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Hellenistic town of Daorson - Ošanići, the archaeological site

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Status of monument -> National monument

             Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 21-27 January 2003 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

           The archaeological site of the Hellenistic town of Daorson, Ošanići, Stolac is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

           The site is situated on c.p. (cadastral plot) 363/1, c.m. (cadastral municipality) Ošanići; Stolac Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

            The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of  BiH nos. 2/02 and 27/02) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

            The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument.

            The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the financial and technical resources for the drafting and implementation of a programme for the on-going preservation of the National Monument.

            The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

            The first level of protection covers c.p. 363/1, the Banje pasture and the Gorica pasture and a strip 50 m. wide to the west on the right bank of the Radimlja river.

            • Only works of archaeological investigation and of conservation, structural repair, restoration, and works for the purpose of displaying the monument, in compliance with technical documentation drawn up to the terms and conditions of the relevant heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the relevant heritage protection authority) shall be permitted on the site;

            • no construction of any kind nor the erection of temporary or permanent structures not for the purpose of protecting or displaying the monument shall be permitted on the site.

 

IV

 

            All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are to be revoked.

 

V

 

            Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument specified in Clause I of this Decision or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.

 

VI

 

            The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for town planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II, III and IV of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

             The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.anek8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

            Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

            This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH and the Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH.

 

            This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović,  Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

 

Chairman of the Commission

Dubravko Lovrenović

No: 06-6-563/03-1

21 January 2003

Sarajevo

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

            Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter referred to as the Commission) to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter referred to as Annex 8) and as property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

            At a session held on 11 March 1998, the Commission issued a Decision to add the archaeological site (Hellenistic town) of Daorson, Ošanići, Stolac to the Provisional List of National Monuments, as no. 274.

            Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

II –PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

            In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

Ÿ          Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (cadastral plot 363/1, cadastral municipality Ošanići; Banje pasture, surface area 559410 sq.m.)

Ÿ          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage if any, data on restoration or other works on the property if any, etc.

Ÿ          The current condition of the property

Ÿ          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

            The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Information on the site

Location 

            The archaeological site of the old Hellenistic town of Daorson at Gradina and Banje in Ošanići consists of three linked units the disposition of which is determined by the configuration of the terrain.  The central part is occupied by the Gradina (hill fort) or Acropolis, which dominates the site; to its south  and south west are the terraces below the hillfort on the Greben (ridge), while the area leading up to the Acropolis extends eastwards in Banje as the residential and commercial – primarily artisanal and trade – areas of the settlement.

 

Historical information

            The hillfort came into being on a prehistoric fortified settlement that was permanently inhabited from the start of the early Bronze Age (seventeenth to sixteenth century BCE) to the end of the late Bronze Age (ninth to eighth century BCE). 

            From 167 BCE on, the Neretva was the north-western border of the Roman Republic in the  Balkans and also the border of the Daorsi, a tribe enjoying a degree of autonomy within the state.  Even before the demise of Genthius’ state, the Daorsi were attacked from the direction of the Cetina river by the Delmati or Dalmatians, a powerful warrior tribe whose rule at times extended beyond the Cetina towards and even as far as the Neretva river.  In 158 BCE the Daorsi complained to the Roman Senate about the increasing attacks by the Delmati.  War was waged against the Delmati in 156-155 BCE.  The Romans launched operations against the Delmati from Narona, where they had a stronghold and support from the Daorsi, who held the Delmati off from the Neretva even before the Roman army reached Narona.  The Delmati were heavily defeated and weakened for a long time to come.

            During the wars between Caesar and Pompey, the Delmati and the Daorsi were again on opposing sides on this part of the Adriatic coast.  In 49 BCE Pompey’s legate, M. Octavious, entered into an alliance with the Delmati and their associated tribes; the Daorsi certainly did not number among these, for Caesar’s praetor, P. Vatinius, began to wage war on the Delmati no later than the spring of 45 BCE.  That year Vatinius launched yet another incursion into Dalmatia, seizing six towns, but was forced to retreat from the seventh by the cold and heavy rain.  On his return to Narona in late 44 BCE, Vatinius sent a report on his war campaigns to the Senate.  He then withdrew with his army to Dyrrachium. The Delmati immediately began to attack the surrounding area and stretches of the coast.  It is almost certain that it was at this time (44/43 BCE) that the Delmati attacked the Daorsi centre, the town of Daorsoi, and razed it to the ground.

The date of the ransacking of the town of Daorson that finally put an end to human settlement there can be determined with fair accuracy from the details of the wars waged by the Roman Praetor Vatinius against the Delmati.  Archaeological material from the hillfort (Acropolis), Banje and the ridge below the hillfort dates from before the middle or second half of the first century BCE, which matches the assumed date of the attacks on the town and the end of human settlement there.

            At the time the Roman Republic fell (approx. 27 BCE), the Daorsi had seventeen decuria, and at the start of the Empire, the Delmati had no fewer than 342 decuria, which is a sufficient indication of the power relations following the civil wars.  Part of the Daorsi tribe was exterminated at that time.  No lasting settlement ever arose on the ruins of the town of the Daorsi.  The isolated and rare finds from the site date from different eras and centuries, including modern times, since there has been a good deal of human traffic there.

            The new centre of the Daorsi developed in part of Vidovo plain and present-day Stolac in the early first century BCE as Diluntum Municipium.

 

Legal status to date

            In the procedure prior to the adoption of a final decision, the following documents were inspected:

            Pursuant to the provisions of the law, and by ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, no. 05-352-1/66 dated 12 March 1966, the site of the hillfort (Daorson, Ošanići, Stolac), the prehistoric settlement of urban type in Ošanići,  Stolac Municipality, was accorded protected status as a cultural monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

            The archaeological site of Daorson is listed on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina as no. 603.

            The Regional Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2002 registered the archaeological site of Daorson as a category 0 monument of international significance.

 

2. Description of the monument

            Gradina or Banje is situated about 3 km north-west of Stolac, on a karst plateau above the village of Ošanići.  The dual name of the locality derives from the fact that there are two main sites there: the Acropolis (at Gradina) and the settlement on Banje.  Part of the settlement also lay beneath the Acropolis on Greben (the ridge).

Gradina (Hillfort – Acropolis)

            This prehistoric Hellenistic settlement is only one of three parts of the entire ensemble.   Because of its position it is usually referred to in written works as the Acropolis.  In Hellenistic times it occupied the central and most important position.  It was here that the most typical buildings stood.

            The Gradina plateau is at an altitude of 280 to 290 m. above sea level, with a relative altitude over the Bregava valley of 220 m.  The western slopes fall steeply to the Radimlja valley.  The site of the settlement on Gradina is of elongated outline, and covers about 700 m. of the westernmost part of the plateau lying between Hrgude, Stolac and Radimlja.   The ruins extend from the slope below the western corner of the plateau beneath the Acropolis and along the south-western edge towards the hamlet of Batnoge.  There are observable remains of a dry stone wall extending eastwards almost to Batnoge, ending not far from two large tumuli.

On the eastern cliffs (Greben), the structures are mostly large, and descend some 150 m. towards the Radimlja valley.  The Gradina spur extends westwards, and is surrounded by cliffs on three sides.  The only possible access is from the south-east, which is defended by a wall of Cyclopaean proportions.  Although the Acropolis is at almost the same height as the settlement (on Banje), it is stands out from the rest of the site by virtue of its prominent position.   It is protected by steep, almost inaccessible cliffs on three sides, and on the fourth by a megalithic wall with two towers.  The north side of the Acropolis is also protected by a wall 106.50 m. long and 2 m. thick.  The Acropolis measures 146 m. at its maximum length (west-east) and some 60 m at its widest point (by the eastern retaining wall in the middle of the Acropolis).

            The megalithic defence wall lies at the point where the site is most accessible, towards Banje plateau.  The most detailed investigations were carried out here and in the area of the main town gates and the nearby south-west tower.  On the outside, the area alongside the wall itself as far as the stairway.  Since this part of the wall was not buried under soil, the stone blocks have suffered the greatest damage here.  Many stones fallen from the upper layers still lie on the inner side of the megalithic wall.  On this side a large mound formed that no longer has the contours of a true wall, but this is the best form of protection for the stone blocks.  The cyclopaean wall was originally 60 m. long and up to 4.20 m. thick.  It is now 46 m. long, as a result of the later construction of two towers (to the north-east and south-west).  There was an entrance to the Acropolis beside each of the towers.  The maximum width of the surviving walls is 6 m. by the south-west tower (the assumption is that the wall was originally 7 m. high at this point) and 5 m. in the centre, where it appears to have survived to its original height.  The wall was topped by a walkway with a parapet 1.5-1.8 m. thick and 1.5 m. high for archers.  The walls were faced with huge blocks of stone finely cut on the sides forming the joints, roughly dressed on the outer facing sides, and uncut on the inner, sixth side.  These facing blocks were of standard size: 0.7 to 0.9 m. thick, 1 m. long, with occasional blocks up to 3 m. long.  On the inner side of the wall the blocks are rough-cut and laid horizontally.   The main town gates were located in the wall by the south-west tower: they measured 4.40 x 4.20 m.  The remains of the original town gates are distinguished by their finely cut stones.  A possible reconstruction of the gates indicates that they were 3.7 m. high to the line of the arch, with the apex of the arch 5 m. high. The gates themselves were double and made of wood.  The south-west tower had a roughly square ground plan measuring 10 x 10 m.  The walls were of varying thicknesses between 2 and 1.4 m., and have survived to a height of 3.2 m.  The norht-east tower, which stood on higher ground, was not so tall (about 5 m. in height), because the top of the wall was horizontal.  This tower is in fairly ruinous condition, probably from the action of the elements.

            The inner side of the Cyclopaean wall, the towers, the annexes and the gates were damaged by fire.

            The first line of defence was outside the Cyclopaean wall – breastworks consisting of a zig-zag wall and arched walls 76 m. long.  The breastworks were built of cut stone using z dry-walling technique, are  1.2 to 1.5 m. wide (in places up to 2 m.), and have survived up to a height ranging from 0.3 to 1 m.

            On the north side of Acropolis there is also a megalithic defence wall, of markedly poorer quality as regards both construction and the way the stone blocks have been dressed – they are only half-finished, and laid in only partly regular rows. Since the terrain on this side is very steep, less care was paid to the way the wall was built, as a result of which only one or two rows have survived.  The blocks from the upper rows have fallen into the gorge of the Radimlja river.  The most interesting section of the northern ramparts are along the edge of Velika gomila (Great Mound) between the eastern retaining wall and the north-east defence tower.  Parts of the road leading from the inner gate in the eastern retaining wall to the north-east town gates have been uncovered here.

                        The main road ran along the south and south-west edge of the Acropolis, leading from the eastern retaining wall to the square – the sanctuary.  Some sections of the road were laid on the retaining walls and had, where necessary, protective walls to secure it against landslides.  The road was some 35 m. long and varied in width from 2.5 to 3 m.  At certain points above the ravine a row of stones was laid as protection and warning, without blocking the view of Vidovo plain and the heights beyond towards the Adriatic Sea. 

            At the base of the Great Mound to the west there is a square, probably a sanctuary, with a cave, above a building assumed to have been a temple (?)  All that survives of this building are two walls and a corner – just the lower row of stones, which are unlikely to be the foundations.  The surviving length of the main wall, where the building was entered, is 8 m, and of the lateral wall 4.5m.  The broken remains of a floor made of lime plaster were found inside the building, along with shards of pottery vessels, and a great deal of movable archaeological material.  The building stood on the most prominent position with a fine view over the ridge.  All these factors lead to the conclusion that this was where the sanctuary stood.

            The Great Mound occupies the central part of the Acropolis.  Beneath it various archaeological finds were uncovered from early prehistoric periods, prior to the date of the Mount, ranging from the early Bronze Age almost to the end of the Iron Age in the mid fifth century BCE.  The date at which the erection of the Mound began can therefore be dated to within the mid fifth to mid fourth century BCE. The latest date is determined by the date when the Cyclopaean wall was built and other findings from that period.

            There are varying views on the purpose of the Great Mound, which has a diameter of 11 m.  The majority of experts are of the opinion that dominant mounds or tumuli are a common form of hillfort defensive structure, while others see their significance as places of burial, cult or religion.  It is assumed that the Great Mound was deliberately erected within the defence system of Gradina at Ošanići.  To the east side there was a megalithic wall, and to the south of the town promenade a stairway led to the Mound. To the north was a minor road and the inner town gates.  It is not known exactly what purpose this served in the Acropolis as a whole.  However, the majority of experts are of the view that it was a defensive structure.  It was made only of layers of stone and soil, and was almost empty archaeologically.

            The town cistern between the megalithic wall and the Great Mound was also partly studied.  Considering the site of the hillfort and the climatic conditions, it was essential to construct a cistern for the town.  Another two were also built, one on the Banje plateau, and the other further away from the settlement.  The cistern on the Acropolis is a cuboid with rounded corners, measuring 11 x 7 m. with a depth of 5 m, hollowed out into the living rock.  The walls are made of smaller cut stone plastered with compact lime plaster with small shards of red pottery or brick.

 

The Banje plateau

            The ruins of a carefully planned settlement lie to the east and north-east of the Acropolis.  A mass of ruins of various larger and smaller buildings cover an area of some 15 hectares; most of these are rectangular in shape and only their foundations survive.   It is assumed that the settlement came into being in two stages, but certainly later than the Acropolis, i.e. later than the third century BCE.

            The first stage comprises buildings concentrated in groups with squares and roads.  The settlement had a planned layout and the walls of the buildings lie parallel or orthogonally to the megalithic ramparts of the Acropolis.  There are distinct quarters with squares and roads oriented towards the megalithic wall and the main town gates of the Acropolis.

In the second stage some smaller, poorly built structures were erected to the south and south-east.

            Most of the buildings of both the first and second stage are built from partly-dressed stone of varying sizes, with the blocks laid dry in rows. The buildings dating from the first stage were built with rather more care.  The buildings were quite large, but it is not possible to identify from their remains what they were used for.

            On the Banje plateau some buildings used for particular purposes stand out, but apart from the foundations there is nothing to indicate what they looked like.  Z. Marić investigated a complex that he assumed was a small urban necropolis.  Near this complex there is another town cistern, which was excavated in 1990.  This too was cut into the living rock to a depth of 5 m, and provided with a separate wall from the entrance area to the south-east.  The walls were lime plastered and the bottom was rammed yellow clay.  To the south were steps leading all the way to the bottom.  At the east end of the settlement was yet another cistern deeply cut into the karst rock.

            The streets of the town, like the other ruins on Banje, have survived with few of their structural elements.  The main street ran from the main town gates to the east and the edge of the settlement.  Other streets ran north-east/south-west, in the same direction as the megalithic defence ramparts.

 

Area below the hillfort (Greben – the Ridge)

            On the eastern cliffs, immediately beneath the rock foothills of Gradina and all the way to 100 m. above the banks of the river Radimlja, there are countless terraces, large and small, and settlement areas, mostly cut into the living rock on the northern side while the southern side as a rule had a retaining wall.  There were small transversal paths, but most of the traffic was along stairways linking the terraces from top to bottom, running from the settlement below the hillfort to the central Acropolis area and beyond to the settlement on Banje.  Some ten houses were discovered with small courtyards and access stairways.  The buildings were arrayed in terraces along the ridge over a difference in height of some 150 m.  In the lowest reaches of Greben, about 100 m. above the Radimlja riverbed, no remains of settlements have been discovered.  The buildings were between two retaining walls, in an area some 5 to 78 m. wide.  The upper served as protection against landslips from the higher reaches of Greben, and the lower was the load-bearer of part of the built complex.

            The town of Daorson has many of the features of a small Hellenistic town.  Evidence of the high level of culture and civilization attained is to be found in the fact that it minted its own coins, and in the complicated and artistically decorative buckles, the graffiti on shards of pottery vessels, and remains of stone statues of human figures some 2 m. tall.  The discovery of a depot stands out in particular.  This was found in a cleft in the karst rock on the north-west slope beneath the Acropolis.  Here were blacksmiths’ and jewellers’ tools, among them moulds for casting and stamping numberous figures, symbols and decorative elements, and the products of these crafts, a total of 243 items.  These finds are evidence of workshops with artisans skilled in all the crafts they represent.  All these items were hidden during the second century BCE, though some date back to the fourth century BCE. 

            This town, the centre of the Illyrian tribe of the Daorsi, was deeply imbued with the achievements of Hellenistic civilization, and only a small porportion of the finds to date are of indigenous character.  However, the construction of the Cyclopaean wall was not the result of copying the plan of some other town, but was wholly adapted to the configuration of the terrain.             The Acropolis in Ošanići thus differs from any other fortifications of the same period under powerful Hellenistic influence. The Cyclopaean wall dates from the fourth century BCE, when both towers were probably constructed once the wall was completed.  The other construction stages of the Acropolis date from later centuries, up to the first century BCE.

            In addition to this depot, many other items were discovered on this site.  Hundreds of types and subtypes of mainly Hellenistic vessels were found on Greben, in the buildings excavated and on the surface.  The pottery found on Greben dates from the eighth to the fourth century BCE.

            On this site, local Bronze Age and Iron Age hand-thrown pottery also determines chronologically finds from the sixteenth to the second century BCE.  Gnatia pottery, the local version of Hellenistic pottery, dates from the third to the first century BCE.   Among the shards of amphorae, which were found in large quantities, the oldest example is the rim of a graded type known as a Lesbos amphora, dating from the sixth to fifth century BCE.  Amphorae with triangular and semicircular rims have been dated to the second and first century BCE.  Among other pottery finds, the most common are pieces of plint and solen, two contemporaneous types of Hellenistic tiles.  Most of the Hellenistic pottery goods have counterparts in the Hellenistic towns of southern Italy and Albania.  The pieces of a pythos have a parallel in Albania from the Greek colony of Apollonia dating from the sixth and fifth century BCE.

            The most common iron items are cotter nails and various rivets, of no particular chronological value.  However, finds of several spears of different types, dating from the sixth to the first century BCE, indicates different origins, from workshops in north-western Bosnia and those of which the shape is of Celtic origin.  The first spears are older (sixth to fifth century BCE) and the others of later date (third to second century BCE) and came to Ošanići from the south.   Many arrows were also dated to the last few centuries BCE.

            Among bronze items are various items of clothing and jewellery dating from the sixth to the second century BCE, as well as coins of King Ballaios (167-135 BCE) and one coin dating from the era of the Roman Republic, between 264 and 168 BCE.  So far four coins have been found with the inscription  Daorson, dated to the second century BCE.  It appears that at that time the Daorsi were at the peak of their economic development, thanks to trade.

            One of the major finds is a helmet with a Greek inscription ΠΙИ, probably the abbreviated Illyrian name of the owner PINNES.  It was probably made during the third century BCE, but in the light of the place and circumstances of the find it was probably in use much later, when the Illyrian town of the Daorsi was ransacked and burned.

 

3. Research and conservation and restoration works

            The first data on the archaeological finds of the site on Gradina in Ošanići near Stolac were published by K. Hörmann and V. Radimsk? in 1892.  A detailed reconnaissance and geodetic survey of the terrain was carried out in 1956.  Systematic archaeological investigations were carried out from 1963 to 1991.  For many years these were led by Dr. Z. Marić (1963-1982), mainly on the site of the Acropolis.  He was succeeded by Dr. B. Barijanović (1982-1984), who excavated the Great Mound, and Dr. B. Marijan (198y-1991), who investigated the area of  Banje; all of them were from the National Museum, and all the works were carried out under the aegis of a project of the Fund for Scientific Studies.

            The most comprehensive investigations were conducted alongside the south-west tower and the main town gates, and in part alongside the megalithic wall on both the inner and outer sides.  The town promenade to the south of the Acropolis by the Great Mound was investigated in detail, along with the town stairway and the small sanctuary or temple and the area around the north-west defence tower.  Excavations were also carried out on the town cistern, the area alongside the northern and eastern transverse ramparts, the Great Mound, and by the north-east tower, where another, ancillary town gate, the north-east gatge, was discovered.

About ten houses were discovered on Greben, and several buildings of varying uses were discovered on Banje.

            It is impossible to ascertain how fully the area has been studied.

            From 1963 conservation work was carried out in paralle on the megalithic walls, but they were insufficient, so the structures that had been excavated were once again covered with soil to protect them from the effects of the elements and earthquakes.

All the movable items from the site that were excavated over this period are housed in the Prehistoric Section of the Archaeological Department of the BiH National Museum in Sarajevo.

 

4. Present condition of the site

            The following was ascertained from an on-site inspection:

Ÿ          The site is at risk of rapid deterioration as a result of the lack of maintenance and failure to implement minimal preservation measures;

Ÿ          Large quantities of ruined material are visible;

Ÿ          Before the 1992-1995 war, stones were taken from the site to build dry stone walls and livestock was allowed to graze on the site;

 

III.  CONCLUSION

            Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument, adopted at the fourth session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (3 to 9 September 2002), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

            The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.  Time frame

B.  Historical value

C.  Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iii. proportions

C.iv. composition

C.v. value of details

C.vi. structural value

D.  Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)

D.i. material evidence of a lesser known historical era

D.iv. evidence of a certain type, style or regional manner

F. Landscape value

F.i. relation to other parts of a group

F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site

G. Authenticity

G.iv. tradition and techniques

H. Rarity and representativity

H. i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style

I. Integrity (groups, sites, collections)

I.i. physical coherence

I.ii. homogeneity

I.iii. completeness

 

            The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-         Photodocumentation;

-         Drawings

 

            The documentation annexed to the Decision is public and available for view by interested persons on written request to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

Bibliography

Basler, Đ., Gradina u Ošanićima kod Stoca (Gradina in Ošanići near Stolac), Naše starine III, Sarajevo, 1956, 79-94.

 

Novčić plemena Daorsa (A coin of the Daorsi tribe), Journal of the National Museum, (A), n.s. sv..XXVI, Sarajevo, 1971,333-336

 

Veliki zid na gradini u Ošanićima (The great wall at Gradina in Ošanići), Slovo Gorčina, Stolac, 1984.

 

Hörmann, K, /Radimsk? V, , Ošanići kod Stoca (Ošanići near Stolac), Journal of the National Museum IV, 1892, 40-49.

 

Marić, Z, Arheološka istraživanja na Gradini u Ošanićima kod Stoca 1963. godine (Archaeological Research at Gradina in Ošanići near Stolac in 1963), Journal of the National Museum  XXVII/XXVIII, Sarajevo, 1973., 173-235.

 

Daorsi, Annual of the Centre for Balkan Studies, X,8, Sarajevo, 1973, 109-124.

 

Prahistorijska i protohistorijska utvrđenja na području Daorsa (Prehistoric and Protohistoric fortresses in the area of the Daorsi), special edition of the Centre for Balkan Studies, XXIV; 6, Sarajevo, 1975, 103-110.

 

Arheološka istraživanja Akropole ilirskog grada Daorsa na Gradini u Ošanićima kod Stoca od 1967. do 1972. godine (Archaeological excavations of the Acropolis of the Illyrian town of Daors on Gradina in Ošanići near Stolac from 1967 to 1972) Journal of the National Museum (A), n.s. sv. XXX/XXXI, Sarajevo, 1977, 5-99.

 

Depo pronađen u ilirskom gradu Daors (Depot discovered in the Illyrian town of Daors). Journal of the National Museum (A), n.s. sv. XXXIII, Sarajevo, 1979, 23-113.

 

Unutrašnja vrata akropole ilirskog grada Daorsona (Inner gate of the Acropolis of the Illyrian town of Daorson), Annual of the Centre for  Balkan Studies XXX, 28, Sarajevo, 1997., 80-88.

 

Helenistički uticaji na ilirsko pleme Daorse (Hellenistic influences on the Illyrian tribe of the Daorsi). Annual of the Centre for Balkan Studies, XXXI, 29, Sarajevo, 2000., 37-52.

 

Marijan, B., Sjeveroistočna vrata u megalitskom zidu na Gradini u Ošanićima kod Stoca (North-east gate in the megalithic wall at Gradina in Ošanići near Stolac), Diadora, sv. 18-19, Zadar, 1997., 19-46.

 

Marijanović,  B., Završna istraživanja akropole na Gradini u Ošanićima kod Stoca (Final investigations on the Acropolis at Gradina in Ošanići near Stolac), Journal of the National Museum (A), n.s. sv. 39, Sarajevo, 1984., 11-22. 



East wallHellenistic town of Daorson - OšanićiEntrance gateHellenistic town of Daorson, interior - detail
Surrounding of the siteArcheological findings, Hellenistic helmets Gnatia potteryArcheological findings, chest
Jewellers’ mould Jewellers’ mould  


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