Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at the session held from 4 to 10 May 2004 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic area of Grčka Glavica – necropolis with stećak tombstones and the ruins of a church in the village of Biskup is hereby designated as a national Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the archaeological site of the ruins of the church, the necropolis with stećak tombstones and the movable heritage items found on the archaeological site and now located in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo and entered in the museum’s accessions books.
The National Monument is located on cadastral plot 1121/3, land registry entry 115/01, cadastral municipality of Glavatičevo, Konjic municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH, nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve and display the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboard with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
The following measures are hereby stipulated in order to ensure permanent protection of the National Monument:
Protection zone I covers the site defined in Clause I para 2 of this Decision.The following protection measures shall apply in this zone
Ÿ all works on the National Monument site are prohibited other than research and conservation and restoration works including works designed to display the National Monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority)
Ÿ the National Monument site shall be open and accessible to the public and may be used for educational and cultural use
Ÿ the dumping of waste is prohibited
Ÿ the site shall be cleared of self-sown vegetation and landscaped
Ÿ access to the site shall be provided and the path from the access road to the eastern part of the site shall be made good
Ÿ the stećak tombstones and remains of the walls of the church shall be cleared of lichens and moss
Ÿ tombstones that have been moved or overturned shall be restored to their original positions
Ÿ cracked and broken tombstones shall be repaired
Ÿ a programme for the presentation of the National Monument shall be drawn up and carried out.
Protection zone II covers the following cadastral plots: 1121/, 1121/2, 1122, 1123, 1124, 1125, 1090, 1091/1, 1091/6, 1091/7, and part of the access road, cadastral plot no. 1072, with a length of 160 m.
The following protection measures are hereby stipulated in this zone:
Ÿ the construction of commercial or industrial facilities is prohibited
Ÿ all works that could have the effect of altering the site or the landscape are prohibited
Ÿ infrastructural works are prohibited other than with the approval of the relevant ministry and the expert opinion of the heritage protection authority
Ÿ the dumping of waste is prohibited.
The removal of the movable heritage items referred to in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision (hereinafter: the movable items) from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.
By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable items for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Permission for the temporary removal of the movable items from Bosnia and Herzegovina under the conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt that it will not jeopardize the items in any way.
In granting permission for the temporary removal of the items, the Commission shall stipulate all the conditions under which the removal may take place, the date by which the items shall be returned to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the relevant security service, the customs authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general public accordingly.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the protection thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba).
Pursuant to Art. V, para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
Chair of the Commission
7 May 2004
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, para 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: Annex 8) and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 07.10.2003, Konjic Municipality, Department for Economy, Finances and Social Affairs, sent a petition to designate Grčka Glavica, a historic site with the ruins of a church and necropolis with stećak tombstones in the village of Biskup, as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V, para 4 of the Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
Ÿ Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry),
Ÿ Data on the current condition and use of the property, including description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
Ÿ Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
Biskup is a village close to Glavatičevo, some 30 km south-eastward from Konjic. The ruins of the church and necropolis with stećak tombstones are located alongside the macadam road, on a low hill known as Grčka Glavica. Alongside the stećak tombstones is a small Roman Catholic burial ground of the Krezić family of Biskup. The name Grčka (Greek) is itself corroboration of the widespread use of the most common name for necropolises: Greek burial ground. Whether this is directly associated with the phrase “Greek rite” and “Greek heresy” (or “heterodoxy”) to be found in early authors such as Orbini, Farlati and Raynaldi, who associate them with certain mediaeval rulers, beginning with Stjepan II Kotromanić, remains to be ascertained and merits more detailed study.
Many written sources testify that members of the land-owning class were the proponents of political activity in feudal societies. Two ruling dynasties, Kotromanić and Kosača, enjoyed considerable influence in the Konjic area and its environs, but the activity of three major aristocratic families, Purčić, Obrinović and Sanković, was of particular signficance. As well as being lords of feudal lands and direct vassals of the ruler, these families were hereditary members of the state council, as the supreme authority in medieval Bosnia.
The aristocratic Sanković family (in documentary sources: Bogopenac, Draživojević, Miltenović and Sanković) can be traced through an entire century, from 1306 to 1404. At the beginning of the 14th century, members of the Bogopanac family were active in the Nevesinje region, most likely as hereditary župans (heads of district) of Purčić. After 1335 the Bogopenac-Draživojević family expanded their rule to Zagorje, and later to Dabar, Popovo, Primorje and Konavlje. As representatives of the Land of Hum they regularly attended the assembly of Bosnian aristocrats, especially from 1330 to 1404. The family burial plot and probably the oldest residence of the Sanković family were in the village of Biskup, in Komska parish. Radič Sanković’s palace was located close to Biskup, in the village of Zaborani, at the far northern end of the Nevesinje plain.
The first known member of the family was Dražen or Dražin Bogopenac, who was involved, together with his brothers, cousins and some twenty of his men, in the robbery of a Dubrovnik merchant, one Držic, around 20 May 1306. Written sources also refer to Branislav Bogopenac (1352) and Vidomir (1335). Dražen`s son Milten, who took over role of head of the family, was referred to for the first time in 1332 as a member of the Bosnian state council and a witness of the charter of ban (governor) Stjepan II and Serbia’s king Dušan. He was župan in Nevesinje, Zagorje, and also quite frequently in the area of Konavlje and southern Hum.
His son Sanko, who is regarded as the most prominent member of the family, succeeded Milten. As “baronus domini bani”, and then as a high-ranking state official with the title of kaznac (the highest rank at court) he regularly participated in the work of the aristocratic assembly. As a skilful politician, he managed to increase both his power and his estates. In 1336, he deserted ban Stjepan, and together with his father Milten joined the Serbian king Dušan. He was neutral during the war between Dubrovnik and the Vojinović family, but from 1366 to 1367 he joined the uprising of the Bosnian aristocrats against ban Tvrtko. The feudal lands he managed were Nevesinje with Komska parish, Zagorje, Dabar, Popovo, Humsko Primorje, and probably a part of Konavlje. The Dubrovnik chronicler Resti wrote that kaznac Sanko was killed in the battle against župan Nikola Altomanović in 1370, while other sources claim that he died in 1372. (Resti, p.152; Wiss. Mitt. XI, 332)
Another son of Milten’s, Gradoje, did not make any particular mark as a politician, but was an active soldier. He held the seat of župan in Nevesinje and Trusina (1) from 1371 to 1373. The last reference to him dates from 1391. Milten’s daughter Radača was married to the župan of Trebinje, Nenac Čihorić. Towards the end of her life, she entered a nunnery, and took name Polihranija. Her grave with stećak tombstone and epitaph is located in Veličani near Trebinje. (K. Jireček, 1892, 279-285).
After Sanko`s death, the seat of župan belonged to his son Bjeljak, who strengthened and extended his feudal rule to Konavlje, Vitaljina and the Hum coastal region as whole. The first reference to him dates from 1358, when he married, and the last from 1391, when a doctor from Dubrovnik attended him during a serious illness. He was a member of the aristocratic council and close advisor to king Tvrtko.
Another son of Sanko’s was knez (prince), and then vojvoda (duke) Radič. In 1391, together with Bjeljak, he attempted to sell Konavlje and Vitaljina to Dubrovnik, but was imprisoned, remaining in detention until 1398. During that period his first wife Goisava spent much of her time in Dubrovnik, where she received financial support from the government. Written sources lead to the conclusion that Goisava died between 19 May 1398 and 03 November 1399. (M. Vego, 1955, 159)
After his release, Radič became politically very active in the struggles over the throne that were shaking the Bosnian state. In 1404 he sided with king Ostoja, who was ultimately dethroned. Radič’s opponent Sandalj Hranić Kosača captured him again and occupied all of his lands. Radič died soon after being captured in 1404. After his death there is no further reference to this very influential and extended aristocratic family.
2. Description of the property
The necropolis with stećak tombstones consists of 172 stećaks and many graves without tombstones (2). One ridge-shaped tombstone stands out for its shape, while all the others are slabs and chests. The area of the necropolis is approx. 1700 sq. m. The orientation of stećci can be precisely determined only in the part with the ruins of the church, where all of them lay north-east/south-west. Two tombstones, one chest and one ridge-shaped tombstone, were decorated. There is a frieze of a row of oblique parallel lines near the top of the ridge-shaped tombstone, and arcades at the sides. There is also a frieze near the top of the chest, of vine tendrils with trefoil leaves. One chest has an epitaph on it, which shows that it was the grave of Gojisava, the first wife of Radič Sanković.
The ruins of the church are located at the eastern part of the necropolis, and date from the 12th or 13th century. The church (dimensions 12,10 x 7,40 m) was a single-nave church with a semicircular apse 2,60 m long. The walls are 60 cm thick and in some places 50 cm high. The orientation is north-east/south-west. It was built from symmetrically cut stone blocks, of fairly equal size, set in good quality lime mortar. Part of the church was stone-built from stone, and another was probably timber-built (M. Vego,1957, 130). At the time the excavations were carried out no remains of the altar partition were found, as the place where it would have stood was already occupied by the wall of one of the 16 graves that were excavated. Stones from the church were used for building the graves. From the early 14th century to the middle of 1404, the ruins of the church were used by the Sanković family as their necropolis.
Three tall chests (plan nos. 1, 2 and 3) are located right by the apse of the church.
Stećak no. 1 (167x76x110 cm) was partly leaning against the church wall. Some lime mortar and pure soil were found in the grave. The male skeleton was 180 cm long. The deceased was laid in a wooden coffin, nailed with large nails. The coffin was faced with cut stones taken from the church walls. The orientation of all the graves is the same as of the church – south-west/north-east, with the head of the deceased person set towards the northeast. The grave goods consisted of three nails and one horseshoe.
Stećak no. 2 (218x103x96 cm), a chest with a pedestal. The pedestal is a stone slab 50 cm thick. There is a vault underneath, built from cut stone with lime mortar. The upper wall of the vault is 19 cm thick. The deceased was laid in an oak coffin in the vault, and covered with gold brocade from neck to ankles. The brocade was decorated with symbols, towers and town walls, and the coat of arms with irregular squares belonging to the family Draživojević-Sanković was worked on the chest. All the decorative symbols are secular in nature and indicate beyond doubt that this was a wealthy feudalist. He had a cap on his head, also of gold brocade. Fragments of a Slavic pot of baked clay, black in colour, were found to the right of the head. It is possible that this was the grave of Draživoj, father of župan Milten, who died at the end of the 13th or beginning of the 14th century. The brocade fabric covering the deceased was also made in the 13th century. (M. Vego, 1957, 137)
Stećak no. 3 (218x105x67 cm). The grave beneath is 200 cm deep, with no grave goods.
Stećak no. 4 (100x41x30 cm). A skeleton, probably of a child, was found underneath. No grave goods.
Stećak no. 5 (194x50x30 cm). A grave beneath, no grave goods.
Stećak no. 6 (218x103x103 cm) is the largest in this necropolis. Bellow this stećak and a layer of soil is a stone sarcophagus 186 cm long. A red-purple glass cup dating from the 14th century, of markedly gothic type, with characteristically manufactured ribs (Rippenglas), was placed next to the deceased person’s head. There is a shinbone with traces of sword cuts amongst the bones. It is possible that kaznac Sanko was buried here. (M. Vego, 1957, 138)
Stećak no. 7 (210x92x46 cm), a grave beneath, no grave goods.
Stećak no. 8 (194x90x55 cm), a grave beneath, ca 170 cm deep. There were 111 round silver buttons with hooks lying on the skeleton’s chest. Three silk fragments and some parts of brocade survived of the clothing. There is also a silk tassel embroidered with gold thread preserved from a cap. The grave goods date from the 14th century. It is possible that župan Gradoje was buried here. (M. Vego, 1957, 138)
Stećak no. 9 (190x60x90 cm), no bones found underneath.
Stećak no. 10 (148x65x32 cm), at the south-western wall of the church. The bones of mother and child were found in the grave, with the remnants of wooden coffin and nails of different size.
Stećak no. 11 (233x90x100 cm), only one femur (thigh bone) and a few nails were found.
Stećak no. 12 (205x90x77 cm), there was a skeleton beneath in wooden coffin and nails ca. 60 cm long.
Stećak no. 13 (194x90x55 cm), with a skeleton beneath, no grave goods.
Stećak no. 14 (180x80x80 cm), at the church entrance. Bones were found underneath with the following grave goods: 14 small coins made in Venice, Verona and Mantova at the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century.
Stećak no. 15 (173x78x75 cm) is a tall chest near the church entrance. There is a two-line epitaph on two sides of this stećak, and a one-line epitaph on the other two sides. The script is 14th century Bosnian Cyrillic. The letters used on the epitaphs are capital letters very skilfully incised, evident from the form of the letters and in the different ligatures. The epitaph reads as follows:
Here lies lady Goisava, daughter of Đurađ Balšić and wife of Radič, who married into the house of kaznac Sanko and župan Bjeljak, honourably respecting her faith and Praise to the Lord God.
(Vego, 1964, no. 178, pp 44-45)
The epitaph shows that it was the grave of Goisava, wife of duke Radič Sanković. It also mentions Radič’s father kaznac Sanko, his brother Bjeljak and Goisava’s father Juraj Balšić. In content, this epitaph is one of the most valuable monuments of its type in Bosnia and Herzegovina. An intact skeleton was found in the grave with grave goods consisting of silk ribbons, remnants of a dress, and a Dubrovnik dinar placed in the mouth with an image of St Vlaho without inscription under the Saint’s right hand, made probably around 1337. The legend reads: S. BLASIV-S RAGVSII.
Stećak no. 16 (180x77x75), there was a skeleton underneath with the same dinar in the mouth as in lady Goisava’s grave. It is possible that this was the grave of duke Radič. (M. Vego, 1957, 139)
3. Legal status to date
According to the data of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Ministry for Culture and Sport of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the historic site of the necropolis with stećak tombstones and the ruins of a church in the village of Biskup is not registered as a cultural monument.
The Provisional List of National Monuments of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments does not include this property, but the Decision cited above is enacted on the basis of the Petition cited above
The Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2000 lists the property as a Category III monument.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
1954 – 1955 – Archaeological research by Dr Marko Vego; Conservation works on the ruins of the church by Ante Kućan of the National Museum in Sarajevo, with funding by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Monuments of the People’s Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During archaeological excavations in the necropolis of Grčka Glavica, all the graves inside the church and some of those outside were excavated. The most important finding was that it was the family burial plot of the aristocratic family of Sanković, the leading family in Hum Land in the 14th century.
The movable archaeological items are housed in the Archaeological Department of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
5. Current condition of the property
An on-site inspection in December 2003 established the following:
The area is neglected, covered with leaves and choked with rank vegetation. The remains of the church walls and stećak tombstones inside are covered with lichen and moss. Many of stećak tombstones have been moved from their original position, sunk into the ground, or slid down the hill.
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.v. value of details
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific, educational value)
D.i. evidence of historical change
D.iv. evidence of particular type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
G.i. form and design
G.iv. location and setting
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1892 Jireček, Konstantin, Vlastela humska na natpisu u Veličanima, (Aristocracy of Hum in the epitaph in Veličani), Journal of the National Museum of BiH, IV, Sarajevo, 1892, 279-285
1955 Vego, Marko, Nadgrobni spomenici porodice Sankovića u selu Biskupu kod Konjica, (Tombstones of the Sanković Family in the Village of Biskup near Konjic), Journal of the National Museum of BiH, X, Sarajevo, 1955, 157-166
1957 Vego, Marko, Nadgrobni spomenici porodice Sankovića u selu Biskupu kod Konjica,
(Tombstones of the Sankovic Family in the Village of Biskup near Konjic), Journal of the National Museum of BiH, XII, Sarajevo, 1957, 127-141
1960 Mijušković, Jovanka, Humska vlasteoska porodica Sankovići, (Aristocratic Family Sanković of Hum), Historical magazine XI, paper of the Historical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Art and Science, 1960, 17-54
1971 Bešlagić, Šerif, Kataloško-topografski pregled, (Cataloguing and Topographic Overview), Sarajevo, 1971, 334
1975 Anđelić, Pavao, Historijski spomenici Konjica i okoline, (Historical Monuments of Konjic and its Surroundings), Konjic, 1975