Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 4 to 11 September 2006 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The architectural ensemble of the Gazi Husrev-beg medresa with the site and remains of the Khanaqah in Sarajevo is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot nos. 72 and 159 (old survey), Land Register entry no. XXXI/17, cadastral municipality Sarajevo, Municipality Stari Grad, Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect and display the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument the following protection measures are hereby stipulated, which shall apply to the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision:
- all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, routine maintenance works and works designed to display the property, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority).
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
5 September 2006
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
The architectural ensemble forms part of the townscape of Sarajevo, which is on the Provisional List of National Monuments of BiH under serial no. 546. Pursuant to this, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- An inspection of the current condition of the property
- Copy of the cadastral plan
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The properties belonging to the Gazi Husrev-beg vakuf are for the most part in the central area of Baščaršija. The medresa and hanikah stand side by side in Sarači street to the north of the Gazi Husrev-beg mosque.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as c.p. nos. 72 and 159 (old survey), Land Register entry no.XXXI/17, cadastral municipality Sarajevo, Municipality Stari Grad, Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Historical information (1)
Medresas were built from the early 16th century on in all Bosnia and Herzegovina's major towns and cities(2). According to available information, at least ten had been built by the end of the 16th century, with another 46 in the 17th century, and a further 50 in the 18th and 19th centuries (Bećirbegović, p. 251)(3). This intensive building programme was the outcome of the adoption of the Ottoman cultural tradition, since there had previously been no buildings of this type in this part of the world.
The first known medresa was built by Firuz beg, governor of Bosnia, between 1505 and 1512 (Kreševljaković, pp. 78-79). Medresas were built on the initiative of individuals as their perpetual endowments or vakufs, making vakufnamas (deeds of endowment) the most important documents providing basic details of these properties.
Gazi Husrev-beg's second vakufnama, dating from 1537, was written for the Kuršumlija medresa, built on a plot opposite the Bey's mosque. It was intended to complete Gazi Husrev-beg's legacy, after the construction of the mosque and Hanikah.
In his vakufnama, Gazi Husrev-beg requires the following subjects to be taught in the medresa: tafsir (interpretation of the Qur'an), hadith (the traditions of the Prophet of Islam), ahkam (shari'a law), usul (the institutions of shari'a law), ma'ana wa bayyan (poetics and rhetoric), kalam (dogmatics on a metaphysical basis) and other subjects required by the customs and place (Bećirbegović, p. 277). To this end, Gazi Husrev-beg allocated 700,000 silver dirhams, of which 400,000 were to build the medresa and the remainder (300,000 dirhams) to purchase «worthwhile books to be used for study and examination.» Pupils were to be provided with free board (in the imaret or public kitchen) and lodging, and two dirhams a day pocket money.
According to the tarih (chronogram) above the entrance door, the medresa was completed in 1537/38. It was built in memory of Gazi Husrev-beg's mother, Seljuk sultana, and was thus known to the locals as the Seldžuklija; later, as a result of its lead roof, it acquired the name Kuršumlija.
The Kuršumlija medresa was damaged on several occasions by the fires that often swept through Baščaršija, but never suffered major damage, as did other buildings in the čaršija.
In 1910 the Austro-Hungarian authorities tried to adapt it to the modern pseudo-Moorish expression. The floor of the building was raised, and wholly inappropriate windows were installed.
In 1969, during conservation works, traces of the original windows were discovered after the plaster was stripped off the outside walls. As a result the original appearance of the medresa was restored. Minor restoration works were carried out on a number of occasions after this, the last being in 1998, after the 1992-1995 war, when the stone door jambs on the portal, which had been eroded by high levels of rising damp, were replaced.
Khanaqahs, Sufi centres for the stufy of tasawwuf (Islamic mysticism), or Sufi lodges in which dervishes both lived and received their theoretical education, began to develop in the 11th century in Khorasan (Iran), and were then adopted as institutions in Iraq, Syria, Asia Minor and Rumelia. Initially simple institutions and groups of dervishes, they evolved into organized, specific educational institutions, whose task was to provide a home for and to uplift and lend nobility to dedicated dervishes. Khanaqahs first made their appearance in this part of the world at a time when they had been adopted as Sufi associations and were advanced in form (Čehajić, p. 29). A particular feature of the khanaqah as a dervish organization and Sufi centre as it evolved in BiH was its congregational nature, since in operation and practice it was wholly associated with a certain mystical variant.
When Gazi Husrev-beg arrived in Sarajevo the city already had three tekkes: the Gazi Isa-beg, Skender Pash and Tuna dedo tekkes. When Evliya Çelebi passed through the city there were 47 gathering places for dervishes. The high regard in which Gazi Husrev-beg held them is attested to by the fact that he built a khanaqah(4) close to his mosque even before he built his medresa.
The Gazi Husrev-beg khanaqah occupies a unique position among the khanaqahs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Mostar). Along with the Gazi Husrev-beg mosque and medresa, it constituted an architectural and aesthetic townscape and the centre of old Sarajevo.
The khanaqah was completed by 1531 to the north of and opposite the Gazi Husrev-beg mosque, for by late 938 AH (1531), when Gazi Husrev-beg's second vakufnama (deed of perpetual endowment) was issued, he had built his mosque, khanaqah, imaret (public kitchen) and musafirhana.
In addition to Sufi rituals and dhikr (lit. «remembrance»), dervishes acquired here all the knowledge they required and, on completion of hanikah medrese, would leave for other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina on a mission to spread the Sufi doctrine. Under the terms of the vakufnama, the khanaqah was headed by a shaikh of the Halwatiyya order. Gazi Husrev-beg’s reasons for having the khanaqah headed by a shaikh of this order should be sought in the fact that this mystical school, to which Gazi Husrev-beg himself belonged, was very widespread and popular in Anatolia and Rumelia in his day, and that the order was very consistent and strict in training dervishes and held those in authority in great respect. However, important representatives of this order later fell out with the Ottoman authorities, which was one of the reasons why a shaikh of the Naqshbandiyya tariqa (order) came to head the khanaqah in the early 19th century, and his successors also belonged to the same order. Presumably, too, there was no competent shaikh of the Halwatiyya tariqa at that time, hence the need to resort to another solution (Čehajić, p. 31).
Gazi Husrev-beg stipulated in his vakufnama what kind of person the shaikh should be: "He should be known for sincerity of conduct, honesty and vigour should be among his personal qualities, he should be clad in the garb of awe of God and piety, he should be resolute on the path of the sublime Shari’a, he should follow the path of shaikhs and pious people, he should follow the conduct of the awliya [saints] who firmly uphold and obey the commands of the Shari’a, he should perform the prayers with the jama’at [congregation], he should fast, perform dhikr and recite the Qur’an, he should control his passions and do everything else becoming to the conduct of good dervishes and the traits of educated persons who direct [others] to the true path."
Another trend, and indeed a change that was to make itself felt most strongly in the 19th and early 20th century, was the gradual evolution of the Husrev-beg khanaqah into an institution of an educational character – a medresa. There was a tendency for the two institutions to become unified in one. As a result, there were no longer any permanent dervishes in the khanaqah, while the students in the medresa performed the dervish rituals until they became of secondary importance.
The Gazi Husrev-beg khanaqah was damaged on several occasions, as for instance during the campaign by Eugene of Savoy in 1697. According to Mula Mustafa Bašeskija, the khanaqah was burned down in 1170 AH (1755/6). It was repaired in 1195 AH (1779), but was again a victim of the great fire of 1248 AH (1831/2) that destroyed almost all of Gazi Husrev-beg’s legacies. After this fire, the sum of 10,860 groschen was spent, allocated by a budget dated 23 Safer 1248 AH (22 July 1832) and a firman of 19 Rabi’ al-Awwal 1249 AH approving the erection of a new building. After the fire of 1163 AH (1749/50), a new building was erected with 12 rooms for dervishes, a simahana and a room for the shaikh, and the usual facilities. At one time it was located in the musafirhana (hostel) close to the clock tower, which burned down on 25 May 1852. After that the khanaqah moved back to its old place.
The building was altered in plan on a number of occasions. It was quite badly damaged during the Austro-Hungarian period. Ćiro Truhelka notes that in his day the building was again repaired, but by an inexpert builder. In 1931, when the new Gazi Husrev-beg medresa building was erected, much of the building was demolished (Mehmedović, p. 73). The reconstruction of the building was completed in 1998.
2. Description of the property
Typically, the basic concept of medresas in Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted from Ottoman medresas. Each of them has a courtyard, rooms for pupils and one large room used as a classroom (dershana). Only a few of the medresas built in Bosnia and Herzegovina dating from the 16th and 17th centuries remained consistently true to the architecture of the Ottoman medresa with its domes, however; the rest were adapted to local building traditions.
The Gazi Husrev-beg medresa belongs to the type of enclosed medresas with inner courtyard(5) with a portico, leading into the pupils' rooms and the dershana. This type of medresa was usually built as a detached building close to a mosque. The Gazi Husrev-beg medresa is the oldest surviving medresa in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The ground plan of the medresa is rectangular, measuring 18.70 x 23.50 m including the dershana, or 18.70 x 19.75 without the dershana. Although the medresa is relatively modest in size, its crystal clear layout is evidence of the ability of its builder, who had fully mastered the spatial and aesthetic principles of Ottoman construction.
The centre of the composition of the medresa is its inner courtyard, measuring 9.40 x 10.43 m, surrounded on three sides by an arcaded portico.
The entrance to the medresa is from the south, and is accentuated by a richly decorated portal. In terms of its footprint, the portal develops into a deep niche (with two mihrab-like recesses on each side of the doorjambs) above which is a stalactite decoration. It is further accentuated by a moulded frame 60 cm wide, the uprights of which are 2.20 m apart.
The entrance doorway is 1.60 m wide, and has a simple stone frame with a pointed arch, above which is an inscription on a stone plaque measuring 1.80 x .060 m. The inscription is in Arabic verse, and is set in six elliptical panels, surrounded by arabesues. The background is blue, and the lettering is gilded.
The inscription reads:
„This building has been erected for those who seek learning,
And for the love of God, who answers [our] prayers,
By Gazi Husrev, commander of the warriors for the faith,
[He is] the source of good deeds and the pride of the just.
Fejzu-r-rrab composed this chronogram for it:
„Meeting-place of the good, abode of the perfect““.
(944 AH – 1537/38)
The portal is of cut miljevina stone (a Mošćanica stone quarried near Zenica).
The inner courtyard or atrium of the medresa is surrounded by arcades to the north, east and west. As well as abutting onto the walls of the building, the arcades are supported by seven stone pillars each composed of a single piece of stone, three to the east, three to the west, and one in the central axis of the building. The pillars stand on stone bases and terminate in decorated capitals with markedly triangular surfaces. The arcades are covered by ten small domes. There is a stone šadrvan fountain in the middle of the courtyard, which constitutes the heart of the building. The students used the water both for drinking and for taking abdest (ritual ablutions).
The dershana is at the opposite end of the building from the entrance. From the outside it is almost square, measuring 8.55 x 8.30 m, but on the inside it is rectangular, measuring 6.50 x 6.95 m (about 9 arshins). This distortion results from the varying thickness of the walls – the north wall at 1 m thick and the south at 0.90 m, as against the east and west walls both of which are 0.80 m thick. Light enters the room through two 0.85 m wide windows in the north wall and one of the same size in each of the east and west walls. To the south of the dershana are two windows facing the inner courtyard, and an entrance door. The room is 11.33 m in height (from floor to crown of the dome). Although modest in size, with its mass and its dome, and its geometric decorations (stalactites in the trompes), it dominates the composition of the medresa. The students assembled around the muderris (teacher) every day in the dershana, to listen to his lectures. Here, too, classes based on the halqa system of a group of students, led by the head muderris and his deputy from entry to the medresa to graduation.
The students' rooms are roughly square, measuring 2.90 x 2.90 m (about 4 arshins), with entrances from the portico. There are 12 rooms in all, to house 12 or more students. Light enters the rooms through windows facing the outer courtyard. Each of the rooms has one window fitted with iron bars, apart from the rooms at the south-east and south-west corners of the building, which each have two windows. The windows terminate in arches made of thin decorative brick. The frames of all the doors and windows are of cut miljevina. In winter the premises were heated by the open fireplaces in every room in the medresa. There is a tall chimney above each room, made of alternating courses of brick and stone. The chimneys have openings at the top to allow the smoke to escape, and have cone-shaped caps of sheet lead. The portico and rooms are covered by domes supported by pendentives and trompes.
The material used to build the medresa, and the consequent appearance of its exterior facades, confirm that it is not a mere copy of the well-known and much larger Istanbul model (the Sultan Fatih medresa in Istanbul). Although brick and stone were used to build it, in the case of the Gazi Husrev-beg medresa there are no alternating courses of brick and stone (apart from the chimneys) as there are on the facades of Ottoman medresas. In Bosnia and Herzegovina this principle was never fully adopted, because of the powerful influence of masons from Dalmatia, who also practically built numerous properties not only in Sarajevo but also throughout Bosnia.
The walls of the medresa are of quarry limestone with finished outer faces. The walls are mainly 90 cm thick, though in places they range from 80 to 100 cm. Lime mortar was used as binder. The domes and round arches are of brick, plastered with lime plaster. All the domes (24 in all) were originally clad with lead, but this was later replaced by sheet copper.
In terms of form, the basic expression of the medresa is provided by its horizontalism, supplemented by the row of windows and the domes. The row of tall, cone-topped chimneys gives a particular vivacity to the building. The great dome of the dershana unites the whole building into a harmonious entity (Bećirbegović, p. 290).
The khanaqah originally consisted of an entrance portal, open courtyard with portico, dervishes' rooms, semahana and šadrvan fountain. It is rectangular in ground plan, measuring 31.60 x 16.60 metres.
The entrance to the khanaqah is to the south of the building, and is accentuated by a decorated portal which was reconstructed during the most recent works on the building. The portal is 3.37 m wide, but its exact height is unknown. The frame of the portal is 77.5 cm wide, and the daylight width of the entrance doorway is 1.54 m. The doorjambs were not specially decorated, and the lintel terminated in a segmental arch. It is known that there was a tarih (chronogram) above the entrance door, and that the area above the tarih was decorated with stalactites, similar to those on the portal of the Kuršumlija medresa. Truhelka notes that the upper part of the portal was missing in his day, and that some of the stalactites were also missing. There were two stone steps with a height of 10 cm at the portal.
The entrance door leads into the inner courtyard of the khanaqah. The courtyard is rectangular, measuring 3.19 x 29.80 m. To the east, north and south it is surrounded by a portico composed of slender limestone columns with decorated bases and capitals. The columns are circular in section and connected by an arched structure by which the load of the roof of the portico is transferred via the columns to the ground. The arched structure is of tufa with lime mortar. The masonry part of the portico was terminated by a simply moulded cornice.
The vault of the portico was an interesting combination of a cross-vault and barrel vaults. The distances between the columns is 3.70 m and the width of the portico is 1.25 m. The columns are 3.10 m in height including the base and capital. The bases measure 45 x 45 cm. The level of the portico floor is 15 cm above that of the courtyard.
The rooms were disposed around this atrium. The number altered over the years, but it is known that the khanaqah had 14 rooms in Gazi Husrev-beg’s day.
The builder of the khanaqah thus provided a very practical solution, since none of the doors from the portico leads direct into the rooms, but into a separate corridor acting as a windscreen. This leads into two neighbouring rooms, one opposite the other. As well as allowing for savings on heating the premises, this solution provided for better interior lighting, since it made it possible to build rectangular windows facing the atrium. There were four of these corridors to the east and three to the west, measuring 3.15 x 1.05 m. They had stone-paved floors. There were originally fourteen rooms in the khanaqah, plus one for the shaikh; these rooms measured 2.82 x 3.15 metres. The entrance doors were 90 cm wide.
The semahana(6) occupied the area of three rooms, making it the largest room in the khanaqah. It was rectangular in plan, measuring 5.08 x 6.35 m. To the south of the semahana was a mihrab 91.5 cm wide, with a 51 cm wide frame on either side. To the south and west the semahana had two rectangular windows with a width of 95 cm, while two more windows of the same width faced the atrium. The semahana and the individual rooms were domed.
There was a small šadrvan fountain in the centre of the courtyard.
This layout was frequently altered during the course of later works. When works were carried out in the Austro-Hungarian period the columns and vaults outside the rooms to the west were removed and the corridor to the west of the semahana was also done away with, making a larger room out of the corridor and the small room beside it. This undermined the strict symmetry of the building as it was previously.
3. Legal status to date
Pursuant to Ruling no. 669/50 of 9 June 1950, issued by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of Sarajevo, the Gazi Husrev-beg medresa in Sarajevo was placed under state protection under serial no. 6.
Pursuant to Ruling no. 02-605-3 of 18 April 1962, the property was entered in the register of immovable cultural monuments. The ruling entered into force on 18 October 1962.
The 1980 Regional Plan for BiH listed the Gazi Husrev-beg medresa as a Category I monument.
The khanaqah was not under legal protection.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
1893 – old šadrvan fountain in the middle of the medresa courtyard replaced;
1910 – inexpert restoration of the property by Austro-Hungarian engineers, consisting of the following:
- all furniture removed from the property,
- level of the floor raised
- stone paving laid;
- height, proportions and appearance of the windows altered
- façade of the building plastered with cement plaster
- research works designed to discover original elements:
- removal of plaster from the facades
- restoration – cleaning and pointing the stone wall
- analysis of original documentation (old photographs) as a basis for reconstruction of the windows
- conservation and restoration works project drawn up
- reconstruction of windows based on available documentation
- uncovering original floor level and type of paving
- replacement of damaged stone doorjambs on the entrance portal
1697 – destroyed during the campaign by Eugene of Savoy
1170 AH (1755/6) – the khanaqah burned down
1195 AH (1779) – the khanaqah was repaired
1248 AH (1831/2) – the khanaqah was a victim of the great fire
Pursuant to a budget of 23 Safar 1248 AH (22 July 1832) and a firman of 19 Rabi' al-Awwal 1249 the sum of 10,860 groschen was spent on the erection of a new building
After the fire of 1163 AH (1749/50) a new building was erected with 12 rooms for dervishes, a semahana and a room for the shaikh, and the usual facilities.
1931 – much of this building was demolished.
1998 – the building was reconstructed, entailing the following works:
- research works on the site of the khanaqah;
- study of all available documentation;
- making safe all the structural elements found on site;
- technical survey of all the structural elements and decoration;
- drafting technical documentation;
- preparatory works (laying access road, delivery of materials etc.);
- making good the stone foundations of the part of the building that was demolished (in some places the foundations were underpinned with concrete to make good the footings)
- excavation of the site to lay foundations where they were demolished in 1931;
- excavation of soil and construction of basement storey below the southern part of the khanaqah (cold-store room for the kitchen) and covered access to the adjoining building;
- structural repair works on the original parts of the khanaqah (northern part of the building);
- reconstruction of the building using traditional and modern materials;
- restoration of the existing colonnade of columns and cleaning (washing) columns;
- making missing elements – columns, capitals and bases – to match the surviving ones;
- accentuating the difference at the point where the old and the new (reconstructed) wall meet on the exterior facade and in the interior;
- estoration/cleaning and re-pointing of the existing stone wall;
- installation of copper flashings and guttering;
- plastering and whitewashing the interior of the building;
- laying floors with all the necessary layers;
- making new woodwork;
- making chimneys similar to those on the Gazi Husrev-beg medresa (there is no documentation on the chimneys);
- cladding the roof with hollow tiles;
- roofing the entire courtyard, which was originally open to the skies, with modern stainless steel girders and plexiglass.
5. Current condition of the property
The architectural ensemble is in good structural condition, following completion of conservation, restoration and reconstruction works (Khanaqah).
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. i. quality of workmanship
C.ii. quality of materials
C. v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
D. v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
E.ii. religious value
E.iii. traditional value
E.iv. relation to rituals or ceremonies
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.i. Relation to other elements of the site
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Proof of title
o Ground plan of the property, scale 1:100, Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport
o Cross section of the property, scale 1:100, Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport
o Facades of the property, scale 1:100, Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport
o File of the property, scale 1:100, Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport
o Ruling on protection, of the property, Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport
o Site plan
o Ground plan of building – reconstruction project
o Cross-section of building – reconstruction project
o Facades of building – reconstruction project
o Photographs taken by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of BiH
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1912. Truhelka Ćiro, Gazi Husrev-beg – njegov život i njegovo doba (Gazi Husrev-beg – his life and times), Jnl of the National Museum XXIV, 1,2 , 1912.
1932. Spomenica Gazi Husrev-begove četiristogodišnjice (Commemorative volume, quadricentenary of Gazi Husrev-beg)
1952. Šabanović, H., Dvije najstarije vakufname u Bosni (The two oldest vakufnamas in Bosnia), Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju (Contributions to oriental philology), II, 1951, Sarajevo 1952.
1964. Šabanović, Hazim, Krajište Isa – bega Ishakovića, Zbirni katastarski popis iz 1455. godine.(Land of Isa-beg Ishaković, Collective Cadastral Census for 1455) Sarajevo, 1964.
1973. Bejtić, Alija, Ulice i trgovi starog Sarajeva, Topografija geneza i toponimija (Streets and squares of old Sarajevo, topography, origins and toponymy), Sarajevo 1973.
1981. Ayverdi, Ekrem Hakki, Avrupa'da Osmanli mimari eserleri, Yugoslavya, Istanbul 1981
1988. Ćehajić, Džemal, GHb hanekah u Sarajevu (Gazi Husrev-beg hanekah in Sarajevo), 450th anniversary of the Gazi Husrev-beg Medresa in Sarajevo
1990. Bećirbegović, Madžida, Džamije sa drvenom munarom u BiH (Mosques with wooden minarets in BiH), Sarajevo 1990
Bećirbegović, Madžida, Prosvjetni objekti islamske arhitekture u BiH (Educational buildings of Islamic architecture in BiH)
1997. Zlatar, Behija, Zlatni period Sarajeva, (Sarajevo's Golden Age) Contributions to History, Historical Institute Sarajevo, 1997.
2000 GHM u Sarajevu, 450 generacija (Gazi Husrev-beg Medresa in Sarajevo, 450 generations), various authors
2005. Mehmedović, Ahmed, Gazi Husrev-beg i njegove zadužbine (Gazi Husrev-beg and his legacies), Sarajevo 2005.
Documentation of the Gazi Husrev-beg vakuf in Sarajevo:
- Printed matter – brochure of the Gazi Husrev-beg vakuf
- Reconstruction project – dd Neimari, Sarajevo
(1) More extensive historical information is provided in the Decision designating the historic monument of the Clock Tower in Sarajevo as a national monument of BiH.
(2) Unlike mektebs, or Islamic primary schools, which first appeared at the very beginning of the Ottoman period, in the mid 15th century.
(3) Children between the ages of 10 and 12 enrolled in the medresa. Their education was not designed to last for a specific term, so they studied for between 12 and 16 years. The medresa operated on the same principle as a university faculty, with pupils having a certain number of ”books” which they were required to pass. During the Ottoman period, about 350 generations of pupils studied in the Gazi Husrev-beg medresa, a total of more than 10,000 pupils. The medresa was later enlarged into Djulagin palace, a building alongside the Kursumlija.
(4) Khanaqah – arabized version of the Persian compound khanegah, composed of „khane“ – house, home, and „gah“ – place where dervishes and shaikhs live. In this part of the world it is pronounced hanikah.
(5) A study of the layout of medresas in Bosnia and Herzegovina reveals the following types:
- enclosed, with inner courtyard,
- L-shaped medresas
- U-shaped medresas
- longitudinal medresas
- medresa – dershanas.
The treatment of medresas has retained the division by ground plan. Various examples of each type of medresa reveal distinctive architectural, spatial and structural features (Bećirbegović, p. 285).
(6) From the Persian sima’khane, a compound of the Arabic sima’, Sufi ritual, dhikr, and Persian khane. Trans.