cadastral plot nos. 1429/2, 1429/1, 1430, 1431, 1432, and a 50 metre wide strip around Protection Zone I to the east, west and south. In this zone the construction of new buildings that could jeopardize the National Monument in size, appearance or other manner is prohibited.
All executive and area development-planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the protection and conservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba).
Pursuant to Art. V, Para. 4, Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 420.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
Chairman of the Commission
7 July 2004
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of B&H, no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
At the meeting held on 14 July 14 2000 the Commission adopted a Decision to enter the Residential Complex of the Velagić family in Blagaj near Mostar on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, under serial number 420.
Pursuant to the provisions of the Law, and pursuant to Article V Para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
Ÿ Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
Ÿ Documentation on the location of the property
Ÿ Documentation on the current owner and user of the property
Ÿ Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The residential complex of the Velagić family is located approximately 200 m downstream from the source of the Buna river.
The residential complex of the Velagić family with auxiliary structures, courtyard, lodge, stables, mills and fulling mill are situated on branches of the Buna River, running east-west, parallel to the Buna River, with the lodge on an eyot on a branch of the river, as are the mills and fulling mill. The stables stand to the east of the residential buildings.
Access to the complex is from the north, via a narrow access road branching off from the road leading from the čaršija (commercial part of town) to the source of the river Buna and the tekke.
”During the Ottoman period in Blagaj, houses and public edifices were built, and at the centre, as was the rule for settlements and towns in the Ottoman period, the čaršija or trade and crafts centre of the settlement, the complex of a mosque with harem and mekteb, and a han. Residential areas took shape typologically as urban mahalas, with their buildings facing onto courtyards, and rural mahalas, where the buildings faced outward to their surroundings. It was at this time that unparalleled examples of residential architecture originated, evidence of the extremely high standard of living and outlook typical of this region. The Velagićevina is one of the most valuable groupings of this type in Herzegovina.” (Mujezinović, N., 2000, pp. 62-66).
The Velagić family built their family houses on one of the branches of this clear, cold river, on a semi-eyot below the road leading from the čaršija to the tekke.
The Velagić family’s residential complex belongs to an old Blagaj family which is still living in the buildings. The complex was built in 1776 as three separate units (for three Velagić brothers) (Vilušić, ) The year when it was built has been ascertained from the inscription, as well as by analogy and stylistic features.
In the oriental collection of the Yugoslav Academy of Science and Art in Zagreb, document no. 367 is the Vakuf (endowment) of Velija Velagić, son of Hamzin from Blagaj. Prior to 1634, the vakif (legator) endowed a mill with five waterwheels on the Buna, a fulling mill for rolling cloth, and a wool-collecting basket under the fulling mill. He stipulated that the revenue from this vakuf be used each year in the month of Rajab (the seventh month of Islamic lunar year) to provide three banquets (sofra-table) for the poor, and that each year a hatma (requiem) be said for the repose of his soul. This mill was swept away by a torrent in 1934. (Hasandedić, 1997.)
2. Description of the property
The influence of Islam is apparent in the layout of the town, in the construction of public, utility and residential structures, and in the decorative treatment of space and its components. Its contribution to town planning lies in the fact that perfect harmony was achieved between houses and their natural environs. A new relationship came into being between the residential complex and the space outside it. The building is hidden from the gaze of strangers, because of the custom of keeping women concealed and for reasons of cleanliness. Residential complexes consisted of three parts: the house, the courtyard and the garden. The courtyard surrounded the house, and included a mutvak (summer kitchen), woodshed, ćenifa (privy), stables, magaza (storeroom), the area in front of the stables (bošćaluk or predaharluk), a drinking fountain, main gates, side gates, and a flower garden.
The business part of the complex was the courtyard outside the stables, while the family part of the complex centred on the mutvak. Gardens were an integral part of the way of life. Whenever possible, the house had running water. The lifestyle of an oriental house was characterized by the strict division between the premises intended for domestic duties and the living quarters. The houses were laid out as a square, with a the rooms and kitchen (mutvak) arranged diagonally to the central anteroom or hayat. The house consisted of rooms (known as halvat), hall (hayat) and staircase (basamak). The rooms served many purposes during the course of the day, from working to dining, socializing and sleeping. The furniture and fittings depended on the life style and the use of the premises. The built-in furniture consisted of sećija and musandara. A sećija is a wooden chest covered with a minder (straw palliasse), and šilta (mattress) topped by a makat or cover of fine cloth or carpet-weave. A musandara is built in against the wall, and incorporates the door to the room. Shelves form part of the musander, as well as a dolaf (wall cupboard), dušekluk (space for storing bed linen), hamamdžik (washroom) and stove.
Besides the stone masonry visible on the façades, wood invariably retains a natural appearance and structure, both as a structural component and as architectural décor. In Herzegovina, limestone slabs are widely used as roof cladding. This makes for a heavy roof that lies passively on the roof structure. The roof is low-pitched, so that the attic is rarely used. The chief feature of these houses is their décor, worked in wood or stone, in metal and fabric. Wood carving in Bosnia and Herzegovina was not solely under oriental influence but constituted a blend of old mediaeval stylistic and folkloric skills, creating a distinctive expression. (Pašić, .)
”The Velagić family’s residential complex is a unique example of the residential architecture of that time, comprising many of the features necessary for a comfortable lifestyle. It is so sited as to be concealed from the outside world, while its exuberant façades seem to dissolve and open up towards the natural surroundings and the river Buna. All the courtyards are interconnected and paved with river pebbles. The complex of the Velagić house is the most complete ensemble of family houses in their own plot, where the acme of the lifestyle of days past in Herzegovina is to be seen.” (Vilušić)
The Velagić complex occupies the area that extends almost from the main road leading from the čaršija to the tekke and to the eyot on the river Buna. It stands on a site that slopes down towards the river, so that the courtyards are terraced and access is via steps. The entire complex is surrounded by a stone wall about two metres high, separating the houses and their courtyards from the outside world. The business part of the complex is located by the main gates, with the area outside the stables (predaharluk), the stables themselves, a hay loft, a woodshed, and the servants’ quarters. Since the complex consists of several separate residential quarters, the access to all the family courtyards , known as the women’s courtyards, is separate.
As well as the residential quarters with their ancillary facilities, such as kitchens, pantries, courtyards and so on, the complex includes a lodge on the river eyot, which was used for leisure purposes, especially in summer time, since the waters of the branch of the river Buna flowing beneath it kept it pleasantly cool.
Close to the complex, to the east, is another stables, mills, and a fulling mill. The complex is made still more unusual and attractive by the water running through the courtyard and piped to the basement of the house in complex A.
This is the first residential building with ancillary premises, designated as complex A in the sequence of Velagić houses. This complex has its own separate entrance to the north, and access to the inner cobbled courtyards is via cobbled. A separate entrance gate leads to one level of the courtyard, and ten cobbled steps lead to the courtyard at 0.00 level. The courtyard to the north, towards building B, is surrounded by a high stone wall, as is the north side of the courtyard. To the north-east side of the courtyard is a two-storey stone outbuilding in which the ancillary premises were located: the mutvak, servants’ quarters and hearth (used for curing meat). This building has a gabled roof clad with tiles, and measures 5.25 x 8.15 m. It is now in a state of dilapidation. A hudžer (pantry) and privy stand next to this outbuilding.
To the north-west side of the courtyard is another two-storey building, formerly used as stables with a hay loft above. The building has been repaired and converted into residential premises. It measures 4.45 x 5.51 m, and has a gabled roof clad with stone slabs.
The gardens are to the east of the house.
Residential building A has three storeys – a basement, ground floor and upper floor. The basement measures 8.95 x 6.49 m, the ground floor 8.95 x 10.86 n, and the upper floor 5.75 x 10.86 m.
Building A is entered from the north via a roofed, semi-enclosed hayat paved with flagstones. The wooden 15 x 15 cm pillars in the open area of the hayat support the floor joists of the tavan (corridor) on the upper floor. The hayat is a passageway with an area of 19.9 sq.m., leading to a room with an area of 25.4 sq.m. located on the south side of the building, and which has a wood floor and ceiling. The door into this room is also of wood, measuring 100 x 192.5 cm, and is adorned with rich wood carvings, made using metal chisels. The door frame and the door itself are of white pinewood, the door consisting of three pine-board panels. The wood used to make the door is not of particularly good quality. The top and bottom panels are horizontal, with the central panel constituting a single unit. The panels are framed with 4 cm wide light-toned pine beading. The upper and lower door panels are 14 cm wide, and have been treated with a brown protective coating. These panels are decorated with carved floral and geometrical motifs with metal stud inserts. The central panel is 110 cm long and consists of alternating light-toned 4 cm wide beading and longitudinal 7 cm wide bands treated with a brown coating. This part too is decorated with carved floral and geometrical motifs with metal stud inserts. There are five of these panels.
The area to the west of the hayat consists of an antechamber with an area of 5.82 sq.m. with flagstone flooring, leading to a room with an area of 12.3 sq.m. and the staircase down to the basement. These premises consist of a ground floor only, and have a pent, tile-clad roof. There is a basement below part of the ground floor, that was also used as a cold store, kept cool by the water that flowed through a channel in the basement and out into the river.
On the upper floor, above the hayat, is a semi-enclosed anteroom or tavan (corridor) with an area of approx. 12.17 sq.m. The north and part of the west side of this corridor is open, and at this point is a high wooden partition wall extending up to the roof structure. To the north the partition wall is divided into three sections by rectangular wooden 7 x 7 cm uprights, which also constitute the load-bearing structure for the roof. The lower part of the partition wall is 130 cm high and consists of two rows of vertical wooden slats set ten cm apart. Between is a horizontal wooden beam supporting the upper part, which is not as high as the lower, and is also constructed of vertical wooden slats. Below the roof the partition wall terminates in three wooden arches, with the spaces between left empty. The western part of the partition wall is divided into two sections by wooden 7 x 7 cm uprights supporting the roof structure at that point. The lower part of the partition wall is the same as on the north façade, but the area above it is enclosed by a trellis of wooden slats set at an angle of 45 degrees. Below the roof the partition wall terminates in two wooden arches.
The layout of the premises on the upper floor differs from that of the ground floor. The room on the south side has an area of 29.12 sq.m. and a doksat (verandar on the south façade, with a width of 110 cm, with a window overlooking the river. This room is known as the veliki ćošak or large verandah. The room to the east of the tavan has an area of approx. 16.85 sq.m. and has a 105 cm wide verandah on the east side. This room is known as the mali ćošak or small verandah.
The structure of building A is relatively simple. The ground floor walls support those of the upper floor and are themselves supported by the basement walls. The walls of the basement, ground floor and upper floor are of quarry stone, with a thickness of approx. 65-60 cm, and are plastered and whitewashed. The interior partition walls are thinner, approx. 15 c, and consist of timber framing (čatma). The floor joists consist of 12 x 12 cm wooden beams on which are laid the wooden floor boards of the upper floor, and which are panelled below with deal boards or šašavci. The roof structure is of timber. The main load-bearing components are two 16 x 16 cm timber struts supporting the roof, over which 14 x 14 cm purlins are laid every 2.5 m, and over these in turn are 10 x 10 cm rafters every 30 cm, the whole clad with stone slabs. The struts are held together towards the top by single ties and underpinned by 12 x 12 cm angle posts resting on the wall. Since the roof is of shallow pitch, the attic is not in use. The hipped roof has three tall stone chimneys.
All the façade windows are of wood, with those of the ground floor and basement fitted with iron bars. The windows on the upper floor are made of wood, consisting of a frame and cross-bars. They are sash windows, with a sliding lower casement that can be raised over the upper casement. On the south façade, the verandah or ćošak has three windows measuring 100 x 140 + 57 cm (arched lintel), consisting of four panes, plus one window of the same size on each of the two sides of the verandah. On the east the other verandah has three similar windows, with again two side windows, measuring 110 x 150 + 60 cm (arched lintel). These windows have six panes. There is a window measuring 90 x 125 cm on the east façade, without an arched lintel, and consisting of four panes. The upper floor has a total of 11 windows. The windows of the upper floor differ from those of the ground floor and basement. The ground floor windows are smaller, and have no casements but merely a frame; they have no glazing, but only plastic sheeting. They measure 80 x 108 cm. There are three such windows on the south façade. There are also three basement windows on the south façade, in line with the ground floor windows and of the same width; again, they consist only of a frame and plastic sheeting, and are 45 cm in height. The same façade also has three windows on the ground floor: a basement window measuring 63 x 43 cm, the mutvak window measuring 78 x 120 cm, and another window above it measuring 82 x 72 cm.
The slope of the doksat (oriel window) of the small and large verandahs on the south and east façades is faced with wood.
The rooms are 250 cm in height. The tavan and the large and small verandahs have wooden floors and ceilings. Repairs have been carried out in the small verandah where some parts were destroyed, and new woodwork and a new musandera were installed.
This is the second residential building with its ancillary facilities, designed as Complex B in the sequence of the Velagić family houses. This complex has a separate entrance from the north side, leading through the former business courtyard. The entrance is roofed over, with the stable building to one side and a wood shed to the other. These are stone-built, with stone slab roofs. Access to the inner cobbled courtyard is via cobbled steps. To the west, facing building C, the courtyard is surrounded by a high stone wall, as is the part of the courtyard to the east facing building A. To the south side of the courtyard is a small, single-storey, stone-built structure housing the ancillary facilities of the mutvak, privy and exit to the eyot. This structure has a gabled roof partly clad with stone slabs and partly with tiles. It has an area of approx. 12.5 sq.m.
The residential building in complex B has two floors – a ground floor and an upper floor – and measures 8.64 x 10.11 m.
Access to residential building B is through a covered, semi-enclosed hayat or hall to the east of the building. The hayat is a passageway that connects the ground floor rooms. This residential building is divided vertically into two halves, so that the hayat too is divided into two. The southern part of the hayat has an area of approx. 18.67 sq.m., and the northern part of approx. 8.00 sq.m. There is a staircase to the upper floor in each section of the hayat. The southern part of the hayat leads into a room with an area of approx. 17.2 sq.m. and into the room formerly used as a mutvak or summer kitchen, with an area of approx. 16.8 sq.m, which is now divided into three: a larder, a washroom, and a corridor.
Above the hayat on the upper floor is a semi-enclosed antechamber or tavan, divided into a southern section with an area of approx. 19.27 sq.m. and a northern with an area of 8.05 sq.m. The tavan is open to the south, and has a wooden railing along its entire length, from which there is a superb view of the eyot and the river Buna. The railing is 1.00 m high. The layout of the rooms on the upper floor is almost identical to that of the ground floor. The room on the south side has an area of 24.4 sq.m, and has a doksat or oriel window (projecting forward from the facade to a width of 95 cm), which has windows giving on to the river to the south. This room is known as the ćošak or verandah. The room to the north, which is entered from the other part of the tavan, has an area of approx. 19.54 sq.m. There are two rooms to the west, one with an area of approx. 9.14 sq.m. and the other 7.37 sq.m.
The structure of residential building B is the same as that of the other buildings. The walls of the upper floor rest fully on the ground floor walls. The walls of both the ground and the upper floor are of quarry stone, with a thickness of approx. 60-55 cm, plastered and whitewashed. The interior partition walls are thinner, approx. 15 cm, and consist of timber frames (čatma). The floor joists consist of 12 x 12 cm wooden beams on which are laid the wooden floor boards of the upper floor, and which are panelled below with deal boards or šašavci. The roof structure is of timber. The main load-bearing components are two 16 x 16 cm timber struts supporting the roof, over which 14 x 14 cm purlins are laid every 2.5 m, and over these in turn are 10 x 10 cm rafters every 30 cm, the whole clad with stone slabs. The struts are held together towards the top by single ties and underpinned by 12 x 12 cm angle posts resting on the wall. Since the roof is of shallow pitch, the attic is not in use. The roof is triple-pitched, abutting to the north onto a stone wall, and has a single tall stone chimney.
The west façade of residential building B has just one window on the upper floor, measuring 76 x 130 cm, facing the inner courtyard of building C, while the north façade in part faces the access road to building C and in part has a common wall with the stables. All the windows and doors are on the other two façades: the east, giving onto the courtyard, and the south, with a view of the eyot. The façade windows are wooden, with those on the south façade on the verandah fitted with wooden lattice screening or mušebak. The doksat or oriel window of the verandah has three windows measuring 95 x 140 cm, and open around their vertical axis. The window to the right of the doksat measures 70 x 90 cm. The ground floor of the same façade has three windows measuring 85 x 130 cn, opening around their horizontal axis. The east façade, which faces the courtyard, has three windows on the upper floor, measuring 99 x 150 cm, and two on the ground floor, measuring 90 x 150 c. The tavan has one window measuring 52 x 100 cm, and the hayat has one window measuring 90 x 150 cm fitted with iron bars. Here too is the wooden door leading into the room, while on the upper floor another wooden door, one of the finest examples, leads into the verandah area. The doors are not of the same height on both sides, with one measuring 140 x 196 cm and the other 140 x 189 cm. The door jambs and the door itself are solid wood, painted with brown oil paint. The door jamb is 10 cm wide and is set every 15 cm with decorative wrought iron studs 22 cm across. The door is 120 cm wide and has a wooden 12 cm wide frame with the same decorative studs. The door consists of a wooden panel on which moulded solid wood boards are laid in eight lamellas approx. 9 cm wide, with each board 15 cm wide. The boards are laid to form a herring-bone pattern.
The slope of the doksat of the verandah is faced with wood on the south and east façades.
The rooms in this house are approx. 250 cm in height. It is obvious from the surviving features that considerable attention was paid to decoration in this Velagić family house. The verandah has a wooden floor with kilim rugs, and a šiša ceiling. The sećija or wall divan is set against the south wall, below the window, and offers a splendid view of the eyot. The musandera in the verandah is one of the surviving features. The musandera is a built-in item of furniture, made of pine wood, on the wall to the right of the door, with the door forming part of the musandera itself. The space next to the door, separated from the room by an arched lintel, is known in the Velagić house as the “between-doors.” The musandera occupies the north wall of the verandah, and consists of a dolaf or cupboard where small items were kept, a dušekluk where bed linen was stored during the day, and a hamamdžik or washroom. Next to the washroom is a stove, which heats the room. The musandera is approx. 200 cm in height and 276 cm in length. In places it is 95 cm deep.
There is another very similar musandera on the ground floor room to the south. The musandera is to the right of the door, with the door forming an integral part, and occupies the entire north wall of the room. It too consists of a dolaf, dušekluk and hamamdžik. Next to the hamamdžik there a stove which heats the room. The musandera is approx. 206 cm in height and 413 cm long, with a depth of 98 cm in parts. This musandera, too, is of pine wood and has no wood carvings.
The third residential building and ancillary facilities in the sequence of the Velagić family houses is referred to as complex C. This complex has its own separate entrance to the north, leading via cobbled steps into a small walled courtyard and thence into the main courtyard. The courtyard is cobbled, and has a high stone wall to the north, by the access road, as well as to the east facing house B. At the end of the courtyard to the south-east, through a gate, is the way out to the bank of the branch of the river Buna, which is outside building B and is shared by both buildings. There are five steps leading down to river level, where there is a small wooden bridge leading across to the eyot, where the lodge is located. There is also a masonry privy in the courtyard. The gardens are to the west and north of the house.
This residential building has two storeys – a ground and an upper floor, measuring 10.84 x 15.40 m. Access to residential building C is through a covered, semi-enclosed hayat on the east side of the building. The hayat is a passageway that connects the ground floor rooms. It has an area of approx. 16.5 sq.m., with rooms on each side; the room to the right has an area of approx. 9.92 sq.m. and that to the left of 16.08 sq.m. There are two doors in the front wall of the hayat, the left leading into a room with an area of approx. 15 sq.m. and the right into a corridor, where there is a staircase leading to the upper floor, newly-built sanitary facilities with an area of 7 sq.m. and a storeroom with an area of 7.4 sq.m. The mutvak (kitchen) formerly occupied the area of the new sanitary facilities.
Above the hayat on the upper floor is an enclosed anteroom or tavan, which has an area of approx. 17.0 sq.m. The south side of the hayat has windows along its entire length with a superb view of the eyot and the river Buna.
The layout of the rooms on the upper floor is almost identical to that of the ground floor. The room to the left of the tavan has an area of 16.0 sq.m. and that to the right of approx. 10.0 sq.m. There are three rooms to the west: the one to the south-west has an area of approx. 15.0 sq.m., the room in the centre of approx. 7.41 sq.m., and the room to the north-west of approx. 7.0 sq.m. The corridor area on the upper floor is divided into the corridor proper, with an area of approx. 6.41 sq.m, and sanitary facilities with an area of approx 2.38 sq.m.
The structure of residential building C is the same as that of buildings A and B. The walls of the upper floor rest fully on the ground floor walls. The walls of both the ground and the upper floor are of quarry stone, with a thickness of approx. 60-55 cm, plastered and whitewashed. The interior partition walls are thinner, approx. 15 cm, and consist of timber frames (čatma). The floor joists consist of 12 x 12 cm wooden beams on which are laid the wooden floor boards of the upper floor, and which are panelled below with deal boards or šašavci. The roof structure is of timber. The main load-bearing components are two 16 x 16 cm timber struts supporting the roof, over which 14 x 14 cm purlins are laid every 2.5 m, and over these in turn are 10 x 10 cm rafters every 30 cm, the whole clad with stone slabs. The struts are held together towards the top by single ties and underpinned by 12 x 12 cm angle posts resting on the wall. The hipped roof is clad with stone slabs.
The windows are wooden and open around their horizontal axis. The two windows on the south façade to the left measure 56 x 120 cm, and the two windows to the right measure 90x 145 cm. The two windows on the south façade to the right measure 90 x 145cm, and the two to the left measure 80 x 135 cm. All all these windows, with the exception of the two left-hand windows on the upper floor, are fitted with iron bars. There are five upper-floor windows on the east façade, measuring 95 x 155 cm, and two measuring 82 x 122 cm. There are two ground-floor windows measuring 93 x 150 cm and two measuring 75 x 102 cm. The ground-floor windows have iron bars. There are also two doors here, leading from the hayat to the rooms. The west façade has windows only on the upper floor – these are new windows with grilles, one measuring 100 x 50 cm and another two measuring 110 x 125 cm. The height of the rooms in this house is approx. 240 cm. Very few of the original interior features of this house have survived. Some rooms have been partitioned to make new rooms.
Originally, the Velagić's built two musafirhanas (hostels) or lodges, which they used for leisure purposes, especially in summer, when they were cool and pleasant as a result of the water flowing beneath them. Every chance traveller was entitled to free board and lodging for as long as he wanted. The hostels remained in use until after World War I (Hasandedić, 1997,)
Only one now survives, and is in rather poor condition. The lodge is on an eyot on one of the branches of the river Buna, south of the Velagić house, with which it is connected by a small, low wooden bridge over the branch of the Buna. A stone-paved path leads from the bridge to the entrance to the lodge, which is on the north side of the building and leads into it via three concrete steps.
The lodge is a detached single storey building measuring 5.70 x 7.90 m, with an area of 90.23 sq.m. It consists of two rooms, the first of which is in the entrance area and measures 4.55 x 1.88 m, with a rammed earth floor. The second room is above the water, and has a floor constructed of wooden beams set 40 cm apart with wooden floorboards over; there was a wooden trapdoor in the floor that could be opened to reveal the water flowing beneath. This room measures 4.66 x 4.92 m. The walls of the lodge are of quarry stone, 55 cm thick, plastered and whitewashed. The hipped roof has a timber roof frame of similar construction to that of the residential buildings. The eaves project outwards by 30 cm on all four sides, except at the entrance area where the eaves are 97 cm wide. The roof is clad with stone slabs and has two stone chimneys. There are also two musafir signs on the roof, thin stone pillars approx. 50 cm high resembling nišan tombstones with an extension at the top, resembling a crescent moon. They are mounted on the highest point of the roof and draw the eye with their unusual appearance. (Hasandedić, 1997.)
The windows and doors are wooden, but are now unglazed. The entrance door in the north façade measures 100 x 210 cm, and the large window measures 210 x 140 cm. All that remains is the door jamb and the frame of the large window. To the right of the window, at the end of the same wall, is a tarih or chronogram incised in bas relief. Each of the other façades has two windows measuring 70 x 118 cm with iron bars. They too are in very poor condition.
The height of the rooms in this building is approx. 240 cm. There are relieving niches above the windows in the interior of the building, and dolafs (wall cupboards) built into the walls. The interior of the building was typical, especially in the large room. The walls were whitewashed, and there was a stone fireplace to the left of the door, a musandera to the right of the door, richly carved, a wall divan (sećija) to the south beneath the window, and kilim carpets on the floor. The ceiling consisted of wooden beams with “šašavci“ wedged between them. Parts of the ceiling are still visible. The lodge is now in very poor condition.
Stables usually formed part of the business quarters of a residential building. There were three stables to the north of the Velagić complex, two of which have survived. One of them, which is located above building A, had a hay loft above, which has been converted into a flat.
The stables are on the bank of the river Buna, to the west of the Velagić house, close to but entirely separate from it. A mill stood very close to the stables, with a fulling mill a little further off. This access to the stables and mill was via stone steps leading to the main road. To the north-west side of the building (at the corner) is a stone wall which extends northwards alongside the main road.
The entrance to the stables is from the east side of the building. The stables are a single-storey building with only one room, of irregular rectangular ground plan. The level side is 6.12 m wide and the sloping side is 5.50 m wide; the length is 8.0 m. the floor is of rammed soil, and the walls of quarry stone, 50 cm thick. The façade is of rough stone and the interior of the building also of rough stone, which is whitewashed. The building has a gabled roof with timber roof frame of which the load-bearing structure is similar to that of the residential buildings, clad with stone slabs. The entrance door is iron, and measures 100 x 200 cm. The windows are wooden, one on the north façade measuring 65 x 115 cm and the other on the south measuring 60 x 60 cm.
Part of the mill building stands on the river bank, with the greater part on the branch of the river Buna that flows past the Velagić residential complex. The building is not far from the houses, to the west, close to the stables and fulling mill, which is located upstream not far from the mill. The entrance to the mill is to the west. The building consists of two sections, one standing on the bank with an upper storey, and the other, single-storey section, on covered arches over the river, which it spans from bank to bank. The miller lived in the first part, and the other housed a row of seven mills. The mills consist of two horizontal mill-stones above which is a wooden structure from which the grain runs through the opening in the upper millstone and is ground by the movement of the two millstones against each other, powered by the water as it strikes the groove on the vertical axis, thus moving both millstones.
The river and is connected to the both river banks by a system of covered arches.
The mill forms an irregular rectangle, with the north side 6.83 m wide and the south side 6.15 m wide, with a length of 17.62 m. There is a 60 cm thick stone wall between the two sections of the building, with an arched opening 224 cm wide.The floor in the first part of the mill is of rampped earth. The walls are of quarry stone, 55-60 cm thick. The façade of the first part is of rough stone and the other is plastered. The interior walls are of rough stone. The building has a gabled roof, with a timber roof frame and load bearing structure similar to that of the residential buildings, clad with stone slabs. The wooden roof structure has recently been repaired on the single storey building, but the two-storey part of the building still lacks its stone slabs and is still under repair. Niches set equidistantly can been seen on the interior walls above the mills; these were probably used to house lamps. On the inside of the west wall of the area where the mills are located is a stone fireplace with a stone chimney emerging from the roof. The interior of the building is in poor condition, with quantities of quarry stone strewn about. The entrance door to the first part of the building was in the west façade and measured 145 x 200 cm. Nothing survives from which the material used to make the door can be identified. The window above the entrance measures 77 x 86 cm and, as in the case of the door, nothing remains of the original window. There was a wooden door in the south façade, measuring 100 x 200 cm, leading from the mill building to the eyot. All that remains of this is the door frame.
On the east façade of the first part of the building is a window measuring 70 x 84 cm, while the second part has seven channels feeding water to the mills and one large opening measuring 80 x 175 cm. Opposite the east façade and about 2 m from it, is a 60 cm thick stone wall extending along almost its entire length, the purpose of which was to divert water from the river to the mill; the wall has seven apertures for the seven water channels.
Fulling mills were used for washing wool and fulling cloth. The remains of the former fulling mill are very close to the mill, at the point where another branch of the river Buna parts from the branch on which the mill stands. The fulling mill measures approx. 5.00 x 9.00 m. The stone components of the fulling mill, the basins in which the cloth was fulled, are wholly in the water, which enters at high pressure. The structure of the fulling mill itself, therefore, consisting of wooden “joints” with metal traps, was also in the water.
3.Legal status to date
There is no information that the building was under the state protection.
The Regional Plan for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2000 listed the Velagić complex in Blagaj as a category II monument.
The Velagić complex in Blagaj near Mostar is on the Provisional List of National Monuments of B&H, under serial no. 420.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
In 1984/85, an architect, Ms Gordana Vilušić, researched and surveyed the Velagić residential complex in Blagaj near Mostar.
Architect Amir Pašić studied the Velagić house in 1989 as part of his doctoral dissertation.
5. Current condition of the property
During war action in 1993, damage occured to parts of the roofs of the Velagić residential complex.
An on site inspection conducted in March 2004 ascertained that the Velagić residential complex was in relatively poor condition, as a result of lack of maintenance of the residential complex and the illegal construction of a new housing unit and a restaurant and fish farm in the immediate vicinity of the complex. The housing unit, with outbuildings and a stone wall that runs all the way to the stables, has been erected on cadastral plot no. 1432, and the fish farm on c.p. no. 1457. These structures have spoiled the landscape and townscape value of the monument, and the Nordfish fish farm is a potential environmental polluter posing a particular threat to the river Buna.
In the immediate vicinity, just outside the entrance to the Velagić complex to the left, another building is under construction on cadastral plot 1429/1, where the so-called predaharluk (the area outside the stables) that was part of the complex once stood, but has now been completely destroyed. New foundations have been laid above this building, on cadastral plot. No. 1429/2.
The entire Velagić family residential complex requires restoration in line with a design project for conservation and restoration works.
The two-storey building in the courtyard of residential complex A is in a state of dilapidation and is not in use. This building was used as an outhouse, and contained the mutvak, servants' quarters and curing room. It has a tiled roof. The entire building needs repair.
The area above the stables in the courtyard to the north of complex A has had an extension added and is now used for residential purposes.
tiles, and whole building needs to be reconstructed.
As regards the building itself of residential complex A, the kitchen in the ground-floor area has a tiled roof, but it is not known when this was done. There have been recent works by the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of Mostar on the doksat of the small verandah on the east side of the upper floor. The entire doksat area is now, as are the doksat windows and the interior of the verandah. The staircase leading to the upper floor and the ceiling planks also appear to have been replaced recently.
The basement of this building, with water flowing through it, is in poor condition. The walls need to be made good and damp proofed.
To the right of the entrance to residential complex B is a single-storey building formerly used as stables and now, apparently, used as temporary housing. This building has undergone only the most basic of repairs.
Within the courtyard, to the south, is a smaller single-storey outhouse, consisting of a mutvak (summer kitchen) and toilet. This building has a tiled roof.
Fewest repairs have been carried out on building B, which has therefore retained its authentic appearance to a greater extent than the other buildings in the Velagić complex. The room on the ground floor that was used as a mutvak has now been converted into a drying room, pantry and sanitary facilities. Above this room, on the upper floor, there is a pantry and drying room, and a bathroom has been installed in the room on the east side.
Many repairs have been carried out on residential complex C, since there were several owners sharing this complex. Another reason was that the roof has been leaking and has not yet been fully repaired.
On the ground floor, the room formerly used as a mutvak has now been converted into a pantry, bathroom and staircase. The room above this, on the upper floor, has been converted into two rooms, a bathroom and staircase. The interior has been radically altered in this house, and very few authentic old features remain.
The lodge was damaged by war action, and the interior is completely derelict after being used to house refugees during the war. This building is not in use. The roof and roof structure have been destroyed in part, and there are no doors or windows, only wooden frames and iron bars in some cases. In the interior, the fireplace, doors and floors are missing and the šiša ceiling has been completely destroyed, as has all the furniture, including the dolaf (wall cupboard), musandera and wall divans. No repairs have been carried out to this building in recent years.
The mill has recently been repaired by the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of Mostar. The roof of the single-storey part of the builidng has been repaired, but the repairs to the two-storey section are still under way. The timber roof structure has been replaced, but the stone slabs have yet to be laid. The interior is in such a bad state that it is impossible to identify what it was used for (all that can be seen are the openings in the floor and the millstones lying around). This structure is not in use and needs first clearing and then repair.
The stables have also undergone repairs, but only to the roof and gable walls. The interior needs to be completely reconstructed. When new stone was laid on the old gable walls, they were fitted with a concrete ring beam.
There is very little information on the fulling mill, and nothing is known of its original appearance or when it took on its present condition. All that remains now are the stone walls of the basins that stand in the water.
III - CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property for a national monument (Official Gazette of B&H, No.: 33/02 and 15/03) the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.iv.evidence of a certain type, style or regional style,
D.v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period.
E. Symbolic value
E.iii. traditional value
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/Landscape value
F.ii. the building or group of buildings is part of group or site.
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of group or site
G.iii. use and function
G.iv. tradition and techniques
G.v. Location and setting.
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
During the procedure to designate the national monument, the following works were consulted:
1953. Bejtić, Alija, Spomenici osmanlijske arhitekture u Bosni i Hercegovini, Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju i istoriju jugoslovenskih naroda pod Turskom vladavinom, III-IV, (Monuments of Turkish Architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Supplements for Oriental Philology and the History of the Yugoslav Peoples under Turkish Rule, III-IV) 1952-53, Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1953
1957. Grabrijan Dušan and Neidhardt, Juraj, Arhitektura Bosne i Hercegovine i put u savremeno, (Arhitecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Way to the Contemporary) Ljudska pravica, Ljubljana, 1957
1976. Čelić, Džemal, «Drvorezba u Bosni i Hercegovini» (Wood carving in Bosnia and Herzegovina) , Most no. 11, page115-119, 1976.
1989. Pašić, Amir, Prilog proučavanja islamskog stambenog graditeljstva u Jugoslaviji na primjeru Mostara, koliko je stara stambena arhitektura Mostara autohtona pojava (Contribution to the study of Islamic Housing Construction in Yugoslavia using the Example of Mostar, Is the Old Mostar Housing Architecture an Indigenous Feature) – Doctoral dissertation, Zagreb, 1989
1990. Hasandedić, Hivzija, Muslimanska baština u istočnoj Hercegovini, (Muslim Inheritance in East Herzegovina) El Kalem, Sarajevo, 1990.
1991. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Izabrana djela (Selected works, Book II) Sarajevo, 1991
1996. Çelebi, Evliya, Putopis (Travel Chronicles), Sarajevo Publishing, 1996.
1998. Mujezinović, Mehmed, Islamska epigrafika Bosne i Hercegovine, (Islamic epigraphics of Bosnia and Herzegovina), Book II, page 332 - 335, Sarajevo-Publishing, Sarajevo, 1998.
Vilušić, Gordana, M.A. paper, Sarajevo
2000. Mujezinović, Nermina, «Blagaj kod Mostara» (Blagaj near Mostar), Hercegovina no. 11-12, Mostar, 2000.