Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the Official Gazette of BiH, no. 53/11.
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held on 11 March 2011 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The archaeological site of Rapovine, Municipality Livno, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the remains of an early mediaeval church dating from the 9th century, an early mediaeval stećak, tombstones dating from the early 18th to the 19th century, and movable heritage in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (part of the architrave of an altar partition from the 9th century church), and the Franciscan Museum and Gallery at Gorica, Livno (fragments of the pluteus of an altar partition with interlace decoration).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 248 (old survey), title deed no. 82, cadastral municipality Rapovine, Municipality Livno, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:
- investigative and conservation-restoration works are permitted, including those designed to display the monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
- the digging of new graves in the old burial ground is prohibited;
- it is recommended that a new site be found for current burials;
- the area is an archaeological site, and in consequence all investigative or other works, including the reinterment of the mortal remains in the existing graves, must be carried out in the presence of an archaeologist;
- the dumping of waste is prohibited.
All movable artefacts found during the course of archaeological investigations shall be deposited in the nearest museum able to provide the necessary personnel, material and technical conditions or in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, processed, and suitably presented.
All movable and immovable archaeological material found during the course of the archaeological investigations shall be professionally processed.
Upon completion of the archaeological works the archaeologist leading the investigations shall submit a report to the Commission and to the institution that conducted the investigations.
The archaeologist leading the investigations must have access to all the movable and immovable archaeological material found during the course of the investigations and until his/her report is completed, for a period not exceeding three years.
All immovable finds shall be conserved in situ as the archaeological investigations proceed, and the movable archaeological material shall be conserved and placed for safe keeping in a suitable storage facility.
Upon receipt of a report on the investigations conducted, the Commission shall identify which movable artefacts shall be subject to protection measures to be determined by the Commission.
The removal of the movable artefacts referred to in Clause I para. 2 and Clause IV para. 1 from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.
By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable heritage for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina or can be carried out to a higher standard and more quickly and cheaply abroad.
Permission for temporary removal under the conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt that it will not jeopardize the movable heritage in any way.
In granting permission for the temporary removal of the movable heritage, the Commission shall stipulate all the conditions under which the removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina may take place, the date by which the items shall be returned to the country, and the responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the relevant security service, the customs authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general public accordingly.
All executive and area development planning acts are hereby revoked to the extent that they are not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VII of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.kons.gov.ba).
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović and Ljiljana Ševo.
11 March 2011
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 14 January 2003 the Franciscan Museum and Gallery at Gorica, Livno, submitted a proposal/petition to designate the cemetery in Rapovine, Municipality Livno, as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
Statement of Significance
In the 9th century the župa (county) of Livno probably included not only the Livno polje but also the Duvno and Glamoč poljes. It was based in Livno, the earliest reference to which dates from 892, by the name Cleuna, in a charter issued by knez Muncimir of Croatia, which includes one Želimir, župan (lord of the county) of Livno as a witness.
In 1885 the architrave of a pre-Romanesque altar partition with an inscription was found in the village of Rapovine, 3 km south-west of Livno, in a Catholic cemetery in active use, together with some fragments of the pluteus of the altar partition, with an interlace ornament. The site, which has never been investigated, also includes a necropolis with stećak tombstones, only one of which is still extant, cruciform tombstones dating from the early 18th to the 19th century, and contemporary graves, attesting to the long history of the site as a place of worship and burial place.
II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and Land Register entry).
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
- Pursuant to Article 12 of the Law on the Implementation of Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments Established Pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the following procedures were carried out for the purpose of designating the property as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina:
- A letter ref. 05.1-35.2-10/10-44 of 5 April 2010 requesting documentation and views on the designation of the site in Rapovine, Municipality Livno, as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina was sent to the owner of the property.
- A letter 05.1-35.2-10/10-44 of 5 February 2010 requesting documentation and views on the designation of the site in Rapovine, Municipality Livno, as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina was sent to the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport.
- In a letter ref. 07-40-4-1508-1/10 of 14 April 2010 the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport confirmed that the property had not been protected by the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- A letter ref. 05.1-35.7-12/2010-27 of 19 May 2010 requested that the Livno Inspections Department conduct a supervisory inspection as a matter of urgency in view of the destruction of the mediaeval graves by new burials.
- The views of the owner had not yet been received at the time this decision was rendered.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The village of Rapovine is 3 km south-west of Livno, on the Livno to Split road, at an altitude of 767 m, 43°48.945' N and 16°58.460' E.
The National Monument is located in the Catholic cemetery above the village, on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 387 (new survey), title deed no. 82, corresponding to c.p. no. 248 (old survey), cadastral municipality Rapovine, Municipality Livno, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the 9th century the župa (county) of Livno probably included not only the Livno polje but also the Duvno and Glamoč poljes. It was based in Livno, the earliest reference to which dates from 892, by the name Cleuna, in a charter issued by knez Muncimir of Croatia, which includes one Želimir, župan (lord of the county) of Livno as a witness(1). The name of the town also features in a list of towns in the mid 10th century work De administrando imperio by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, in which he describes Croatia and lists its counties, and in a list of eleven counties in which Livno county is the first to be named. A charter issued by King Zvonimir in the last quarter of the 11th century refers to comes Dobrila of Livno.
In mediaeval times, Livno came under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Split, the powers of which were confirmed by the Hungaro-Croatian kings Koloman (1103) and Andrija II (1207). Pope Celestine III also included the county of Livno within the bounds of the same bishopric. Following the foundation of the Bosnian vicariate in 1340, Livno was part of the Duvno custodiate, which covered western Herzegovina, the Cetinje region and Tropolje (Završje).
From the early 13th century, the area that included the Livno, Glamoč and Duvno poljes was often known as Tropolje (Tres campi). In 1322, during the reign of Stjepan II Kotromanić (1314-1353), Tropolje came within the Bosnian state, and became known as Završje or Zapadna strana (the Western Marches), as it was seen from central Bosnia.
Livno fort (castrum Cleune) is also sometimes known as Bistrički fort(2) (castrum Bystryze), standing as it does above the source of the River Bistrica. The ramparts and towers of the fort can still be seen(3).
2. Description of the property
A topographical map of Livno and the surrounding area dating from 1686-1689 shows the church of St Peter (Chiesa di S. Pietri) at Rapovina(4).
In 1885 the architrave of a pre-Romanesque altar partition with inscription was found; according to the Chronicles of the Franciscan monastery at Gorica in Livno, it was discovered by Fr. Ante Brešić, parish priest of Livno, as spolia on a grave in the Rapovine cemetery. It was a chance discovery, as was the discovery of parts of pre-Romanesque stone plutei, within the Catholic cemetery which was and remains in active use. The architrave, which measures 120.2 x 26 x 13.5 cm, is decorated with the hook and cymation motifs typical of pre-Romanesque sculpture of the early mediaeval period (9th-11th century) in the western Mediterranean region and parts of central and western Europe(5). Though the Latin text is in rustic capitals, taken as a whole the work does not betray the somewhat crude workmanship and content often found on monuments in the Dinaric interior, remote from the immediate influence of urban cultural circles – in this instance, of Split and Trogir, the towns nearest to the site. The text of the inscription is votive, referring to a donation and dedication to the Apostle St Peter:
FERRE DIGNATVS EST AT HONOREM (m) BEATI PETRI AP(ost)LI P(ro) REMEDIO ANIME SVE....
It thus reveals the original dedication of the church to St Peter, as the church in the Rapovine cemetery was known until its demolition in 1683/4(6). The inscription reveals the typical epigraphic expressions that indicate its votive nature, which prays for the soul’s salvation, in the phrase “pro remedio anime sue.”
The architrave is now housed in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, and there is a plaster cast in the Franciscan Museum and Gallery at Gorica in Livno.
Fragments of three different plutei from the altar partition, with interlace ornament belonging to all three, have been found at different times. Two are housed in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, and ten or so in the Franciscan Museum in Livno.
Just one stećak (?)(7), a much damaged and almost shapeless chest-shaped tombstone(8), has been found in the cemetery in Rapovine. The cemetery also contains a large number (over 100) stone crosses dating from the early 18th to the 20th century. In 1888 a memorial to the soldiers of the 4th Battalion, 28th Regiment, was erected.
There are ancient links between the stonemasonry of Livno and Dalmatia. In 1467, Petar Prvičić of Livno is recorded as having studied stonemasonry under Mihovil Mihaljević in Split, and that same year his contemporary, Antun Drastić, also of Livno, was studying under the greatest stonemason of all, Juraj Dalmatinac(9).
The masons who carved the many stećci of Livno remain anonymous. The evolution of tombstones in this region can be readily traced from the stećak to the stele and the cruciform tombstone to the monuments of the 18th and 19th centuries. Most of the burial grounds still in use in this part of the world are on the same sites as mediaeval burial ground. Many tombstones of the 16th to the 19th century have not been published in the literature, nor even recorded.
Two cruciform tombstones(10) with particularly small side arms have survived in Rapovine(11).
Cruciform tombstone no. 1, measuring 100 x 63 x 18 cm, rounded top arms; the east face bears a figure in relief, right hand raised holding an axe, with an upright sword, point down, by his left side.
Cruciform tombstone no. 2, measuring 110 x 65 x 18 cm, damaged, with an axe in relief on the east face.
3. Legal status to date
According to the records of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments the property was listed under the heading “Remains of St Peter’s church with a necropolis of stećak tombstones in the old Roman Catholic cemetery of St Peter. Rapovine, Livno.” The property was not protected by the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
4. Research and conservation-restoration works
Rescue archaeological excavations were carried out in the Catholic cemetery in Rapovine near Livno under the auspices of the Franciscan Museum and Gallery at Gorica, Livno, from 16 to 18 June and 5 to 8 July 2010. Stjepan Jurkić of Livno, whose family tomb is in the old part of the cemetery in Rapovina, notified FMGG Livno and archaeologist Maria Marić Baković of the works he was intending to carry out to restore the family tomb, dating from 1852, and the grave of Vujanović-Cvrk, dating from 1831, and to build a new tomb. As a result, a test pit was opened(12).
Architectural foundations were uncovered in the test pit, which was enlarged as a result. Trench 1 covered the area between the graves of Ivica Jurkić, dating from 1986, to the south, and Jure Bralo, dating from the 1980s, to the north, together with older tombs to the east and west. The trench measured 2.30 x 3.60 m. Cartographic records, historical sources, surviving traditions and some fragments of church furnishings found by chance in the late 19th century and again in the 1970s, suggested that there had been a Catholic church in the cemetery.
Finally, the church known from the relief decorations and titular inscription to have been built in the late 9th and early 10th century, during the time of knez Mutimir and the župan (lord of the county) of Livno Zelimir, to have been dedicated to the Apostle Peter, and to have been demolished around 1685/6, had again seen the light of day. Evidence that this was indeed the church in question was provided by new finds of parts of the church furnishings (fragments of the altar partition) decorated with a triple interlace design. It became clear that the dig needed to be extended wherever possible without damaging the existing graves. Trench 1 had uncovered the foundation wall (wall 1) running east-west, solidly built of monolithic blocks extending eastwards and joining a cross wall running northwards, of poorer construction, on which a monolithic block had been laid. The cut stone blocks of the floor set into the inner (south) side of wall 1 extended into the profile of Ivica Jurkić’s grave. Fragments of a pilaster with interlace decoration were found on this floor. A monolithic block was found below floor level, beside and protruding out from the north profile of the trench. This could have belonged to a grave, but no attempt was made to open it, given the complexity of the site next to the grave of Jure Bralo. The dig in trench 1 was conducted from 16 to 18 June 2010.
While repairing the south (side) wall of the old Jurkić grave of 1852, Stjepan Jurkić had uncovered the foundation wall, and an impost decorated with a cross inscribed in a circle. A site visit was conducted on 30 June 2010, revealing that the tomb was resting on old foundations seemingly related to wall 1 already discovered. A new trench, trench 2, was opened along the length of the tomb. This dig was conducted from 5 to 8 July 2010. Foundation wall 2 ran eastwards between the 1852 Jurkić tomb and a rather later Jurkić tomb extending eastwards, to the north, and the tombs of Vujanović-Crvk (1831) and Mato Kutleša (1833) to the south. The excavated length of wall 2 was 5.60 m, after which point it was found to make a turn, uncovering foundation wall 3 running northwards into the front of the Jurkić tombs of 1852 and 1986, joining wall 1 at a right angle. Again, fragments with interlace decoration were found. To all appearances, this was the west end of the church, where the entrance was probably located. Trench 1 was extended westwards to uncover the junction between walls 1 and 3 with the west profile. The dig was limited by a tomb to the west. Wall 3 had crumbled away to the north, but there were signs that it continued on by the north profile of the trench. After clearing wall 3 by the west profile of the tomb of Ivica Jurkić, it was found that the tomb lay partly over the foundation wall of the church, and a fragment with interlace decoration was found to have been built into the tomb. This was removed, with the permission of Stjepan Jurkić, and was found to consist of a particular section of the altar partition (the pluteus) with a cross motif combined with a rounded and angular interlace. This find provided further corroboration of the claim that these were the foundations of the old Croatian church known to history. The Jurkić family agreed to the exhumation of Ivica Jurkić, who died in 1992, and the relocation of the 1986 family tomb, in the interests of further investigations.
Field notes were taken, surveyors measured the altitude of the entire site, and a technical draftsman produced a site plan. A detailed photographic record of the site was also made at every stage of the excavations. All the movable finds (fragments of the altar partition, architectural fragments, and the odd finds of pottery sherds and nails) were transferred to the FMGG, where they were cleaned and reconstituted, revealing that some of the pieces of stone furnishings fitted together.
The plan is to continue the excavations wherever possible, based on the architecture uncovered so far. Meanwhile, the site has been covered with plastic sheeting, shored up with timber where there was a risk of collapse (by wall 2 and the tombs of Vujanović-Cvrk and Kutleša), and covered with soil(13).
5. Current condition of the property
The findings of an on-site inspection conducted on 30 October 2010 are as follows:
- the foundations of the 9th century church could not be identified with certainty because of the density of recent burials that have probably overlaid them
- a single damaged, shapeless stećak(?) was found
- the mediaeval graves have been destroyed by later burials; where new graves are being dug, human bones from the mediaeval graves have been put in plastic sacks; one human skull was found on the surface between newer graves
- a number of old cruciform tombstones dating from the early 20th century have been incorporated into newer graves of the same family tombs
The findings of an on-site inspection conducted on 9 July 2010 are as follows:
- two trenches were dug under the supervision of archaeologist Marija Matić; also present on site was archaeologist Bernarda Teklić
- the remains of the foundations of the church could be seen in both trenches
- the mediaeval graves that have been destroyed by new burials, and which were visible during an on-site visit conducted on 31 March 2010, can no longer be seen, as new tombs have been built.
6. Specific risks
- contemporary burials endangering and destroying the early mediaeval burial ground,
- public lack of awareness of the importance of this uninvestigated site as an archaeological site.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.v. value of details
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D.iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
E.ii. religious value
G.i. form and design
G.v. location and setting
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan, c.p.248 c.m. Žabljak-Rapovine, plan no: Z30 CXVI 10 C/3, Scale 1:2500, issued on 20.04.2010 by Livno Municipality, Department of Proprietary Rights, Geodetics and Cadastral Affairs, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Transcript of title deed no. 82,c.m. Rapovine, issued on 21.05.2004 by the Department of Geodetics and Proprietary Rights, Cadastre and Geodetics section, Livno Municipality
- Photographs taken on 31 March 2010 by archaeological Silvana Čobanov, using Canon 1000D digital camera
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1994 Delenga, Vedrana. “Latinski epigrafički spomenici starohrvatske županije Livno” (Latin epigraphical monuments of the old Croatian county of Livno) in Livanjski kraj u povijesti (Livno region in the past). Split-Livno: 1994
1999 Milošević, Ante. “Predgovor” (Foreword), in Arheološka zbirka Franjevačkog muzeja u Livnu (Archaeological collection of the Franciscan museum in Livno). Split: 1999
1999 Petrinec, Maja. “Srednjovjekovno razdoblje” (Mediaeval period), in Arheološka zbirka Franjevačkog muzeja u Livnu (The archaeological collection of the Franciscan Museum in Livno). Split: 1999
2010 Marić Baković, Marija. Izvješće o rezultatima arheološkog iskopavanja na lokalitetu Rapovine, Katoličko groblje (Report on the findings of the archaeological excavations at Rapovine, Catholic cemetery). 2010
(1) Maja Petrinec, “Srednjovjekovno razdoblje” in Arheološka zbirka Franjevačkog muzeja u Livnu, Split: 1999, 32.
(2) The historic site of the fort in Livno (Bistrički fort) was designated as a national monument at the Commission’s 15th session, held from 6 to 10 July 2004.
(3) For more historical information see the decision by the Commission designating the archaeological site of Rešetarica with the remains of an early Christian basilica, two necropolises and movable heritage, Livno Municipality, FBiH, Official Gazette of BiH no. 89/09
(4) Marić Baković Marija, Izvješće o rezultatima arheološkog iskopavanja na lokalitetu Rapovine, Katoličko groblje, 2010, 3
(5) Vedrana Delonga, “Srednjovjekovno razdoblje” in Livanjski kraj u povijesti, 1994, 84. See also F. Radić, “Izvješće o radu Hrvatskog starinarskog društva u Kninu,” Starohrvatska prosvjeta, yr, IV, issue no. 1, Knin 1898, 40
(6) Vedrana Delonga, op.cit., 84. See also F. Radić, “Izvješće o radu Hrvatskog starinarskog društva u Kninu,” Starohrvatska prosvjeta, yr, IV, issue no. 1, Knin 1898, 40
(7) The masons who made many of Livno's stećak tombstones remain anonymous. The evolution of the tombstones from the stećak through the stela and the cruciform tombstones known as krstača to the tombstones of the 18th and 19th centuries can clearly be seen in this part of the world. Most of the cemeteries still in use in the area are on the same sites as mediaeval burial grounds. Many of the 16th-19th century tombstones have yet to be recorded and described in the literature.
(8) It is clear from letter ref. 07-40-4-1508-1/10 of 14.04.2010 from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport that there was formerly a greater number of stećak tombstones, as revealed by the heading under which the property was listed (Remains of St Peter’s church with a necropolis of stećak tombstones in the old Roman Catholic cemetery of St Peter. Rapovine, Livno).
(9) Stipo Manđeralo, Gospodari kamena, Livanjsko klesarstvo devetnaestog vijeka, Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1987, 12
(10) Stipo Manđeralo, op.cit., Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1987, 18
(11) These cruciform tombstones were not identified during the on-site visit
(12) Marić Baković Marija, Izvješće o rezultatima arheološkog iskopavanja na lokalitetu Rapovine, Katoličko groblje, 2010, 2
(13) Marić Baković Marija, Izvješće o rezultatima arheološkog iskopavanja na lokalitetu Rapovine, Katoličko groblje, 2010, 3