Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the Official Gazette of BiH, no. 53/11.
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held on 26 October 2010 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The architectural ensemble of the Monument on Mt Makljen, Municipality Prozor – Rama, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the monument to the wounded with access paths and surrounding meadows.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as part of cadastral plot no. 8/9 (old survey) CHECK – OLD SURVEY NOT ENTERED ON TITLE DEED, cadastral municipality Prozor II, corresponding to c.p. nos. 1578 and 1579 (new survey), title deed no. 329, c.m. Gmići, Municipality Prozor - Rama Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation, restoration, rehabilitation and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:
- all works are prohibited other than conservation-restoration works, works designed to rehabilitate the property, works designed to ensure the sustainable use of the property, and works designed to display the National Monument, subject to the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
- a geomechanical survey of the soil shall be conducted;
- a statics-structural analysis of the reinforced concrete skeleton surviving the damage to the property shall be conducted and a study drawn up for the statics-structural repair of the monument with a proposal for measures to protect the property;
- on completion of the analyses a rehabilitation project shall be drawn up for the reconstruction of the monument in its original form;
- all works that could be detrimental to the National Monument are prohibited, as is the erection of temporary facilities or permanent structures not designed solely for the protection and presentation of the National Monument;
- the National Monument may be used for its original purpose and its presentation for educational and cultural purposes in a manner that will not compromise the National Monument and its natural surroundings;
- the access paths shall be made good without detriment to their original appearance and the complex shall be landscaped.
All executive and area development planning acts are hereby revoked to the extent that they are not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.kons.gov.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović and Ljiljana Ševo.
26 October 2010
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 26 August 2010 Emir Bičakčić of Sarajevo submitted a proposal/petition to designate the property as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the property as a national monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
Statement of Significance
The monument on Mt Makljen is dedicated to the battle for the wounded that took place in 1943. It is a fine work of sculpture in the regional and the international context. The monument sculpture, the work of the artist Boško Kućanski of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created to commemorate a major event in the anti-fascist war of liberation. Boško Kućanski is one of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s greatest 20th century artists. A full-time professor at the Faculty of Dentistry and part-time professor at the Fine Arts Academy of the University of Sarajevo, he has received many awards and accolades for his art – over 60 in all, including the Sixth of April Award of the City of Sarajevo (1971), the Grand Prix at the 2nd Biennale internationale de la petite sculpture in Budapest, the Award of the Association of German Artists (1987), and the Grand Prix at the Collegium Artisticum/Artists' Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina exhibition in 2001. He is a full member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the UNESCO Association Internationale des Arts Plastique. In terms of style, the form, concept and materialization of the monument embody the principles of Modernism as well as of contemporary monumental architecture. The monument also consists of the access paths and natural surroundings of meadows and clumps of trees.
II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs.
- Details of the damage inflicted in 2000.
- An inspection of the current condition of the property.
- Excerpts from the cadastral records and title deed.
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
Pursuant to Article 12 of the Law on the Implementation of Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments Established Pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the following procedures were carried out for the purpose of designating the property as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina:
- A letter ref. 04.1-35.2-10/10-166 of 06.09.2010 requesting documentation and views on the designation of the architectural ensemble of the monument to the Battle for the Wounded on Mt Makljen was sent to the History Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (owner of the property), the Federal Ministry of Regional Planning and the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport.
- A letter ref 04.1-35.2-10/10-166 of 06. 9. 2010 was sent to Prozor/Rama Municipality requesting excerpts from the cadastral records and title deed for the architectural ensemble of the Monument to the Battle for the Wounded on Mt Makljen.
- The owner (the History Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina/Museum of the Revolution of BiH) replied by letter dated 21 September 1010 expressing support for the designation of the property as a national monument.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The architectural ensemble stands by the Prozor and Gornji Vakuf road, on the summit of Mt Makljen (altitude 1,123 m), 6.5 km as the crow flies from the town of Prozor. Access to the monument is from the north-west, via stone paths and steps.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as part of cadastral plot no. 8/9 (old survey), title deed no. 329, cadastral municipality Prozor II, Municipality Prozor - Rama, corresponding to c.p. nos. 1578 and 1579 (new survey), c.m. Gmići, Municipality Prozor - Rama Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The monument on Mt Makljen is a monument relating to the anti-fascist national war of liberation (1941-1945) during World War II. The site where it stands, Mt Makljen, is significant for the battle fought there in February 1943, at a time when the Supreme Command of the peoples’ liberation movement (later the Yugoslav National Army) had given the order that German troops from Bugojno should be prevented from reaching the central hospital where the wounded were being treated. The Battle for the Wounded, as it became known, is one of the most famous events of the fourth offensive.
The monument was created to a design (drawings and concept) by the artist Boško Kućanski (Krbavica, Lika, 29 May 1931)(1), and opened to the public on 12 November 1978. Prof. Greta Ferušić B.Arch. and Prof. Svetozar Bogunović B.Civ.Eng. were charged with the execution of the monument, and Marušić Dušan B.Civ.Eng. was responsible for the execution of the access paths and platform. The monument was erected on a previously registered site.
Before 1992 the maintenance of the monument and the access paths was handed over to Prozor Municipality by the Museum of the Revolution in Sarajevo (now the History Museum of BiH). The reason given by the Museum management was that the Culture Fund had curtailed the funds earmarked for the maintenance of the monument(2).
The monument was blown up during the night of 12/13 November 2000. The case remains unresolved(3).
1. Description of the property
Access paths and platform.
The artist’s design provided for a footpath 2.50 wide leading up a gentle slope from the road in the valley to the platform paved with rectangular flagstones where the sculpture stands. The path is paved with concrete and crazy paving laid in a grid pattern on a base of sand (5-8 cm) and aggregate (20 cm)(4).
Traditional mythology and history often form the inspiration for Boško Kućanski’s creations, as in the case of the monument on Mt Makljen. The sculpture of the memorial complex on Mt Makljen is a synthesis of indeterminate form using white artificial stone and measuring 12.40 x 15 x 11.20 m, inspired by the struggle for national liberation and the humane reasons for which the Battle for the Wounded was fought. As regards dynamism and source of form, Boško Kućanski’s sculptures are in the Vorticist tradition(5). A model of the monument, to be known as Pesnica(6), was made in terracotta in 1961. Except for a reduction in size of the lower part of the monument, the memorial as finally executed differed little from the model. The artist paid particular attention to ensuring that the monument blended in with its setting, reflecting the principles of contemporary memorial architecture.
The structural system of the monument was designed so that the main bearing system consisted of an inner reinforced concrete skeleton of posts and beams with a transverse reinforced concrete slab. Two intersecting concrete screens were laid in the middle of the structure to receive the horizontal forces caused by wind and seismic activity. The outer skin of the structure was in two layers – an inner reinforced concrete layer with a minimum thickness of 12 cm and an outer layer of concrete 8 cm thick. No rebars were used in the outer layer, to which secondary mouldings were subsequently added(7).
Prior to its destruction the interior of the monument consisted of two stages/storeys with the entrance to the west.
3. Legal status to date
The records of the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of BiH reveal that the property was listed and protected under the heading “Vilića guvno” on Mt Makljen(8). Under the terms of the ruling on registration of 1950 the memorial site of Vilića guvno, where the Monument to the Battle for the Wounded on Mt Makljen was erected in 1978, was protected as a memorial site dating from the period of the socialist revolution, with an area of 600,000 m2.
4. Research and conservation-restoration works
No details are known of any investigative or conservation-restoration works on the memorial complex at any time.
5. Current condition of the property
The destruction of the monument by explosives has resulted in the loss of the outer skin, which also created the sculptural form of the monument, leaving only the structure of reinforced concrete beams. The monument on Mt Makljen may be regarded as completely destroyed, given that explosives were used to blow it up and that as a result the surviving components are unusable.
The paths and plateaux are also at risk from neglect.
6. Specific risks
- Lack of maintenance
- Adverse effects of the elements.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
F. Townscape value
F.i. relation to other elements of the site
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.i. form and design
G.ii. material and content
G.iii. use and function
G.v. location and setting
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Ownership documentation
- Excerpt – transcript of title deed no. 329 for cadastral plot no. 8/9 (old survey), c.m. Prozor II, Municipality Prozor – Rama, issued 27 August 2010.
- Details of plot no. 1578 (new survey), c.m. Gmići, Municipality Prozor – Rama, issued 27 August 2010.
- Letter from the History Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina dated 21 September 2010.
- Documentation on previous protection of the property
- Letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport ref. 07-40-4-3666-1/10 of 8 September 2010.
- Photographs of the architectural ensemble of the Monument to the Wounded on Mt Makljen taken on 27 August by art historian Aida Bucalović using Canon – EOS – 450D digital camera.
- Other documentation
- Statics computation with construction plans; rebar drawing (Institute for Architecture and Urbanism of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Sarajevo, June 1977, Prof. Greta Ferušić B.Arch. and Prof. Svetozar Bogunović B.Civ.Eng.)
- Bill of quantities and cost estimate for the construction of the monument on Mt Makljen (Institute for Architecture and Urbanism of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Sarajevo, June 1977, senior lecturer Đorđe Mesarević B.Arch.)
- Working project for the monument on Mt Makljen: I, paths and platforms, II electricity and sound system Institute for Architecture and Urbanism of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Sarajevo, June 1977, Marušić Dušan, B.Civ.Eng. and Rešidbegović Nedžad, B.El.Eng.)
During the procedure to designate the property as a national monument the following works were consulted:
1962 Protection authority. “Zaštićeni spomenici Narodno-oslobodilačkog rata” (Protected monuments of the war of national liberation), Naše starine, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of NR Bosnia and Herzegovina, VIII. Sarajevo: 1962, 244-245
1979 Jokić, Gojko. Neretva – Makljen. Belgrade: BIGZ, 1979
1987 Likovna enciklopedija Jugoslavije (Art encyclopaedia of Yugoslavia) 2 K-Rem. Zagreb: Jugoslavenski leksikografski zavod “Miroslav Krleža,” 1987
1991 Various authors. Boško Kućanski. Ljubljana: Mladinska Knjiga, 1991
2000 “Uništen spomenik partizanima” (Monument to Partisans destroyed), Oslobođenje, 14.11.2000.
2008 Hadžimuhamedović, Fehim. Tekst o slici, Umjetnost kao kultura u nastajanju (A text about the image. Art as culture in the making). Sarajevo – Zagreb: Naklada ZORO, 2008
(1) Graduated from Faculty of Dentistry in Belgrade (1958) and Faculty of Medicine in Sarajevo (1972). Studied art history at the Faculty of the Humanities in Belgrade. Has spent time in Italy, France, Hungary, Spain, USA and Canada pursuing his artistic activites. Exhibited from 1947 on. A frequent source of inspiration for his sculpture was totemic and folklore tradition, while the materials he mostly favoured were stone, wood and fishing line. Among Boško Kućanski's major works are Ilinden, 1974; Skadar na Bojani, 1972; Mala zadužbina, 1980; Bedemi, 1982. His works range from monumental architectural monuments to small sculptures in terracotta. See Likovna enciklopedija Jugoslavije, 2 K-Rem, Zagreb: Jugoslavenski leksikografski zavod “Miroslav Krleža,” 1987, 152; Fehim Hadžimuhamedović, Tekst o slici, Umjetnost kao kultura u nastajanju, Sarajevo – Zagreb: Naklada ZORO, 2008, 146.
(2) Letter from the History Museum of BiH (Museum of the Revolution of BiH) of 21. 09. 2010.
(3) “Uništen spomenik partizanima,” Oslobođenje, 14.11.2000.
(4) Working project for the monument on Mt Makljen: I paths and platforms, II electricity and sound system, Sarajevo: Institute for Architecture and Urbanism of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, June 1977, Marušić Dušan, B.Civ.Eng. and Rešidbegović Nedžad, B.El.Eng., 7-8.
(5) A British avant-garde artistic movement founded before World War I based on futurist and cubist principles.
(6) The name Pesnica, “the fist,” meaning Tito’s fist, was the name used by the general public.
(7) Statics computation with construction plans; rebar drawing (Institute for Architecture and Urbanism of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Sarajevo, June 1977, Prof. Greta Ferušić B.Arch. and Prof. Svetozar Bogunović B.Civ.Eng.)
(8) Location: NOO Prozor. NOS Mostar, c.m. Laisunj-Prozor, under heading Palska forest, property of ONI Forestry Authority Prozor, c.m. broj: 1/134, title deed no: 114. Protection Authority, “Protected monuments of the War of National Liberation,” Naše starine, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of NR Bosnia and Herzegovina, VIII, Sarajevo: 1962, 244-245.