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Orthodox church of the Assumption of the Holy Mother of God with a necropolis of stećak tombstones and old stone tombstones (cruciform tombstones) in the village of Drijenjani, Popovo polje, the architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

 

Published in the “Official Gazette of BiH”, no. 24/10.

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 1 to 4 December 2009 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The architectural ensemble of the Orthodox church of the Dormition of the Virgin with a necropolis with stećak tombstones and old stone tombstones (cruciform tombstones) in the village of Drijenjani, Popovo polje, Municipality Trebinje is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument consists of the church, the necropolis with eight stećak tombstones and fourteen cruciform tombstones.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 162 (old and new survey), title deed no. 160, cadastral municipality Drijenjani, Municipality Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02, 70/06 and 64/08) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation, restoration and presentation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:

-       all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, including minimum works required for the maintenance of the church and burial ground and works designed to ensure the sustainable use of the property, with the approval of the ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);

-       the site of the monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes;

-       the relocation of the old tombstones is prohibited, as are new burials within 5 m of the old tombstones;

-       all infrastructure works shall be permitted only in exceptional cases approved by the relevant ministry and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority;

-       the dumping of waste is prohibited.

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, a buffer zone is hereby stipulated, with a radius of 50 metres from the boundary of the protected site of the National Monument. In this zone, the erection of buildings the use of which is not detrimental to the National Monument, with a maximum foot print of 10 x 12 m and a maximum height of 6.50 m to the start of the roof frame, i.e. two storeys (ground + 1), is permitted.

 

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts are hereby revoked to the extent that they are not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.

 

VI

 

The Government of Republika Srpska, the relevant ministry and the heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II – V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 685.

 

X

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović and Ljiljana Ševo.

 

No: 02-2.2-40/2009-70

2 December 2009

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Ljiljana Ševo

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter referred to as the Commission) to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter referred to as Annex 8) and as property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a Decision to add the church of the Dormition in Drijenjani, Popovo polje, Municipality Trebinje, to the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, numbered as 685.

Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

Statement of Significance

The church of the Dormition of the Virgin belongs to the type of church that was adopted in Dalmatia and the southern coastal region, whence it was spread to the continental mainland by Dubrovnik builders, becoming typical of the Popovo polje. In these buildings, a synthesis of various stylistic ideas developed, creating a distinct and interesting group of monuments, particularly in eastern Herzegovina. These churches are simple in plan and modest in size, with a semicircular apse at the east end and a bell cote at the west end. Inside, the arches bearing the barrel vault abut against the side walls. Alongside the church of the Dormition of the Virgin is a burial ground still in use, in which there is a necropolis with eight stećak tombstones, six chest-shaped and two slabs, and fourteen old cruciform tombstones dating from the 19th and 20th centuries.

 

II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-       data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description, architectural survey and photographs,

-       details of interventions to and other works carried out on the property, etc,

-       an inspection of the current condition of the property,

-       a copy of the cadastral plan,

-       a copy of the Land Register entry(1),

-       historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

The findings based on the review of the above documentation are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The church of the Dormition of the Virgin with a necropolis of stećci (pl. of stećak) is about thirty kilometres west of Trebinje, on the road to Ljubinje, in the Orthodox cemetery of the village of Drijenjani (latitude 42.852º longitude 18.095º), which is a little under 2 km to the south-east of Dračevo, on the road to Trebinje.

The National Monument is located on part of the site designated as cadastral plot no. 162 (new and old survey), title deed no. 160, cadastral municipality Drijenjani, Municipality Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Access to the church is from the northeast, from the approach road that forks off from the main Trebinje to Ljubinje road.

Historical information

Nothing is known about the Popovo polje in prehistoric times. The earliest historical sources refer to an Illyrian presence in the area from the 10th century BCE. Popovo and the wider region were for most of the time part of the Illyrian land of the Ardiaei. The Daorsi held the lands to the west and northwest of Popovo, and perhaps in part of Popovo itself. Numerous hill forts and tumuli (at Kotezi, Drijenjani, Hutovo, Poljice and so on) attest to the presence of these tribes.

The earliest details of Popovo itself date from the 12th century, when it is referred to as a župa (county) in Hum land. Hum was then ruled by Prince Miroslav, brother of Stevan Nemanja, lord of the county of Rascia. For a short time herceg (duke) Andrija of Croatia and Dalmatia wrested power from him, and after Andrija's death Prince Petar seized power. He in turn was forcibly toppled from power by Nemanja's son Stevan the First-Crowned, who divided up the rule of the land between his son Radoslav and the former Prince Petar, granting the Ston coastal region and Popovo to Petar's brother Andrija. In or about 1219 Andrija is referred to as "Gran conte di Clitovo,“ since his main holding was Hutovo, but it seems that his capital was in Ston, where he was buried.

Popovo is referred to on several occasions as a župa: in a charter of King Uroš I (1254-1264); in 1284 there is a reference to the standard-bearer of lord of the county Tvrtko in Popovo; in 1312 there is a reference to lord of the county Bogdan and, somewhat later, to lord of the county Nikola, his descendant. The Nikolići, who ruled this county for a long period, are descended from the latter.

In the early 14th century, Mladen Šubić occupied the western part of Hum land.

During the struggle for the throne of Rascia following the death of Tsar Dušan in 1355, Hum found itself without an overlord. Bosnia was then ruled by Stjepan II Kotromanić, who extended his rule to the western and eastern regions of Hum, relying on his Nikolić cousins, who were still the immediate overlords of Popovo(2). We have no full or accurate information on the extent of the area known as Popovo in mediaeval times. A charter of Hungary's King Matthias Corvinus of 1465 under the terms of which he bestowed some lands and villages in Herzegovina to Abbot Alexandar the diplomat, who was from Dubrovnik, there is also reference to villages in the county of Popovo – Galčići, Dubljani and Grmljani, which exist to this day(3).

The first Turkish population census in this region, in 1469, lists Popovo as Popovska. Popovo, Lug, Šuma and the area to the south of Trebinje were the border region of the Herzegovina sanjak and Herzegovina under the rule of Vlatko (son of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača), making this a narrow frontier region between Dubrovnik and Turkey until 1482(4).

Along with representatives of the Ottoman authorities, there remained local leaders or princes (knez) and even dukes (vojvoda); there were also Christian spahis. In the 17th century there is reference at the same time to spahi Ivoje and vojvodas Jovo Tadić, Aleksa Kadijević and Mihajlo Mihojević.

The most extensive information concerns the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, when this region was ruled by the aristocratic Sanković, Čihorić and Nikolić families, and in particular during the time of the Kosača family – Sandalj, herceg Stjepan and his sons.

This is the period with which the necropolis with stećak tombstones – called Greek burial grounds by the inhabitants of Popovo – is associated. Since the distribution of stećak tombstones covers 47 settlements in 88 locations, with a total of 1,559 examples that have been preserved to a greater or lesser extent, it is fair to say that Popovo was relatively densely inhabited at that time.

An article in the periodical Most(5) includes the following information on Drijenjani: “The village of Drijenjani, somewhat less than two kilometres to the southeast of the village of Dračevo (which is better known in reference works on the Middle Ages), is known for its material remains, stećci, tumuli, the nearby prehistoric hill fort at Hatište, and its Orthodox church, to which there is reference in 1644(6). It features on the very clear maps of Popovo in works by ethnologists Ljubo Mićević and Milenko Filipović and archaeologist and historian Pavao Anđelić(7), but [evidence of] its existence in mediaeval times has yet to be found in written sources. As a result, opinions on the age of the village have remained in the domain of the chronological, since the surviving material remains have not yet been fully studied and are [dated] approximately only(8).

“In April 1416 one Vlatko Nenčić of Popovo, from a place known as Drijenjani, gave his daughter Grlica to serve for six years with Radoslav Zentlin, a butcher of Dubrovnik(9). This brief but useful information has brought Drijenjani out of the anonymity of the Popovo region’s past. It demonstrates once again that the microdemography of the Popovo region is still unresolved, and a worthwhile area for future research.”

The many surviving 16th and early 17th century monuments that are identical in form to the churches in Grahovo and Lug reveal that at this time a very distinctive type of church was being built, with rebated arches along the side walls, which was widespread in these regions. This type of church in fact has two variants: a simple, single-aisled church, and a more elaborate one with three aisles. Single-aisled churches are much more numerous than triple-aisled, but all, single or triple-aisled, can be safely dated to the period between the 15th and the early 17th century(10).

The church was renovated in 1912, as recorded on the inscription over the entrance doorway.

 

2. Description of the property

The church belongs to the type of single-aisled church with a semicircular apse at the east end and a bell cote “na preslicu” at the west end.

It is a simple building, rectangular in plan and small in size, lying east-west on a gently sloping site. It measures 8.25 m in length on the outside, including the apse, and the west end is 5.02 m in width on the outside.

The apse is semicircular in form, with a length (measured along the arch) of 5.41 m and a width on the outside of about 3.90 m. The gable wall above the apse contains a single rosette with an incised cross.

The entrance to the church is at the west end, through a stone portal with two massive jambs, the left 1.75 m in height and the right 1.80, and a rectangular lintel about 35 cm in height; the doorstep is 15.5 cm in height. The metal door is 80 cm wide and 180 cm high. Above the lintel is an inscription of 55 x 40 cm, recording the restoration of the church: THE CHURCH OF THE DORMITION OF THE VIRGIN, BUILT IN 1825, WAS RESTORED THROUGH THE EFFORTS OF THE PEOPLE OF THE VILLAGE OF DRIJENJANI IN 1912. Above this, nearer the bell cote, is a rosette in a square 60 x 60 cm frame, over which is the rectangular bas-relief façade of the church.

The church consists of the nave and sanctuary. The nave measures 3.90 x 4.25 in the interior, without the apse. The sanctuary consists of the semicircular apse and a stone altar table, and is separated from the nave by a wooden iconostasis, raised 10.5 cm above floor level and rising almost to the vault of the church, at 4.55 m. In front of the iconostasis, on the floor of the church, is a simple ambo of 51 x 50 cm, decorated with a circle. The floor of the church consists of 30 x 30 cm flagstones that have been painted with red oil paint; the central section of the floor consists of 50 x 50 cm flagstones painted a lighter red.

The apse is 2.60 m deep and about 2.40 m wide, and has a barrel vault at a lower level than that of the nave. On either side are small arched wall niches with a depth of 20 cm. The nave is barrel vaulted. The side walls are reinforced inside by fairly shallow rebated arches supported by pilasters, with moulded stone capitals of 33.5 x 34.5 cm and a height of 9.5 cm. Similar examples are to be found throughout almost the entire region of the Popovo polje. The churches in Dračevo, Arhanđelovo, Veličani and Mesari, which date from the same period, have the same layout.

Structurally, the load of the vault is transmitted directly to the massive side walls. Three transverse ties provide further reinforcement, the central tie visible and the other two concealed in the walls, visible only on the outside. Also visible on the outside are two longitudinal ties, also passing through the walls. These indicate that the ties were probably fitted in the 19th century.

Light enters the church through four arched windows, two in the north wall and two in the south. The daylight openings are 0.40 m wide and 0.90 m in height. The arched wooden windows are painted light grey. The window casings each consist of four ashlar limestone blocks with a slight chamfer to the window frames. Inside measurements, the window surrounds are splayed, being narrower on the outside. The apse has one small window with stone jambs and an arched lintel.

The bell cote “na preslicu,” with a single opening, stands over the west wall. Bell cotes of this form are one of the principal features of this type of church. The bell cote is about 1.00 m wide and is formed by two stone posts decorated with a floral medallion and accentuated at the point of transition to the arch. The arched section of the bell cote has shallow mouldings and five circular medallions, mainly with floral motifs, and is surmounted by a stone cross. The entire bell cote is of finely worked stone. The height of the church including the bell cote at the west end is 7.05 m.

Like other buildings of this type in Herzegovina, this church is built of limestone cut into regular rectangular blocks. Stone stećci were built into the lower reaches of the walls on the outside in places; above, the stones are more finely finished and laid in roughly even courses, set in lime mortar. The walls are about 56 cm thick.

The church has a gabled roof clad with stone slabs, topped by modern ridge tiles.

Iconostasis

The meagre information on the construction of the church in Drijenjani does not include any extant information on the acquisition of its fixtures and fittings or of the construction of the iconostasis and other liturgical fittings.

The iconostasis consists of a simple wooden partition with three openings – the Royal Doors in the middle and the north and south doors known as the deacon’s or angel’s doors. The iconostasis measures 367 x 390 cm and consists of three tiers of unequal size with a total of sixteen icons.

The positions of the icons were planned when the iconostasis was built, since the panels containing them are separated by frames with simple floral ornamentation and painted gold. The icons are in tempera on paper laid on panel, and are protected by being behind glass. The steady brushstrokes, marked sense of perspective and fine treatment of the human body and characterization of the faces suggest that they are the work of a trained icon painter. Stylistic analysis reveals the influence of Baroque art and Western Christian iconography, which reached Serbian art in the 18th century through the medium of available specimens for copying.

The church is dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin, one of the feasts of the Virgin and also one of the twelve Great Feasts. It marks the end of the Virgin’s earthly life, and commemorates her “falling asleep” (koimesis) and assumption to heaven(11). Though it is usual for the saint or event to which a church is dedicated to be painted on the iconostasis (as a rule, to the left of the north door), the Dormition does not feature on the iconostasis of the Drijenjani church, probably because of lack of space.

The bottom tier of the iconostasis consists of four compositions:

-       Anonymous artist, The Virgin (Royal Doors), early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 45.5 x 26.5 cm (40 x 21 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, Archangel Gabriel (Royal Doors), early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 45.5 x 26.5 cm (40 x 21 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, Jesus Christ (right of Royal Doors), early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 74 x 58 cm (68.5 x 52 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, Virgin and Child (left of Royal Doors), early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 74 x 58 cm (68.5 x 52 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

The compositions correspond to the iconographic concept typical of the art of the Eastern Church, with the exception of the icon of the Annunciation (, the positions of the Archangel Gabriel and the Virgin are reversed).

The middle tier of the iconostasis has nine icons of saints and events from the life of Christ:

-       Anonymous artist, St Nicholas, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 28 x 24 cm (26 x 22 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, Archangel Michael, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 46 x 29 cm (40 x 25 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, The Baptism of Christ in the Jordan, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 46 x 29 cm (40 x 25 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, St George the Great Martyr, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 46 x 29 cm (40 x 25 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, Last Supper (over the door) early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 45 x 39 cm (40 x 34 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, St John the Baptist, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 46 x 29 cm (40 x 25 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, St. Kyriakos the Anchorite (also known locally as St Miholj), early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 46 x 29 cm (40 x 25 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, St. Stefan Dečanski, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 46 x 29 cm (40 x 25 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, St Nicholas, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 28 x 24 cm (26 x 22 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

The top tier of the iconostasis also departs to some extent from the usual iconographic content. It is usual for this tier to feature the Crucifixion with the Virgin and St John the Divine, but in the Drijenjani church it ends with a simple cross below which are three icons:

-       Anonymous artist, St Sava, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 39.5 x 30 cm (33.5 x 25.5 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, Holy Trinity, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 39.5 x 40 cm (33.5 x 35 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

-       Anonymous artist, SS Peter and Paul, early 20th century, tempera on paper laid on panel, behind glass, 39.5 x 30 cm (33.5 x 25.5 cm inside measurements). Drijenjani: Church of the Dormition of the Virgin

Burial ground

The burial ground has a stone boundary wall enclosing an area of about 4,420 sq.m. The entrance to the burial ground is on the north side of the complex. Still in active use, the burial ground also contains eight stećci and fourteen old stone cruciform tombstones dating from the 19th and 20th centuries. These tombstones are to the north, northeast and south of the church.

Most of the old tombstones are of limestone and shaped like a simple cross. Some are decorated with a carved cross, of which the arms usually end in a hemispherical protuberance or floral decoration, but some are decorated with a variety of ornaments and have arms ending in a trefoil or pyramidal shape. Some bear epitaphs in Cyrillic script, which are very short and simple, giving the deceased’s name and surname, the year, and the family in the case of family graves. In some cases the name of the person who erected the tombstone is also given. Nothings known of the stonemasons who made the tombstones. Most of the newer graves are family graves with large, decorated tombstones facing east. The oldest year inscribed on a cruciform tombstone is 1854, suggesting that the burial ground probably dates from the 19th century.

Stećci

Necropolises with stećci in Popovo are mainly located beside roads, and beside most of them is a church, as in Drijenjani. Many of the stećci in Popovo date from the 14th century, mainly the latter half; a relatively large number date from the 15th century, and a few from as late as the first half of the 16th century(12).

The necropolis with eight stećci is located beside the Orthodox church of the [Dormition of the] Virgin and a burial ground still in use. Six of the stećci are chest-shaped and two are slabs. They were of good workmanship, but are now quite badly damaged. None is decorated. They lie east-west, with the exception of nos. 2 and 7, which lie north-south(13).

Stećak no. 1, chest, 155 x 90 x 47 cm, damaged

Stećak no. 2, slab, 190 x 154 x 30 cm, damaged, southeast corner missing

Stećak no. 3, chest, 194 x 78 x 65 cm, leaning, damaged

Stećak no. 4, slab, 180 x 76 x 33 cm

Stećci no. 5 and 6 are partly buried and overgrown with grass

Stećak no.7, chest, 200 x 100 x 45 cm, in the boundary wall

Stećak no. 8, chest, 70 x 60 x cm, part broken off

            It is possible that some stećci were built into the boundary wall outside the church.

Old stone cruciform tombstones

Tombstone no.K1

The tombstone is well preserved. It stands to the right of the entrance to the church, by the south wall. It is of stone, and consists of a rectangular undecorated sarcophagus and a cross with a height of 100 cm and cross-arms with an overall width of 40 cm, ending in a pyramidal form. The tombstone bears a carved epitaph in Cyrillic script, which is damaged by weathering and only partly legible, though the year when it was erected can be made out from the few legible words: THIS TOMBSTONE WAS ERECTED .... 1897.

Tombstone no.K2

The tombstone is in good condition. It is right next to tombstone K1, lying east-west, and consists of a rectangular sarcophagus the visible height of which is 10 cm. The tombstone on this slab is cruciform and stands on a plinth 60 cm in height, widening towards the sarcophagus, with a height of 70 cm [sic]. The front of the cross is decorated with a carved cross with simple rounded decorations on the lower upright and the year 1991. The crossbars end in trefoils with an overall width of 50 cm. The back of the cross bears the carved inscription ICXC.

Tombstone no.K3

The tombstone consists of a sarcophagus with a height of about 20 cm and a cross 60 cm in height with crossbars with an overall width of 40 cm standing on the sarcophagus. The crossbars end in pyramidal forms. The cross is inscribed with the year 1958. The tombstone is overgrown with vegetation.

Tombstone no.K4

The tombstone is cruciform, with a height of 93 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 40 cm, the ends of which are decorated with hemispheres. The front of the cross is decorated with a Latin cross with the longer arm forking into two slender projections ending in round medallions, the shape and position of which suggest leaves. A stylized floral motif resembling a cross is carved in bas relief in the medallion.

Tombstone no.K5

The tombstone is cruciform, with a height of 109 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 58 cm, the ends of which are decorated with hemispheres. It is set in the ground without a plinth, and is leaning and sinking into the ground. The front of the top bar bears a partly legible carved epitaph in Cyrillic script, where the year 1854 can be made out, and a decoration in the form of a Latin cross with the longer arm forking into two slender projections ending in round medallions, the shape and position of which suggest leaves. A stylized floral motif resembling a cross is carved in bas relief in the medallion.

Tombstone no.K6

The tombstone is cruciform, with a height of 119.5 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 58 cm, the ends of which are decorated with hemispheres. The front is decorated with a cross in bas relief echoing the cruciform outline of the tombstone. The arms of the cross split into a trident form ending in medallions within which a cross is inscribed.

Tombstone no.K7

The tombstone is cruciform, with a height of 99 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 41.5 cm, the ends of which are decorated with hemispheres. The front is decorated with a cross in bas relief echoing the cruciform outline of the tombstone. The arms of the cross split into a trident form ending in medallions within which a cross is inscribed.

Tombstone no.K8

The tombstone consists of a sarcophagus composed of four massive blocks of stone with a visible height of about 35 cm, overgrown with vegetation and in very poor condition; the cruciform tombstone set at the west end of the sarcophagus has crossbars decorated with hemispheres.

Tombstone no.K9

The tombstone marks a double grave composed of a sarcophagus of several blocks of stone with a visible height of about 40 cm, and two small cruciform tombstones, the bars of which end in pyramidal forms.

Tombstone no.K10

The tombstone is of simple cruciform shape, with a height of 89 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 52 cm, with no visible epitaph or decoration. It is set straight in the ground without a plinth, and is sinking.

Tombstone no.K11

The tombstone is of simple cruciform shape, with a height of 82 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 47 cm, set on a plinth of which the edges are damaged. It stands outside the entrance to the church, and has probably been moved from its original position. The front bears a simple decoration, only partly visible, of a crux imissa with a Cyrillic epitaph that erosion and vegetation render hard to make out. The crossbars of the tombstone are decorated with hemispheres.

Tombstone no.K12

The tombstone consists of a sarcophagus and cross of recent date, probably restored. The front begins with the monogram of Jesus Christ (IS/HS/NI/KA, standing for Iēsoũs Khristòs Nīkā, Jesus Christ Victorious), below which is an epitaph in Cyrillic script: HERE LIES THE SERVANT OF GOD IOVICA ĆORIĆ PASSED AWAY 1896. [this tombstone] WAS ERECTED BY HER SONS IN 1889. The back of the cross is decorated with a cross in bas relief echoing the shape of the tombstone, with the upright ending in large medallions and the crossbars in pyramidal form.

Tombstone no.K13

The tombstone is in good condition. Facing east-west, it consists of a rectangular sarcophagus which is partly buried and a cross on a plinth, bearing an epitaph in Cyrillic: THIS TOMBSTONE ERECTED BY [the deceased’s] SONS IN 1919. The tombstone is 99 cm in height including the plinth, and the crossbars are 46.5 cm in overall width, ending in trefoils.

Tombstone no.K14

The tombstone is of simple cruciform shape, with a height of 148.5 cm and crossbars with an overall width of 50 cm, decorated with pyramidal forms. It is set in the ground, without a plinth, and is sinking. The front begins with the monogram of Jesus Christ (IS/HS/NI/KA, standing for Iēsoũs Khristòs Nīkā, Jesus Christ Victorious), below which is an epitaph in Cyrillic script: HERE LIES THE SERVANT OF GOD OSTOJA NOVIĆ PASSED AWAY IN 1885. [This tombstone] WAS ERECTED BY HIS WIFE STANA IN 1887.

 

3. Legal status to date

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a Decision to add the church of the Dormition in Drijenjani, Popovo polje, Municipality Trebinje, to the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, numbered as 685.

 

4. Research and conservation-restoration works

No information is available concerning research or conservation-restoration works on the building, nor of any repair works.

The following interventions have been carried out on the church:

-       the church was restored in 1825 and 1912(14)  

-       according to Prior Momčilo Pejčić of Tvrdoš monastery, repairs were carried out on the church in 2006, when the interior was whitewashed, and the iconostasis and windows were repainted.

           

5. Current condition of the property

The findings of an on-site inspection conducted on 23 September 2009 are as follows:

-       the church of the Dormition of the Virgin in Drijenjani is in good condition;

-       paving stones set in concrete have been laid around the church;

-       cracks can be seen around the door jambs of the portal, and mortar is missing from the joints;

-       plants are growing in places in the mortar at the base of the apse and of the church, along with lichen;

-       the church has been newly plastered and whitewashed on the inside; there are traces of blue plaster in the right-hand corner and on the vault, probably from an earlier coat of paint;

-       damage caused by damp can be seen on the south wall by the iconostasis;

-       the rosette over the entrance portal is fitted with a metal grille on the inside where the polyurethane foam with which it was fitted can be seen;

-       the roof structure is in good condition. The mortar between the roofing slabs is drying out and falling away. The ridge is covered with modern tiles.

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.i.       quality of workmanship

C.iii.      proportions

C.iv.     composition

C.v.      value of details

D.         Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)

D.ii.      evidence of historical change

D.iv.     evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

E.         Symbolic value

E.i.       ontological value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iii.      traditional value

E.iv.     relation to rituals or ceremonies

E.v.      significance for the identity of a group of people

F.         Townscape/ Landscape value

F.iii.      the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site

G.         Authenticity

G.i.       form and design

G.iii.     use and function

G.iv.     traditions and techniques

G.v.      location and setting

G.vi.     spirit and feeling

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-       Copy of cadastral plan

-       Photodocumentation

-       Drawings

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the church of the Dormition of the Virgin in Drijenjani as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:

 

1959.    Filipović, Milenko, Mičević, Ljubo. Popovo u Hercegovini (Popovo in Herzegovina). Sarajevo: Scientific Society, 1959.

 

1964.    Korać, Vojislav, J. Đurić. Crkve sa prislonjenim lukovima u staroj Hercegovini i dubrovačko graditeljstvo XV-XVII vek (Churches with rebated arches in old Herzegovina and Dubrovnik architecture of the 15th-17th century). Belgrade: Proceedings of the Faculty of Philosophy VIII, 1964.

 

1966.    Bešlagić, Šefik. Popovo-srednjovjekovni nadgrobni spomenici (Popovo – mediaeval tombstones). Sarajevo: 1966.

 

1971.    Korać, Vojislav J. Trebinje II period od dolaska turaka do 1878. godine (Trebinje II – period from the arrival of the Ottomans to 1878). 1971.

 

1983.    Anđelić, Pavo. “Srednjovjekovna župa Popovo” (Mediaeval County of Popovo), Tribunija 7. Trebinje: Regional Museum of Trebinje, 1983, 61-79, map between pp. 64-65.

 

1988.    Miletić, Nada. “Drijenjani,” Arheološki leksikon Bosne i Hercegovine (Archaeological Lexicon of Bosnia and Herzegovina), vol. III. Sarajevo: National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1988, 174.

 

1988.    Odavić, Đordo. “Gradina na Hatištu (Drijenjani, Trebinje)” (Hillfort at Hatište [Drijenjani, Trebinje]), Arheološki leksikon Bosne i Hercegovine (Archaeological Lexicon of Bosnia and Herzegovina), vol. III. Sarajevo: National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1988.

 

2002.    Ševo, Ljiljana. Pravoslavne crkve i manastiri u Bosni i Hercegovini do 1878. godine (Orthodox churches and monasteries in BiH to 1878). Banja Luka: Glas srpski, 2002.

 

2005     Jovanović, Zoran M. Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva (A-Z of Orthodox Iconography and Architecture). Belgrade: Dina, 2005.

 

2006     Kurtović, Esad. “Srednjovjekovna životnost sela Drijenjani u Popovu” (Mediaeval life in the village of Drijenjani in Popovo), Most, educational and cultural magazine, no. 204 (115 – new series).


(1) A letter ref.. 02-35.2-23/09-174 from the Land Registry Office of the Municipal Court in Trebinje notified the Commission to Preserve National Monuments that the Land Register for the cadastral municipality of Drijenjani was destroyed during World War II and that a new register has not yet been set up.

(2) Bešlagić, Šefik, Popovo: Srednjovjekovni nadgrobni spomenici, Sarajevo: 1966, 10.

(3) Bešlagić, Šefik, op.cit., Sarajevo: 1966, 14.

(4) ibid.

(5) Kurtović, Esad, “Srednjovjekovna životnost sela Drijenjani u Popovu,” Most, periodical for education and culture, no. 204 (115 new series), Mostar: 2006.

(6) Milenko S. Filipović, Ljubo Mićević, Popovo u Hercegovini, Sarajevo: 1959, 171; Šefik Bešlagić, op.cit., Sarajevo: 1966, 27; Đordo Odavić, “Gradina na Hatištu (Drijenjani, Trebinje),” Arheološki leksikon Bosne i Hercegovine, vol. III, Sarajevo: National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1988, 180. V.J. Korać, Trebinje: 1971, 382.

(7) Milenko S. Filipović, Ljubo Mićević, op.cit., map.; Pavao Anđelić, “Srednjovjekovna župa Popovo,” Tribunia 7, Trebinje: 1983, 61-79, map between pp. 64-65.

(8) Nada Miletić, “Drijenjani,” Arheološki leksikon Bosne i Hercegovine, vol. III, Sarajevo: National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1988, 174.

(9) “Vlatichus Nencich de Popoua de loco dicto Driegnani facit manifestum quod ipse locat filiam suam Gerliçam Radoslauo Zentilino mazellatori usque ad sex annos” (05.04.1416. g.), State Archives in Dubrovnik, Diversa Cancellariae, XLI, 2.

(10) V. Korać, V. J. Đurić, Crkve sa prislonjenim lukovima u staroj Hercegovini i dubrovačko graditeljstvo XV-XVII vek, Belgrade: Proceedings of the Faculty of Philosophy VIII, 1964, 569.                           

(11) Zoran M. Jovanović, Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva, Belgrade: Dina, 2005, 413.

(12) Šefik Bešlagić, op.cit., Sarajevo:1966, 95

(13) Šefik Bešlagić, op.cit., Sarajevo:1966, 27.

(14) Details obtained during a telephone conversation with Prior Momčilo Pejčić of Tvrdoš monastery on 12 November 2009

 

 

 



The architectural ensemble - Church in the village of Drijenjani Orthodox churchEntrance façadeNortheast view
North façadeSoutheast viewEast façadeChurch, northeast view
InteriorIconostasisBell towerRosette
InscriptionStećak tombstone no.2Stećak tombstones no. 3 and 4Tombstone no. 1
Tombstone no. 4Tombstone no. 9  


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