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Glavica in Bilješevo, the historic site

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Status of monument -> National monument

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 6 to 9 September 2011 the Commission adopted a

           

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The historic site of Glavica in Bilješevo, Municipality Kakanj, is hereby designated as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument consists of the archaeological site of Glavica, two stećak tombstones, the church of St John the Baptist, a burial ground, and the Serbian primary school building.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot nos. 2426, 2427 and 2428 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. 219/4, 237/2, 219/1, 237/4, 219/3, 214 and 219/2 (old survey), Land Register entry nos. 606, 587 and 499 cadastral municipality Bilješevo, Municipality Kakanj, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and erecting signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated.

-          all works are prohibited other than investigative and conservation-restoration works, routine maintenance works, works designed to ensure the sustainable use of the property, and works designed for the presentation of the monument, with the approval of the federal ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;

-          before embarking on conservation-restoration works on the National monument, a detailed survey shall be conducted, together with investigative works, which shall include an analysis of the building materials and the type and colour of the façades;

-          the conservation-restoration project shall be based on the detailed survey of the state of the National Monument and should include a methodological approach designed to preserve the historic values of the property;

-          the original appearance of the buildings must be preserved as regards the treatment of architectural details, the colour of the walls, the treatment of the façades, the structure of the buildings, the pitch of the roofs and the type of roof cladding; any changes of a stylistic nature by the addition or removal of individual decorative elements and architectural details (stone and other mouldings, lintels, string courses, cornices etc.) are prohibited;

-          the materials, techniques and treatment of the materials used during the conservation-restoration works shall be the same as those originally used.

 

The following emergency protection measures shall be taken with a view to protecting the National monument and ensuring that the conditions are in place for its conservation and restoration:

-          an examination and statics analysis of the structural components of the School;

-          the structural consolidation of the School and remedial works on the structural components, using the same materials and techniques wherever possible;

-          protecting the School from negative external impacts;

-          clearing the plateau of self-sown vegetation and conducting archaeological investigations of Glavica;

-          the refurbishment of the stećak tombstones and repairs to any damage are permitted solely subject to first drawing up a plan for repairs, restoration and conservation and to the approval of the relevant , and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority;

-          the removal of lichen and moss from the stećaks is prohibited;

-          by way of exception to the above provision, the stećaks may be cleaned if required to examine the epigraphic or decorative features of a stećak, subject to first compiling a report and obtaining the approval of the entity ministry responsible for regional planning. The report should be based on such biological, chemical, physical and other analyses as a conservator considers necessary, and should include appropriate conservation measures and an assessment of the impact of cleaning methods on the stone;

-          the dumping of waste is prohibited;

-          the area is an archaeological site, and investigative works must therefore be carried out in the presence of an archaeologist.

 

IV

 

All movable artefacts found during the course of the archaeological survey shall be deposited in the nearest museum able to provide the necessary personnel, material and technical conditions or in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, catalogued, and suitably presented.     

The removal of the movable artefacts found during the archaeological survey from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.

By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable artefacts for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if the leader of the investigations determines that a given artefact must be catalogued abroad, and provides evidence to that effect to the Commission, which may permit the temporary removal of the artefact from the country subject to detailed conditions for its export, treatment while out of the country and return to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Upon receipt of a report on the investigations conducted, the Commission shall identify which movable artefacts shall be subject to protection measures to be determined by the Commission.

 

V

 

All executive and area development planning acts are hereby revoked to the extent that they are not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.

 

VI

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.

 

VII

 

The Government of the Federation, the federal ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the municipal authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the authorized municipal court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VIII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.kons.gov.ba) 

 

IX

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

X

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović and Ljiljana Ševo.

 

No.07.3-2.3-77/11-19

6 September 2011

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Ljiljana Ševo

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

On 4 November 2002 the Department of Financial and Social Affairs of Kakanj Municipality submitted a petition/proposal to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to designate the Serbian Orthodox church in Bilješevo – Kakanj as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

On 1 December 2010 the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo, represented by priest Marko Maleš of Kakanj, submitted a petition/proposal to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to designate the architectural ensemble of Glavica with the church of St John the Baptist, a burial ground and the Serbian primary school in Bilješevo as a national monument.

Pursuant to this proposal, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the property as a national monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

Statement of Significance

The National Monument consists of the archaeological site of Glavica, two stećak tombstones, the church of St John the Baptist, a burial ground and the Serbian primary school building, forming a coherent complex attesting to the historical continuity of a major group of buildings. The site once included a necropolis with 25 stećaks, which were used to build the church. They were undecorated, but bore epitaphs. The graves beneath them were in three tiers, which means that this necropolis is of outstanding importance. All that now survives of it are two stećaks, a slab and, probably, a cruciform tombstone.

The church of St John the Baptist, built in 1908, was the first Orthodox place of worship to be built in Bilješevo, where religious worship had until then been performed in a wooden chapel nearby. The ensemble includes an Orthodox cemetery founded in the first half of the 19th century and the first Serbian school, which was the first school in the area. The church was built of rubble stone obtained by destroying the necropolis of stećaks.

 

II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-          documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property

-          details of legal protection to date

-          details of the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, details of any war damage, details of any restoration or other works on the property

-          historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

Pursuant to Article V para. 2 of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 37 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission, before rendering a final decision designating a property as a national monument, the Commission is required to provide the owner of the proposed monument, the person submitting the petition, the institutions responsible for heritage, professional and academic institutions, experts and scholars, as well as other interested parties, to express their views. Accordingly, the Commission sent a letter ref. 07.3-35.2-10/10-25 dated 11 March 2010 requesting documentation and views on the designation of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo near Kakanj as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Kakanj Municipality, the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport, the Archives of BiH, the Dabar-Bosnia Metropolitanate and the Serbian Orthodox parish of Kakanj.

The Commission subsequently sent a letter ref. 07.3-35.2-10/10-212 dated 9 November 2010 requesting additional documentation and views on the designation of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo near Kakanj as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Kakanj Municipality, the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport, the Archives of BiH, the Dabar-Bosnia Metropolitanate, the Serbian Orthodox parish of Kakanj, the Ministry of Regional Planning of FBiH, and the co-owners of the property from Bilješevo: Tešnjak (Blagoje) Pero; Tešnjak (Simo) Sofija; Tešnjak (Simo) Drago; Kupusović (Dušan) Branko; Kupusović (Đokan) Mitar; Kupusović (Đokan) Milan; Tešnjak (Simo) Boško; Cvijanović (Mlađen) Bogdan; Cvijanović (Mlađen) Borislav; Cvijanović (K. BR. 1) family; Cvijanović (K. BR. 2) family, and co-owners from Kakanj: Marčeta (Đokan) Stanko; Kajtaz née Cvijanović,

In response, the Commission has received the following documentation:

-          letter ref. 0-06/1-2090/10 dated 19 November from Kakanj Municipality stating that it was not in possession of the information requested;

-          letter ref. 07-40-4-980-1/10 dated 16 March 2010 from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport stating that when rendering a final decision on the designation of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo near Kakanj it was important to consider it together with the burial ground, churchyard and archaeological site of Glavica, as a single, enclosed complex;

-          letter ref. 07-40-4-980-3/10 dated 11 November 2010 from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport reiterating the view expressed in letter ref. 07-40-4-980-1/10 dated 16 March 2010.

-          Since the co-owners of the property had not submitted their views on the proposal to designate the property as a national monument, the Commission sent a letter ref. 07.3-35.2-5/10-20 dated 2 December 2010 to Kakanj Municipality requesting that a public notice be posted inviting the co-owners to submit their views. There was no response to the notice within the prescribed time limit, and the co-owners may thus be assumed to have no objections.

 

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The architectural ensemble of Glavica with the church of St John the Baptist, a burial ground and the Serbian primary school is in Bilješevo near Kakanj, north of the main Sarajevo to Zenica road. Bilješevo is 10 km as the crow flies from Zenica and 7 km from Kakanj. A side road leads from the main road to the church 120 m away on an area of high ground.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot nos. 2426, 2427 and 2428 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. 219/4, 237/2, 219/1, 237/4, 219/3, 214 and 219/2 (old survey), Land Register entry nos. 606, 587 and 499 cadastral municipality Bilješevo, Municipality Kakanj, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historical background

Evidence of human habitation in Kakanj Municipality has been found dating back to the Neolithic, at Obre I (occupied by the Kakanj cultural group) and Obre II (occupied by the Butmir cultural group, which existed from 5310-4910 to 1780-4440 BCE)(1). The župa (county) of Trstivnica was formed in mediaeval times, its boundaries coinciding largely with those of present-day Kakanj Municipality. Written sources(2) reveal that (old) Kakanj and the Ribnica river valley was part of Trstivnica county. Its geographical location and direct links with the villages around Kakanj and Zgošća led P. Anđelić to the view that all the villages along the River Bosna, from Old Kakanj to the point where the River Lašva joins the Bosna, belonged to Trstivnica county(3). This is certainly true of the village of Bilješevo. In the early Ottoman period, the area of present-day Kakanj Municipality was divided into the two nahijas (minor administrative units) of Brod and Bobovac, which did not coincide with mediaeval counties: in the late 14th century, Kakanj was still being referred to as in Trstivnica county, but by the Ottoman period it was being described as a market in the nahija of Brod. Again, according to 16th century census records (1516, 1528/30 and c. 1575), Sutjestka market also belonged to the nahija of Brod, not that of Bobovac. This indicates that the nahija of Brod included not only the eponymous county but also a large part of Trstivnica county(4). In the middle years of the first half of the 19th century, an Orthodox cemetery was formed at Glavica in Bilješevo(5).

The town of Kakanj developed into its present form during the Austro-Hungarian period, when the area experienced an economic boom, becoming a major mining and industrial centre.  As the mines and factories developed, so too was housing built(6) to accommodate the growing population. Several religious edifices were also built at this time, including the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo. The credit for this goes to a priest, Dušan Konstantinović(7), who came to Bilješevo in 1904; until the completion of the church, religious services were held in a small wooden chapel in the burial ground(8). Work began on the church in 1906, continuing until 1908; a Serb primary school(9) was also opened next to the church in 1909(10).

The school was built according to the 1879 Austro-Hungarian regulations providing for private and confessional primary schools as well as state schools(11). The first new Serbian primary schools appeared in the early 1890s(12), with many built between 1891 and 1895(13). The Serbian primary school in Bilješevo was built in 1909, following the period known as the “struggle for confessional and educational autonomy” (1896-1905)(14), which led the Austro-Hungarian authorities to issue an order governing the organization of ecclesiastical and religious life in Bosnia and Herzegovina(15). The order favoured the development of Serbian primary schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, their numbers increasing from 70 in 1906 to 114 in 1910(16). Every Serbian primary school was closed down during World War I(17), and reopened in the interwar period.

The economy and industry of the area continued growing between the two world wars. In 1920 the town of Kakanj had a population of 1100; by 1941, the population of the municipality as a whole had risen to 36,000(18). The church and the parish held regular services until that year.

The church was damaged in World War II, and the priest, Miladin Minić, born in 1912, was killed on 27 April 1941(19), when the church records were burned(20). Between then and 1945 there followed a succession of priests, some of whom were persecuted and imprisoned. Directly after the war, repairs led by the parish priest, Radomir Popović, were carried out on the church and the parish hall, which also housed the primary school(21). In 1949, the interior of the church was refurbished(22).

Extensive conservation-restoration works were carried out on the façade in 1982, and routine interior maintenance works were also carried out.

In 1992 the church and parish hall were set on fire, leaving only the outside walls and the remains of the roof structure. During the 1992-1995 war part of the Orthodox burial ground in Bilješevo was also desecrated.

            The reconstruction of the church was carried out in 2003; the works were completed that summer, and the building was reconsecrated on 27 July 2003, since when it has been in use for the parishioners of the Bilješevo area.

 

2. Description of the property

Indisputable material evidence has been found demonstrating that the Bilješevo area was inhabited in Roman times, in the form of Valerius’ stele, found in the village and now in the Zenica Museum(23). The necropolis with stećaks reveals that the village of Bilješevo was inhabited in mediaeval times: two stećaks, one slab-shaped and the other cruciform but lacking its cross arms(24), still survive on the site known as Glavica, on the hillock where the church of St John the Baptist now stands, while in Kakanj Municipality as a whole, nineteen sites have been recorded with a total of 381 stećaks(25).

Šefik Bešlagić refers to the information provided by Vaclav Radimsky(26) to the effect that there was a necropolis here with 25 stećaks, which were used to build the church(27). Muhamed Kreševljaković also quotes this information of Radimsky’s, along with the note stating that 98-year-old Simo Tanasić of Kakanj had helped to build the church and had said that it was made of broken slabs that were undecorated but bore epitaphs, and that the graves were constructed by placing a skeleton beneath the slab, then another slab with a skeleton under it, and finally repeating the process once more. This means that they were three-tier graves, and that immense damage was done by destroying the necropolis(28).

An Orthodox cemetery was formed in Bilješevo in the middle years of the first half of the 19th century(29). The oldest graves dating from the Ottoman period are in the northern part of the cemetery, but the presence of mediaeval tombstones reveals a historical continuity. The cemetery is still in use, with graves dating from the first decade of the 21st century in the southern part.

Condition of the tombstones

There are two stećaks at Glavica:

Stećak no. 1 – slab, lying north-south, undecorated, almost completely sunken into the ground with only the rectangular top visible at ground level. The stećak is 220 cm long and 92 cm wide.

Stećak no. 2 – sunken, with only parts visible, making it impossible to measure the stećak or identify its form. This is probably the stećak recorded by Bešlagić as a cruciform tombstone lacking cross arms, which could be confirmed by clearing the area around the tombstone. Bešlagić states that this tombstone is not in its original position.

 

The architectural ensemble in Bilješevo consists of the archaeological site of Glavica, two stećaks, the church of St John the Baptist, the cemetery, and the Serbian primary school building.  A feature of the ensemble is that it developed in stages from the middle ages to the Austro-Hungarian period. The entrance to the ensemble is from the north-east, where there is a gateway from the local road to the church, the school(30) and the cemetery.

The central feature of the ensemble is the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo. In terms of architectural concept, the church belongs to the type of single-aisled basilica with a bell tower at the west end(31), lying east-west, with a semicircular sanctuary at the east end and a choir at the west end. Built of rubble stone, it is rectangular in plan, with overall dimensions of 15.95 x 9.30 m, with the bell tower standing forward in the central axis of the church; measuring 3.15 x 2.14 m in plan, it is 13.50 m in height. The height of the church to the ridge of the gabled roof is 9.30 m and to the eaves 6.90 m.

The ground floor of the bell tower forms the open porch leading via two steps into the church through the main entrance, an aluminium doorway of 1.24 x 2.10 m(32).

The interior of the church consists of the parvis, nave and sanctuary, with the choir gallery over the parvis at a height of 2.60 m above floor level.

The parvis is rectangular, measuring 6.80 x 2.20 m, with a ceiling height below the gallery of 2.40.

The choir gallery over the parvis is slightly smaller on account of the L-shaped staircase on the north side; it measures 4.65 x 2.20 m in plan, and rests on a pier with a diameter of 25 cm.  The gallery has a metal railing with a height of 90 cm. Light enters the parvis and choir through side windows of 73 x 230 cm. An arched opening in the wall, measuring 73 x 210 cm, leads from the choir gallery to the upper stage of the bell tower. Inside, the tower has sides of 1.65 m, and is lit by biforate windows to the west, 1.65 m in width and 2.30 m in height(33). The topmost stage houses the church bell.

The nave measures 6.80 x 6.80 m(34). At the end, in front of the iconostasis, is a solea one step up, across the full width of the nave and 1.00 m wide, incorporating in the central axis of the church a semielliptical ambo 2.00 m long and 0.6 m wide. Light enters the nave through pairs of biforate windows and windows measuring 1.65 x 2.30 and 0.73 x 2.30 m respectively.

The iconostasis between the nave and the sanctuary is 4.10 m wide and 2.50 m high, with a central rectangular opening of 1.12 x 2.10 m flanked by two side openings of the same height but only 80 cm wide. Directly above the royal doors is a masonry jutty with a radius of 1.00 m. Like the rest of the interior of the church, the iconostasis is painted white.

The floor of the semicircular sanctuary, with a diameter of 2.15 m, is level with the solea.  The stone altar, measuring 1.12 x 0.90 m, with a height of 1.00 m, occupies the middle of the sanctuary. At the east end is a central arched apsidal niche of 55 x 85 cm with a depth of 25 cm.  To the north is the proscomidion, an arched wall niche of 100 x 140 cm with a depth of 20 cm, and to the south is the diaconicom, a niche of the same shape and depth as the proscomidion niche but measuring 100 x 130 cm. Between these and the central niche is another niche on either side, each measuring 70 x 130 cm. Light enters the sanctuary through five oculi with a diameter of 870 cm directly above the wall niches.

The façades of the church are simple in design, with no particular façade ornaments, and are painted grey, except for the stone socle. The west front of the church is a symmetrical composition with the projecting bell tower at the centre flanked by gable walls with no openings.  The single-valved door of 1.24 x 2.10 m is set back in the central axis of the bell tower. The first stage of the bell tower has a biforate window of 1.65 x 2.30 m, with above it an arched opening of 0.73 x 2.30 m. The north and south side walls are symmetrical, except that the north wall contains an aluminium door of 0.73 x 2.10 m. Midway along the side walls are risalits surmounted by tympana with biforate windows of 1.65 x 2.30 m. To the sides are windows of 0.73 x 2.30 m. The east end terminates in an apse with five oculi with a diameter of 70 cm.

The bearing walls of the church are 72 cm thick, and are of stone obtained by breaking up the stećak tombstones in the necropolis(35). The façades are rendered, and the socle of exposed stone. The timber roof is clad with sheet metal, and the doors and windows are aluminium.

The interior staircase and gallery are of reinforced concrete. The floor of the church is of ceramic tiles, and the inside walls are plastered and painted white. The ceiling height is 7.80 m, except in the parvis where it is 2.40 m.

Murals

It is not known who designed the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo, and nor have the original blueprints survived, but the original murals are known to have been painted by Jovan Manojlović(36). The interior of the church was repainted in 1982 by fresco painter Dimitrije Riđički(37).

The murals were badly damaged in 1992, and stripped off completely during the reconstruction of the church. No drawings or photographs of the murals were available as this decision was being drafted, so that no detailed description of them can be given.

Ten metres to the south of the church is the tomb of the priest killed in 1941.

Cemetery

To the west of the church is the Serbian Orthodox cemetery, lying north-south and containing about 250 tombstones. The oldest tombstones are in the northern part of the cemetery, below the former Serbian primary school. The oldest, which lack epitaphs, date from the first half of the 19th century; the oldest dated tombstone dates from 1883. Most of the tombstones have suffered damage in two ways: from subsidence, causing them to tilt off true or sink, and from the desecration of the church and cemetery during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, when about 50 tombstones were destroyed. All the tombstones, which are of local stone, are cruciform, with “apples” at the ends of the arms. Some are decorated with a rosette (spiral) or a cross. The epitaphs are carved in Cyrillic capital letters, in most cases on the west face of the tombstone. Epitaphs can be made out on 34 of the tombstones.

1. Tombstone no. 1 (photograph no. 1, 2)

Measurements: 67x58x12 cm

Translation of the epitaph: here lies the servant of God Pero son of Miloš Cvijanović. Erected in his memory by his uncle Vaso and aunt Gospova.  Died 14/5 1912

The tombstone is tilted off true and sunken.

2. Tombstone no. 2 (photograph no. 3)

Measurements: 112x52x12

Translation of the epitaph: here lies the servant of God Jovanka wife of Đoko Cvijanović. Died 15 January 1904

The tombstone has fallen over.

3. Tombstone no. 3 (photograph no. 4)

Measurements: 35x15x10

Translation of the epitaph: ----- 23/4 1908 (a rosette as decoration)

The tombstone is broken at the plinth.

4. Tombstone no. 4 (photograph no. 5)

Measurements of the cruciform tombstone: 50x59x16 cm

Measurements of the plinth: 50x13x8

Translation of the epitaph: .... /2 1905

The tombstone is broken.

5. Tombstone no. 5 (photograph no. 6)

Measurements: 19x13x6

Translation of the epitaph: .... passed away 1/10 1908

The tombstone is broken. The plinth has sunk into the ground.

6. Tombstone no. 6 (photograph no. 7)

Measurements: 31x34x6 cm

Translation of the epitaph: Here lies the servant of God Korsa daughter of Đoko and Stoja Cvijanović. Died 13/12....

The tombstone is tilted off true and sunken.

7. Tombstone no. 7 (photograph no. 8)

Measurements: 55x50x9 cm

Translation of the epitaph: illegible

The tombstone is tilted off true and sunken. The surface of the cruciform tombstone is covered with lichen

8. Tombstone no. 8 (photograph no. 9)

Measurements: 35x16x11 cm

Translation of the epitaph: ...en son of Miladin ž. 65 Died 7/12 1908

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible, sunken into the ground.

9. Tombstone no. 9 (photograph no. 10)

Measurements: 45x17x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: ...... 1887

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible. The plinth is tilted off true and sunken into the ground.

10. Tombstone no. 10 (photograph no. 11)

Measurements: 30x20x13 cm

Translation of the epitaph: 18/6 1907

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible. The plinth is tilted off true and sunken into the ground.

11. Tombstone no. 11 – a group of five stones (photograph no. 12)

three cruciform tombstones:

a) measurements: 75x57x8 cm

b) measurements: 57x42x8 cm

c) measurements: 65x51x10 cm

two plinths:

a) measurements: 36x27x16 cm, translation of the epitaph: Maria 1905

b) measurements: 19x31x7 cm

12. Tombstone no. 12 (photograph no. 13)

Measurements: 37x19x12 cm

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible, without epitaph.

13. Tombstone no. 13 (photograph no. 14)

Measurements: 42x15x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: 13/Jul 1904

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible, sunken into the ground.

14. Tombstone no. 14 (photograph no. 15)

Measurements: 35x16x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: 7/9 1908

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible. The plinth is tilted off true and sunken into the ground.

15. Tombstone no. 15 (photograph no. 16, 17)

Measurements: 35x60x9 cm

Translation of the epitaph: servant of god Gopo wife?..iče Kajt... age... died ... March 1905

The tombstone is tilted off true and sunken. One arm of the cruciform tombstone has been broken off.

16. Group of cruciform tombstones no. 16 (photograph no. 18)

When the cemetery was refurbished, a number of piles were made of pieces of damaged tombstones; these are probably pieces of the cruciform tombstones of which the plinths are still visible.

17. Tombstone no. 17 (photograph no. 19)

Measurements: 35x30x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: servant of God Vuković 19/10 1892

The tombstone is tilted off true and sunken.

18. Tombstone no. 18 (photograph no. 20)

Measurements: 24x19x10 cm

The tombstone has been damaged. The plinth, without epitaph, can be seen.

19. Tombstone no. 19 (photograph no. 21)

Measurements: 32x23x13 cm

Translation of the epitaph:.903

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible.

20. Group of tombstones no. 20 (photograph no. 22)

The group consists of four stones, three plinths and one cruciform, on one of which the year 1896 ... born 186... can be seen.

21. Group of tombstones no. 21 (photograph no. 23)

The group consists of five tombstones, all tilted off true and sunken into the ground, on one of which the year 1895 can be seen.

22. Tombstone no. 22 (photograph no. 24)

Measurements: 35x20x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: .... 1898

The tombstone has been destroyed; the plinth is visible.

23. Tombstone no. 23 (photograph no. 25)

Measurements: 43x58x9 cm

Translation of the epitaph: ... tombstone... Simo father of Jovo Gaji.....

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible.

24. Tombstone no. 24 (photograph no. 26)

Measurements: 50x50x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: here lies the servant of God Pero Kordić. Tombstone erected by Niko for his brother.  Died 20/1 1907

The tombstone is tilted off true and sunken.

25. Tombstone no. 25 (photograph no. 27)

Measurements: 40x53x11 cm

Translation of the epitaph: here lies the servant of God Spasa wife of Pero Kordo.  Tombstone erected by----

The tombstone has been destroyed, and only the plinth is visible.

26. Tombstone no. 26 (photograph no. 28)

Measurements: 75x76x19 cm

Translation of the epitaph: ICHC here lies the servant of God Sobren son of Peror and Spasa Kordo, born 1883. Tombstone erected by his mother. Died 4 August 1903

27. Group of tombstones no. 27 (photograph no. 29)

The group consists of 14 tombstones, all tilted off true and sunken into the ground, making it impossible to read them. One of them bears the year 1905.

28. Tombstone no. 28 (photograph no. 30)

Measurements: 66x62x18 cm

Translation of the epitaph: ICHC Here lie the mortal remains of the blessed deceased ... Nino Cvijanović b. 1821 died ....

The tombstone has sunk into the ground.

29. Tombstone no. 29 (photograph no. 31)

Measurements: 42x44x9 cm

Translation of the epitaph: 1872 here lies the servant of God Vatešnaka died in August

The tombstone has sunk into the ground

30. Tombstone no. 30 (photograph no. 32)

Measurements: 40x45x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: Here lies the servant of God Ilinka wife of Risto Kajtaz—died 28/5

The tombstone has sunk into the ground.

31. Tombstone no. 31 (photograph no. 33)

Measurements: 45x43x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: here lies the servant of God--- 1876..

32. Tombstone no. 32 (photograph no. 34)

Measurements: 50x45x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: servant--- bancu... father... ove... bencuna died June 15 1876

33. Tombstone no. 33 (photograph no. 35)

Measurements: 56x47x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: here lies the servant of God Ilija Jefić born in 1782 died in 1883

34. Tombstone no. 34 (photograph no. 36)

Measurements: 26x59x10 cm

Translation of the epitaph: servant --- Anđa wife of Risto Jefić of iznce.died.. 18/12 1905

The central section of the cemetery contains graves dating mainly from the early 20th century. Interestingly, these tombstones are of the same form as those of the previous group, and bear similar epitaphs; they differ in size, however, being a metre or more in height. Further to the south are graves dating from the first half of the 20th century, while the southernmost end of the cemetery contains graves dating from the latter half of the 20th and the early 21st century.

The Serbian primary school building is located on a narrow strip bounded to the south by the cemetery and to the north by the local road. The building, which is badly damaged, is square in plan, with sides of 11.00 m; it has a basement, ground floor and first floor, with a height to the eaves of 4.45 m and to the ridge of the gabled roof of 7.65 m. The entrance is to the west, where there is a doorway with overlight measuring 104 x 290 cm. This opens into a rectangular hallway(38) of 2.00 x 5.00 m, leading into a room to the east(39) measuring 3.70 x 1.90 m. A doorway of 100 x 220 cm leads from this room into the classroom to the south, measuring 10.50 x 6.50 m. The first floor has been totally destroyed, with only a few vestiges of the wooden ceiling faced on the underside with reeds, above which are the remains of the roof timbers, with the roof ridge running east-west, and some of the tiles.

To the east is a low doorway 120 cm in width leading to the basement on the north-east side of the building, which measures 3.50 x 3.00 m. The floor of the basement is of rammed earth, and the ceiling is a brick vault.

The façades are plain, with no particular ornament. The south façade has three identical windows of 1.35 x 1.05 m. Midway along the north façade is a gap in the wall measuring 3.05 x 1.10 m overall. To the west is a recessed section of the façade, with a length of 4.85 m, and to the east is a bricked-up arched opening of 1.05 x 1.90 m. The entrance in the west façade measures 1.05 x 2.90 m, above which are two windows of 70 x 95 cm and one of 175 x 130 cm.  The east façade has a ground-floor window of 200 x 135 cm, and two first-floor windows: one in the middle of 155 x 110 cm, and a smaller one of 50 x 65 cm.

The materials used for the school building were stone blocks of various sizes and shapes laid in courses, reinforced concrete (for the pillars and ring beam) and brick (for the basement ceiling and the chimneys). The structural system consists of the outer bearing walls and a central longitudinal wall lying east-west. Vestiges of plaster can be seen on the outside and inside walls.  The ground-floor ceiling was wooden, the basement ceiling of stone and brick. Some of the exterior woodwork has survived, as have some of the roof timbers and roof tiles. The exterior and interior bearing walls are 30 cm thick. The ground-floor ceiling is 3.30 m high, that of the first floor is 2.60 m high, and the basement ceiling is 2.00 m high.

 

3. Legal status to date

The Regional Plan for BiH to 2000 lists 19 sites of necropolises with stećaks (381 stećaks in all) in Kakanj Municipality as category III monuments, without precise identification(40).  

A letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport dated 16 March 2010 states that the property is listed under the heading:

-          Orthodox church of St John the Baptist with churchyard and cemetery, Bilješevo, Kakanj.  Located at Glavica. Dating from the Austro-Hungarian period.

-          Archaeological site of Glavica, Bilješevo, Kakanj. Located by the Orthodox church and cemetery. Two extant stećaks, in the shape of a slab and a cross. The other stećaks have been destroyed. Late mediaeval.

The property was not on the register of cultural monuments.

In this letter the Institute requested that when rendering a final decision on the designation of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo near Kakanj it be considered together with the burial ground, churchyard and archaeological site of Glavica, as a single, enclosed complex.

A letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport dated 11 November 2010 stated that the Serbian primary school in Bilješevo was neither listed nor on the Register of Cultural Monuments of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo was on the register of cultural monuments maintained by the former Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, Natural Sites and Rarities of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a category III monument(41).       

 

4. Research and conservation-restoration works

During the construction of the church (1906-1908) the fine necropolis of stećaks, with its three-tier graves, was destroyed without conducting any investigative works or cataloguing the stećaks and graves.

The interior of the church was refurbished in 1949. The floor was paved with ceramic tiles in 1976. In 1950 the churchyard was surrounded by a wooden fence(42). Conservation-restoration works were carried out on the façade in 1982, together with routine maintenance works on the interior of the church, when fresco painter Dimitrije Riđički was commissioned to paint the murals(43).

The church was renovated in 2003. New roof timbers were erected on reinforced concrete beams laid over the exterior stone walls. The roof was clad with sheet metal imitating tiles. The façades were restored, and the exterior woodwork was replaced where aluminium fittings had been installed. The floor was relaid and the inside walls were whitewashed. A reinforced concrete choir gallery was erected to replace the wooden one that had burned down.  Once the works were completed, all trace of the earlier frescoes was lost. The works were carried out by the building company PGM Busovača(44).

Nothing is known of any investigative or conservation-restoration works on the Serbian primary school or the cemetery. All that is known is that the school building was repaired after World War II, on the initiative of the Serbian Orthodox community.

Research works, consisting of listing and gathering information on the stećaks in Kakanj Municipality, were carried out by Šefik Bešlagić (published in 1967 and 1971) and Muhamed Kreševljaković (published in 1983).

No conservation-restoration works have been carried out on the stećaks.

 

5. Current condition of the property

The Church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo is in good structural and general condition following the 2003 renovation works, and is regularly maintained. The former Serbian school building is in ruins, with only the bare load-bearing walls and parts of the roof still extant.

The Orthodox cemetery is still in use and is fairly well maintained. Many of the cruciform tombstones are damaged, with pieces piled up in heaps.

Of the two stećaks at Glavica, the slab-shaped one has almost completely sunk into the ground, with only the rectangular top surface visible at ground level; the other is almost completely buried and could not be examined or its shape identified.

Current condition of the movable heritage

-          murals

-          iconostasis

-          icons

-          Christ’s grave and throne

 

6. Specific risks

-          displacement of the surviving stećaks without expert supervision

-          risk of the stećaks becoming completely buried

-          risk of structural collapse of the school building

-          no marked specific risks to the church and cemetery

 

III – CONCLUSION       

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iii.      proportions

C.iv.      composition

D.         Clarity

D.v.       evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period

E.         Symbolic value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iii.      traditional value

E.iv.      relation to rituals or ceremonies

E.v.       significance for the identity of a group of people

F.         Townscape/ Landscape value

F.ii.       meaning in the townscape

F.iii.      the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site

G.         Authenticity

G.iii.     use and function

G.v.      location and setting

I.          Completeness

I.ii.        homogeneity

I.iii.       completeness

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Proprietary documentation

-         Copy of cadastral plan 2428, c.m. Bilješevo (new survey), title deed 527, plan no. 11; scale 1:2500 (old survey c.p. 219/2, c.m. Bilješevo), issued 16.03.2010 by the Department of Proprietary Rights, Geodetics and Cadastral Affairs of Kakanj Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

-         Land Register entry for plot nos. 237/2 and 237/4 c.m. Bilješevo, Land Register entry no. 587 (old survey), no. 036-0 Nar-0-10-000-713 of 19.03.2010, issued by the Land Registry office of the Municipal Court in Kakanj, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

-         Land Register entry for plot no. 214 c.m. Bilješevo, Land Register entry no. 499 (old survey), no. 036-0 Nar-0-10-000-714 of 19.03.2010, issued by the Land Registry office of the Municipal Court in Kakanj, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

-         Land Register entry for plot 219/2, c.m. Bilješevo, Land Register entry 606 (old survey), no. 036-0 Nar-0-10-000-715 of 19.03.2010, issued by the Land Registry office of the Municipal Court in Kakanj, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

-          Documentation on previous protection of the property

-         Letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport ref. 07-40-4-980-1/10 of 16.03.2010

-         Letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport ref. 07-40-4-980-3/10 of 11 November 2010

-          Photodocumentation

-         Photographs of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo in 2002, from the archives of the Serbian Orthodox Church parish in Zenica

-         Photographs of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo taken on 19.03.2010 by architect Adi Ćorović and art historian Aida Bucalović using Sony DSC-H10 digital camera

-         Photographs of the architectural ensemble in Bilješevo taken on 5 November 2010 by architects Adi Ćorović and Arijana Pašić using Sony DSC-H10 digital camera

-          Technical documentation

-         Technical drawings of the school in Bilješevo compiled in November 2010 by architect Arijana Pašić

-         Site plan with view of the cemetery in Bilješevo compiled in November 2010 by architect Arijana Pašić

-         Technical drawings of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo compiled in March 2010 by architect Nermina Katkić

-         Cost estimate for repair works to the Orthodox church in Bilješevo, PGM Busovača, 04.07.2002

-         Technical drawings of the church of St John the Baptist in Bilješevo compiled in 2002 and 2003, from the archives of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo

-          Other documentation

-         Letter from Kakanj Municipality ref. 0-06/1-2090/10 of 19 November 2010

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted: 

 

1951.    Records of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo, January 1951

 

1967.    Bešlagić, Šefik. Stećci centralne Bosne (Stećaks of central Bosnia). Sarajevo: Institute for the Protection of Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1967.

 

1973.    Bojanovski, Dr. Ivo. “Rimska cesta dolinom Bosne i njezina tipografija” (The Roman road along the Bosna valley and its typography), in collected papers from a symposium on Mediaeval Bosnia and European Culture. Zenica: Zenica Museum, 1973.

 

1973.    Handžić, Dr. Adem. “Nahija Brod krajem XV i početkom XVI vijeka” (Brod nahija in the late 15th and early 16th century), in collected papers from a symposium on Mediaeval Bosnia and European Culture. Zenica: Zenica Museum, 1973.

 

1974.    Gimbutas, Marija. “Chronology of Obre I and Obre II.” Sarajevo: Wissenschaftliche mitteilungen des Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen Landesmuseum, IV, heft A, Archälogie,1974.

 

1978.    Papić, Mitar. Istorija srpskih škola u Bosni i Hercegovini. Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1978.

 

1980.    Various authors. Prostorni plan Bosne i Hercegovine, faza b – valorizacija, prirodne i kulturno-historijske vrijednosti (Regional Plan for BiH, phase B – valorization of natural and cultural assets). Sarajevo: Institute for Architecture, Town Planning and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, and Planning Authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1980.

 

1982.    Anđelić, Pavao. “Srednjovjekovna župa Trstivnica” (Mediaeval county of Trstivnica) in Studije o teritorijalnopolitičkoj organizaciji srednjovjekovne Bosne (Studies on the territorial and political organization of mediaeval Bosnia). Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1982.

 

1983.    Kreševljaković, Muhamed. Evidencija nepokretnih spomenika kulture na području opštine Kakanj (Studija) (Record of immovable cultural monuments in Kakanj Municipality [Study]). Sarajevo: Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, Natural Sites and Rarities of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1983.

 

1998.    Božić, Jelena. “Srpske pravoslavne crkve u Sarajevu (1878-1918)” (The Serbian Orthodox Church in Sarajevo) Naše starine, annual of the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska. Banja Luka: Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska, 1998.

 

2001.    Čehajić, Raif. 100 godina Kaknja (100 years of Kakanj). Zenica: Minex doo, 2001.

 

2010.    http://www.kakanj.com.ba/index.php/javna-preduzea/jp-vodokom/410-kakanj-kroz-historiju-.html 11 March 2010


(1) Gimbutas, Marija, “Chronology of Obre I and Obre II,” Sarajevo: Wissenschaftliche mitteilungen des Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen Landesmuseum, IV, heft A, Archälogie,1974, 15-35.

(2) A charter by King Dabiša of 1392 specifically states that the (village of) Kakanj is in Trstivnica. (Anđelić, Pavao, “Srednjovjekovna župa Trstivnica”, in Studije o teritorijalnopolitičkoj organizaciji srednjovjekovne Bosne, Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1982, 36, fn. 3).

(3) Anđelić, Pavao, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1982, 35 and 36.

(4) Handžić, Dr. Adem, “Nahija Brod krajem XV i početkom XVI vijeka,” in Radovi sa simpozijuma Srednjovjekovna Bosna i evropska kultura, Zenica: Izdanje Muzeja Grada Zenice, 1973, 384.

(5) Kreševljaković, Muhamed, “Evidencija nepokretnih spomenika kulture na području opštine Kakanj (Studija),” Sarajevo: Zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, prirodnih znamenitosti i rijetkosti Bosne i Hercegovine, 1983, Prilog – Prijava za registrovanje i evidentiranje objekata odnosno predmeta za koje se osnovano može pretpostaviti da imaju svojstva spomenika kulture, Pravoslavna crkva u Bilješevu

(6) Raif Čehajić, op.cit, 2001, 5.

(7) The Chronicle of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo for January 1951 refers to Dušan Konstantinović as much loved by the people on account of his dedication and hard work. The saying is that “priest Konstantinović left behind him a good reputation in the whole parish.” He was succeeded by Blagoje Kozomarić, deacon of Sarajevo. Chronicle of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo, January 1951.

(8) Once the church was built, Bilješevo, which had until then belonged to the parish of Zenica, became a parish in its own right. Chronicle of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo, January 1951.

(9) The Serbian primary school in Bilješevo was the first education establishment built in Kakanj Municipality, predating the primary school in Kakanj which was built in 1911. - http://www.kakanj.com.ba/index.php/javna-preduzea/jp-vodokom/410-kakanj-kroz-historiju-.html  11 March 2010. It remained in use as a school until the middle of the latter half of the 20th century, and until the end of World War II the parish hall occupied the first floor. The ground floor was also used as an assembly room for the parishi116oners, known as the church coffee house.

(10) Mitar Papić, Istorija srpskih škola u Bosni i Hercegovini, Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1978, 140.

(11) Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 116.

(12) Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 127.

(13) Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 134.

(14) Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 136.

(15) Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 138.

(16) One of the features of the final decade of Austro-Hungarian rule was an increase in the number of rural Serbian primary schools, including the school in Bilješevo. Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 140-142.

(17) Mitar Papić, op.cit., Sarajevo, 1978, 143.

(18) Raif Čehajić, op.cit., 2001, 13.

(19) Fr. Miladin was buried in the churchyard. Records of the Serbian Orthodox Parish of Bilješevo. Bilješevo: January 1951.

(20) A new chronicle was begun in January 1951

(21) From then on the ground floor was used by the parish, while the first floor, where the teacher and priest had each had a flat, was left vacant.

(22) Chronicle of the Serbian Orthodox Parish of Bilješevo, 1951.

(23) Bojanovski, Dr. Ivo, ”Rimska cesta dolinom Bosne i njezina tipografija”, in Radovi sa simpozijuma Srednjovjekovna Bosna i evropska kultura, Zenica: Izdanje Muzeja Grada Zenice, 1973, 398.

(24) Bešlagić, Šefik, Stećci centralne Bosne, Sarajevo: Zavod za zaštitu spomenika Bosne i Hercegovine, 1967, 46.

(25) Various authors, Prostorni plan Bosne i Hercegovine, faza b – valorizacija, prirodne i kulturno-historijske vrijednosti, Sarajevo: Institute for Architecture, Town Planning and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, and Planning Authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1980, 50.

(26) Radimsky, Vaclav, Arheološka topografija BiH, m/s, Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH.  On 18 November 2010 a telephone request was made to an official of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments under the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport to view the m/s. A response was received on 19 November 2010 stating that the manuscript was not in the Institute’s archives and that the request could not therefore be met.

(27) Bešlagić, Šefik, op.cit., 1967, 46.

(28) Kreševljaković, Muhamed, “Evidencija nepokretnih spomenika kulture na području opštine Kakanj (Studija)”, Sarajevo: Zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, prirodnih znamenitosti i rijetkosti Bosne i Hercegovine, 1983, 215.

(29) Kreševljaković, Muhamed, “Evidencija nepokretnih spomenika kulture na području opštine Kakanj (Studija)”, Sarajevo: Zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, prirodnih znamenitosti i rijetkosti Bosne i Hercegovine, 1983.  Prilog – Prijava za registrovanje i evidentiranje objekata odnosno predmeta za koje se osnovano može pretpostaviti da imaju svojstva spomenika kulture, Pravoslavna crkva u Bilješevu

(30) The school was originally entered direct from the local road to the north.

(31) This type of church was very common in the Austro-Hungarian period, being relatively simple to build and within the competence of local craftsmen. Jelena Božić, “Srpske pravoslavne crkve u Sarajevu (1878-1918”, Naše starine, annual of the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska, Banja Luka: 1998, 95.   

(32) There is also a side door in the north wall, measuring 73 x 210 cm

(33) The stone plaque mounted on the building in 1982 to mark its consecration is now in the bell tower.

(34) Wide niches of 270 x 48 cm in the side walls form shallow transepts.

(35) Account by Simo Tanasić of Kakanj, who was 98 years old in 1983. M. Kreševljaković, op.cit, 1983, 215.

(36) M. Kreševljaković, op.cit, 1983, 215.    

(37) Records of the Serbian Orthodox Parish of Bilješevo, maintained since 1951

(38) A wooden staircase led from the hallway to the first floor, which is now totally in ruins. To the north of the corridor, on the outside, is a recessed space of 5.10 x 1.80 m with a concrete pillar on the north-east side on which the first floor was carried.

(39) The north outside wall has a narrow gap of 100 cm between this room and the exterior

(40) Various authors, Prostorni plan Bosne i Hercegovine, faza b – valorizacija, prirodne i kulturno-historijske vrijednosti, Sarajevo: Institute for Architecture, Town Planning and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, and Planning Authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1980, 50.

(41) M. Kreševljaković, op.cit, 1983, 215.

(42) This was financed by Risto Pantić from the village of Ponijevo. Chronicle of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo, 1951

(43) Following these works, the church was reconsecrated on 3 October 1982 by the Metropolitan of Dabar-Bosnia, Vladislav. Chronicle of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Bilješevo, maintained since 1951

(44) Cost estimate for repairs to the Orthodox church in Bilješevo – PGM Busovača, 4 July 2002



Glavica archaeological site Glavica archaeological site ChurchStećak tombstone
Church, photo from 2002 Church, photo from 2002 Archaeological site North facade
ApseBell towerInteriorIconostasis
ChoirTombstone dated in 1883 School buildingSchool building, east facade


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