Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held on 26 October 2010 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic building of the Emerich Pascolo Villa in Banja Luka is hereby designated as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 3246 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. 827/2 (old survey), title deed no. 3922/8, Land Register entry no. 182, cadastral municipality Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02, 70/06 and 64/08) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up notice boards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:
- investigative and conservation-restoration works, routine maintenance works, works designed for the presentation of the monument and works designed to ensure the sustainable use of the property, including interior works, are permitted, subject to the approval of the ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);
- during structural repair, conservation and restoration works, original materials and binders shall be used wherever possible;
- the property may be adapted to bring it into line with modern requirements (installation of central heating and other interior works) provided that the stylistic features of the building are retained and subject to the approval of the relevant ministry and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority;
- the grounds shall be laid out on the basis of documentation on their original condition.
All executive and area development planning acts are hereby revoked to the extent that they are not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of Republika Srpska, the relevant ministry, the heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II – V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.kons.gov.ba).
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović and Ljiljana Ševo.
26 October 2010
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 30 September 2003 a group of citizens of Banja Luka submitted a petition to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to designate the Pascolo House in Banja Luka as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 10 June 2004 the City of Banja Luka and the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska submitted a petition to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to designate the Pascolo Villa in Banja Luka as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pursuant to the petition, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
Statement of Significance
The Emerich Pascolo Villa in Banja Luka is a fine example of a single-family luxury home from between the two world wars. In addition to its high-quality accommodation, it is of notable townscape value, and stands in its own well-designed grounds. Its design reveals the influence of Modernism, but the rustic decorations on the façades and the shape of the roof suggest other influences. The property is now derelict and unoccupied, but remains in good structural condition.
II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- documentation on the location of the property and the current owner and occupants (copy of cadastral plan and Land Register entry)
- data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision
- the owner of the property, Brane Janković, and the City of Banja Luka, were approached on 17 February 2010 requesting their views in writing on the designation of the property as a national monument (letter ref. 07.3-35.2-10/10-18)
- on 24 February 2010 the owner of the property, Brane Janković, replied in writing to letter ref. 07.3-35.2-10/10-18, stating that while he appreciated the work of the Commission, he did not think it necessary to grant protected status to the house, since the house is maintained under the regulatory plan, and there are many properties of greater significance that are worthy of protection. In addition, he expressed the view that the house should no longer be known by the name of its original owners.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The Emerich Pascolo Villa in Banja Luka stands in its own grounds in the centre of town, at the corner of no. 38 Grčka Street and Jovan Dučić Avenue. To the north is the part of the city known as Nova Varoš, while Banski dvori, the government buildings, are 370 m to the east.
The historic building is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 3246 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. 827/2 (old survey), title deed no. 3922/8, Land Register entry no. 182, cadastral municipality Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Grčka Street(1) in Banja Luka began to take shape in the Austro-Hungarian period, when it formed the main cross artery linking the east and west parts of the city(2). The Austro-Hungarian authorities did much to develop the centre of Banja Luka and the zone to the immediate north, known as Varoš(3). Following extension works on the Bosna Hotel and its modernization to become the first representative European-style hotel in 1895(4), and the laying of the Carski drum road linked to Grčka Street, the entire quarter gained considerable importance in the urban structure of Banja Luka. The development of the area was given further impetus when a branch railway line was laid and a railway station was built on the street itself. There was already an old Catholic cemetery with a chapel near Grčka Street, featuring on geodetic maps dating from 1874 and 1884, and detached houses with gardens of the kind typical of the Austro-Hungarian period were built alongside the cemetery(5). The growing number of residents also meant that a primary school was needed, and one was duly built in Grčka Street in 1912(6).
During the interwar period more houses were built in Grčka Street. Two large houses were built at the corner of the street and Jovan Dučić Avenue(7), financed by members of the Pascolo family(8): one for George Pascolo on one corner of Grčka Street, built in the 1930s to a design by Suljaga Salihagić(9), an architect from Banja Luka who favoured the Modernist style, who was also commissioned to build the house, and the other, Emerich Pascolo’s Villa, on the opposite corner, on a vacant site that was turned into a magnificent garden. It is not known who designed the Emerich Pascolo villa, but in any event it was one of a number of luxury detached houses with garden built in Banja Luka between the wars, along with those of the veterinary surgeon Ignacije Laslo and Dr. Branko Popović, dating from 1925, and Mihajlo Plančak, built in 1932-33 to a design by Suljaga Salihagić. Also belonging to this group are Špiro Bocarić’s house, built in 1932 to a design by Josip Soravija, Hinko Kale’s, dating from 1933 and designed by Marin Bezić, and the Radovanović-Bilbija family house. Other houses in the Modernist style were that of the Bukinac family, dating from 1935, and the endowment of the Pantić brothers, built in 1939(10). What distinguishes the Emerich Pascolo house is that though the design was influenced by Modernism, it was also influenced by the ideas of earlier periods.(11)
The erection of buildings in Banja Luka between the two world wars, including the Emerich Pascolo Villa, should be seen in the wider historical context. The founding of the Vrbas Banate in 1929 led to rapid changes to the architecture and urban features of Banja Luka, which finally began to turn into a dynamic modern centre. The city’s most impressive public buildings were erected over a few short years (the government and administrative buildings, the Orthodox Saborna [Cathedral] church of the Holy Trinity, the Mortgage Bank, the Sokol Athletics Centre, and the National Theatre)(12), and great attention was also paid to the construction of various types of housing. During the interwar period, indeed, most designs were for housing(13), revealing the advent of new ideas in architecture, particular in urban areas. Exposure to the sun, open views, contact with the greenery of city parks and streets, designing flats and houses in which the rooms formed a functional entity with the shortest possible corridors or communicating doors between the rooms: these constituted the elements that marked a significant advance in this branch of architecture.
During the early interwar period, residential properties continued to be built as they were under the Austro-Hungarians. In the later years(14), the changing lifestyle began to have an impact. The younger generation of architects, trained in progressive central European schools of architecture, were emphatic that everything needed to organize the home should be to the human scale, and that living quarters should be suitable not only for entertaining but also for work, leisure and recreation. The basic characteristics of this later interwar period were the rejection of all pseudo-styles, the design of buildings to reflect their interior functions, the use of large windows, and the expression of structure.(15)
After World War II, the heirs of Emerich Pascolo(16) continued living in his villa, though the rest of their property was nationalized. After the Catholic cemetery and chapel were destroyed at that time to make way for the Braća Pavlić Primary School, and above all following the destruction of several fine properties after the 1969 earthquake, Grčka Street lost much of its townscape value.(17)
In May 1992 the property underwent a partial change of use, when the British Consulate was housed in the north-west part of the building. The owners of the property at that time, the descendants of Petronela Badić, agreed to the change of use from residential to diplomatic of part of the building(18), which remained in mixed use throughout the 1992-1995 war. The consulate continued to occupy it until 1999, when the building was vandalized. Later, on 26 December 2003, the heirs, members of the Pascolo family, sold the damaged building(19); the new owner is maintaining the grounds of the now vacant building.
2. Description of the property
The villa, which stands in a large garden, has spacious terraces, reception rooms, mansard bedrooms, separate service quarters with their own entrance and ample cellar space, as befits a luxury home, and is characterized by the use of reinforced concrete.
The building is polygonal in plan, measuring 23.28 x 19.83 m, and has three storeys – basement, ground and mansard(20) – with a total height to the ridge of the gabled roof of 8.50 m. The main entrance is a double-valved door of 153 x 220 cm to the south; the building also has two back doors on the north side, facing onto a polygonal terrace(21).
In plan, the building consists of two wings, a larger west wing of 19.83 x 12.93 m and a smaller east wing of 11.90 x 8.36 m, linked by a central entrance hall of 4.10 x 9.90 m forming part of the west wing.
The east wing consists of a reception room with interior measurements of 10.95 x 4.80 m, and a north hallway of 11.40 x 1.40 m, linking the entrance hall to the west and a polygonal room to the east, which has a semicircular bay with a diameter of 3.25 m on its north side. The hall is lit by two windows of 195 x 80 cm facing onto the north terrace(22), and is connected to the room to the south by five openings of various widths from 95 to 223 cm.
The west wing consists of a reception room of 5.23 x 16.58 m to the south-west and service quarters with interior measurements of 6.17 x 7.43 m to the north-east.
The reception room consists of a smaller south section of 5.23 x 6.12 m, with a step down to the larger north section of 5.23 x 10.46 m. The south section opens onto the entrance hall through a doorway of 1.15 x 2.20 m, and is lit by five windows of 120 x 140 cm on a semicircular bay with a diameter of 4.00 m to the south. The north section of the reception room opens onto the entrance hall through doorways of 1.74 x 2.30 m and 1.15 x 2.30 m, and onto the service wing through a doorway of 1.06 x 2.20 m.
The service quarters include the kitchen and a small pantry, and a room used as a bathroom, as well as a separate staircase down to the cellar and up to the mansard. The kitchen measures 2.54 x 1.75 m, and the bathroom 1.87 x 1.75 m.
Parallel with the wall separating the reception room to the west from the service quarters is the first flight of a four-flight staircase with a width of 1.05 m, leading from the ground floor to the mansard. Only two wooden cross-beams above the large room in the west wing can be seen, with the indications of a brick floor structure, but the area is not fit to enter. At this level were bedrooms, living rooms and box rooms occupying an area equivalent to the west reception room on the ground floor. The area is lit by three windows of 80 x 140 cm on the north side, an oculus with a diameter of 110 cm on the south side, and a roof light to the east.
An L-shaped staircase, 1.05 m in width, leads from the ground floor service quarters down to the cellar. The top flight of this staircase is right next to the back door, making the outside terrace through which stores were delivered the shortest way down to the cellar with its large storerooms. The cellar corresponds in size to the east wing of the ground floor, the entrance hall and the eastern part of the service quarters.
The treatment of the façades reveals that the designer was influenced by Modernism, even though the decorative elements were designed with other influences in mind. The wide windows, plain geometry and light colours of the render on the façades clearly suggest Modernism, whereas the high stone socle faced in random stone, the decorative features on the side façades and the dormer windows are not Modernist features. The main south and west façades have wooden louvres on the windows; those of the north and east façades, facing onto the terraces, have black metal grilles.
The south entrance façade of the building, facing Grčka Street, is composed of a projecting east section and recessed west section. The east section consists of a 2.10 m high socle, with three basement windows of 140 x 60 cm, in the axis of which above are windows of 225 x 140 cm (the middle window) and 310 x 140 cm (the two side windows). The double-valved entrance door is in the west section of the south façade, in the gable wall. The semicircular bay of the ground-floor reception room has its own separate roof which also extends over the entrance, forming a porch, where it rests on two massive piers with a diameter of 35 cm.
The west façade has windows of 315 x 140 cm and three of 1.20 x 1.40 m on a trapezoidal jutty. To the south is the semicircular bay of the reception room, and opposite is the jutty of the service quarters, where there is a round window with a diameter of 100 cm.
The south gable wall is prominent on the east façade, with a round attic window of 80 cm in diameter; to the north the façade is set back, with two windows of 70 x 140 cm, a three-light window of 185 x 140 cm, and an entrance doorway of 310 x 220 cm. Above this, at attic level, is a triangular dormer window with a base of 100 cm.
Midway along the projecting section of the north façade is the round window of the service quarters, with a diameter of 100 cm, with above it at mansard level three windows of 80 x 140 cm. At the easternmost end is a semicircular bay with a round window, 100 cm in diameter, surrounded by a random stone facing matching that of the socle.
As regards materials, the building was constructed of reinforced concrete, with brick infill in the exterior and interior walls. The socle is faced in random stone, the exterior woodwork and louvres are of wood, and the side façades have metal window bars. The ceiling joists between the cellar and ground floor are of reinforced concrete, while the mansard floor is of solid wooden beams with brick between. The gabled roofs of both wings, like the secondary roofs, are timber-framed, and the roof cladding is of beaver-tail tiles. Both interior staircases are of concrete construction; the one leading down to the cellar is clad with tiles. The outside walls are 60 cm thick, and inside are walls of 60 cm, 40 cm and 30 cm in thickness. The ceiling height in the basement is 2.40 m, the ground floor ceilings 3.20 and 3.37 m high, and the mansard has headroom of 2.70 m at its highest point. The overall height of the building to the ridge of the gabled roof of the west wing is 8.50 m, and to that of the east wing is 6.50 m.
3. Legal status to date
According to the available information, the Pascolo Villa in Banja Luka was listed in the register of cultural monuments by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Nature of Banja Luka under the category “Properties of Monument Value.”(23)
In the current regulatory plan for Banja Luka, Centar 2 ward, Centre-West area, adopted in 2007(24), the Pascolo villa is treated as “Existing Detached Residential Property”, consisting of a ground and mansard storey. In October 2007 a report was drawn up for the same urban plan for the City of Banja Luka, entitled “Conditions for the Preservation, Maintenance and use of Properties and Determining Protection Measures,” in which the property is listed as a cultural property(25) in protection zone 1.(26)
4. Research and conservation-restoration works
There is very little documentation on investigative or conservation-restoration works on the Emerich Pascolo Villa in Banja Luka. It is not known whether any such works were carried out between its erection and World War II. No major alterations were carried out to the property between 1945 and 1992, and routine maintenance works were carried out on a regular basis.
In mid 1992 the property underwent a change of use from residential to consular. The northernmost part of the large ground-floor room of the west wing(27), measuring 5.65 x 5.60 m overall including the outside walls, was partitioned off, and part of the service quarters also became part of the consular premises, as did part of the mansard above. The living room of the east wing was also divided by two cross walls, creating three small rooms out of the one large one, the smallest room, in the middle, becoming a bathroom.(28)
Since 1998, when the property was vandalized, the only works carried out have related to the routine maintenance of the garden.
5. Current condition of the property
The Emerich Pascolo villa in Banja Luka is now derelict and unoccupied. The interior has been vandalized, and is unfit for habitation. The structure, façades and roof cladding are in good condition, but the exterior woodwork, including the wooden louvres, is damaged, and the interior woodwork has been completely destroyed. The exterior woodwork of the side entrance leading from the north terrace to the entrance hall has been stripped, so that anyone can enter the building. The mansard floor has been completely destroyed, leaving only the wooden cross-beams and one bearing reinforced concrete beam over the reception room of the west wing. The ceiling slab between the cellar and the ground floor of the east wing has been broken through, and all the wooden floor coverings have been stripped, leaving the bare structure. The garden is immaculately maintained.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.i. quality of workmanship
C.ii. quality of materials
C.vi. value of construction
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.i. relation to other elements of the site
G.i. form and design
G.ii. material and content
G.v. location and setting
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Ownership documentation:
- Copy of cadastral plan 3246, c.m. Banja Luka (new survey), plan no. BL - 83; scale 1:1000, issued on 14.10.2009 by the Geodetics and Proprietary Rights Authority, Banja Luka branch.
- Title deed no. 3922/8 for plot 3246, c.m. Banja Luka, (new survey), issued on 24.09.2009 by the Geodetics and Proprietary Rights Authority, Banja Luka branch.
- Land Register entry for plot 827/2, c.m. Banjaluka, Land Register entry no. 182 (old survey), order no. 26088/0 of 14.10.2009, issued by the Land Registry Office of the Magistrates’ Court in Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Documentation on previous protection of the property:
- Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić. Valorizacija kulturno-istorijskog i prirodnog naslijeđa sa mjerama zaštite za izradu Regulacionog plana Banjaluke - Prostor između ulica Lenjina, Krajiških brigada, Bulevara revolucije, Braće Lastića, N. Tesle i A. Šeremeta. Banja Luka: Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Nature of Banja Luka, October, 1992.
- Report: “Conditions for the Preservation, Maintenance and use of Properties and Determining Protection Measures,” Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of the Ministry of Education and Culture of Republika Srpska. Banja Luka: 2007.
- Photographs of the Pascolo house in Banja Luka taken on 23 February 2010 by architect Adi Ćorović using Sony DSC – H10 digital camera.
- Technical documentation:
- Regulator Plan, Centar 2 ward, Centre-West area, October 2007 -http://www.banjaluka.rs.ba/front/article/1774/ 24.02.2010.
- Drawing of the Pascolo house in Banja Luka by Nermina Katkić, 23.02.2010.
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1992 Documentation of the Municipal Secretariat for Area Planning and Utilities of Banja Luka Council no. 11-364-797/92, 13 May 1992
1992 Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić. Valorizacija kulturno-istorijskog i prirodnog naslijeđa sa mjerama zaštite za izradu Regulacionog plana Banjaluke - Prostor između ulica Lenjina, Krajiških brigada, Bulevara revolucije, Braće Lastića, N. Tesle i A. Šeremeta (According Value to the Cultural, Historical and natural Heritage with Protection Measures, for the Regulatory Plan for Banja Luka – area between Lenjin Street, Krajiški Brigada Street, Bulevard revolucije, Braće Lastić Street, N. Tesla Street and A. Šeremet Street). Banja Luka: Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Nature, October, 1992
1997 Milošević, Predrag. Arhitektura u kraljevini Jugoslaviji (Sarajevo 1918-1941) (Architecture in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia [Sarajevo 1918-1941]). Foča: Prosvjeta, 1997
2004 Đorđe Mikić. Banja Luka – kultura građanskog društva (Banja Luka – the Culture of Civil Society). Banja Luka: Historical Institute, 2004
2006 Vidaković, Siniša. Arhitektura javnih objekata u Banjaluci (1918 – 1941) (Architecture of Public Edifices in Banja Luka [1918-1941]). Banja Luka: Academy of Art of RS, 2006
2010 http://www.arhivrs.org/Upload/Udruzenje/3_1_2010_5_Glasnik_br1_02.pdf 16.02.2010.
(1) Until the 1992-1995 war in BiH the street was called Strossmayer Street
(2) The historical continuity of the street is corroborated by the first geodetic map of 1878, indicating that the same street was already in existence previously. Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić, Valorizacija kulturno-istorijskog i prirodnog naslijeđa sa mjerama zaštite za izradu Regulacionog plana Banjaluke - Prostor između ulica Lenjina, Krajiških brigada, Bulevara revolucije, Braće Lastića, N. Tesle i A. Šeremeta (Banja Luka: Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Nature of Banja Luka, 1992)
(3) Verica Stošić and Zoran Mačkić, Banjaluka koje ima i nema (Banja Luka: publ. Zoran Mačkić, 2004)
(4) Vidaković, Siniša, Arhitektura javnih objekata u Banjaluci (1918 – 1941) (Banja Luka: Art Academy of RS, 2006), 127.
(5) The Pišteljić family house, built at that time, is still extant
(6) Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić, op.cit., October, 1992.
(7) Between the wars the street was known as Vojvoda Stepa Avenue, and after World War II it was named Braće Pavlić Street
(8) The original family surname in Italian was Pascquolo - Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić, op.cit., October, 1992.
(9) Đorđe Mikić, Banja Luka – kultura građanskog društva (Banja Luka: Historical Institute, 2004)
(10) Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić, op.cit., October, 1992.
(11) It was not uncommon in the 1920s and 1930s for architect-designers trained in the Modernist school to be compelled to compromise with those commissioning their works, and to give their Modernist designs an “academic mantle.” Decision of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments designating the historic building of the National (Central) Bank in Sarajevo as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina, adopted at a session held from 1 to 6 December 2009 in Sarajevo.
(12) Vidaković, Siniša, op.cit, 2006, 7.
(13) Predrag Milošević, Arhitektura u kraljevini Jugoslaviji (Sarajevo 1918-1941) (Foča: Prosvjeta, 1997), 133.
(14) This period began in 1926, though architecture drawing on the previous period continued to feature throughout the interwar period. Predrag Milošević, op.cit., 1997, 135.
(15) Predrag Milošević, op.cit, 1997; Jakob Finci, Razvoj dispozicije i funkcije u stambenoj kulturi Sarajeva (Sarajevo: Housing Authority of SR BiH, 1963), 42
(16) Emerich Pascolo (Graz, 25.8.1880 – Banja Luka, 22.7.1957), industrialist in Banja Luka to 1945, owner of the Palace Hotel and of the Märzl & Co flour mill.
Emerich-Mirko Pascolo (Banja Luka, 23.6.1904-15.2.1981), owner of a brick works in Banja Luka to 1945, son of Emerich Pascolo
The Pascolo family was a reputable Banja Luka family of Italian origin. Most Italians who came to Banja Luka were from their colony in Mahovljani, from Stivor near Prnjavor, or from the Lipika area - http://www.cafekajak.com/Forum/forum.pl?msg=3983 11. 02.2010.
(17) Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić, op.cit., October, 1992.
(18) Documentation of the Municipal Secretariat for Area Planning and Utilities of Banja Luka council no. 11-364-797/92 of 13.05.1992.
(19) Letter from the owner of the property, Brane Janković, dated 24.02.2010.
(20) Translator's note: it is not clear from the photograph of the building found on the internet (http://www.iu-rs.com/Engleska/Residential_architecture.html) that this is a mansard in the original sense of the word, since a mansard roof proper, whether hipped or gabled, becomes steeper partway down. An alternative term for mansards in the meaning of rooms or apartments in such a roof is garret, but this seems inappropriate for what is described as a luxury villa. I have therefore retained the word “mansard” used in the original of this decision.
(21) One entrance of 90 x 220 cm lead into the service quarters to the north, and the other, of 310 x 240 cm, to the east, into the main entrance hall.
(22) The terrace measures 11.00 x 4.80 m, with a semicircular bay with a diameter of 3.75 m to the north-east. An exterior staircase to the north and another to the south, each 1.70 m wide, lead down into the garden. The terrace has a railing 1.00 m in height, consisting of a horizontal metal bar resting on substantial concrete posts, 25 x 25 cm in section.
(23) Sabira Husedžinović MSc, Jelena Kadić, op.cit., October, 1992.
(24) Official Gazette of the City of Banja Luka no.2/07 – letter from the head of the Department of Urban Planning for the City of Banja Luka, ref.03-364-477/10 of 23.02.2010.
(25) Letter from the head of the Department of Urban Planning for the City of Banja Luka, ref.03-364-477/10 of 23.02.2010.
(26) The prescribed general measures are restoration, retention of existing footprint, and routine maintenance. Letter from the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of the Ministry of Education and Culture of Republika Srpska ref. 07/1.20/624-128/2010 of 26 February 2010.
(27) The partition wall has been destroyed, but traces of it can be seen on the west inside wall of the ground floor room.
(28) As in the case of the west wing, the partition walls have been destroyed, but traces of them can be seen on the inside and outside walls.