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60th session - Decisions

Todorovo (Novigrad) fort and mosque in Todorovo, the historic site

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the Official Gazette of BiH no. 97/09.

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 8 to 11 September 2009 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The historic site of the Todorovo (Novigrad) fort and mosque in Todorovo, Municipality Velika Kladuša, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument consists of the remains of the ramparts and keep of the Todorovo fort and the walls of the mosque in Todorovo.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1 and 5 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2736 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 395, c.p. 2729 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 408, title deed no. 399/03, c.p. 2 and 9 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2730/1 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 495, c.p. 2735 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 296, title deed no. 349/04, c.p. 3 and 8 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2733/2 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 495, title deed no.  102/02, c.p. 6 and 7 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2733/8 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 1487, title deed no.  952/01, c.p. 4 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2730/2 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 495 and c.p. 2737 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 26, title deed no. 494/04, cadastral municipality Todorovo, Municipality Velika Kladuša, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.

The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the resources needed to draw up and implement the necessary technical documentation for the protection and presentation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:

-          conservation, structural repair, restoration and reconstruction works, and works designed to display the monument shall be permitted, with the prior approval of the Federal ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);

-          works that could have the effect of altering the site are prohibited, as is the erection of temporary facilities or permanent structures not designed solely for the protection and presentation of the National Monument;

-          the dismantling of the masonry structures and removal of the stone thereof are prohibited;

-          the dumping of waste is prohibited;

-          the site of the monument shall be open and accessible to the public;

-          the site may be used for educational and cultural purposes.

 

The following measures in particular shall be carried out:

Fort

-          clearing the walls of vegetation posing a threat to the structure of the monument;

-          conservation of the ramparts and tower of the fort;

-          structural repairs and consolidation of the damaged walls, crown of the tower and ramparts;

Mosque

-          clearing the interior of the mosque;

-          examining the state of the walls and conducting a structural analysis;

-          repairs to and structural consolidation of the walls and roof;

-          protecting the mosque walls from the elements;

-          infrastructure works are prohibited except with the approval of the relevant ministry and subject to the expert opinion of the heritage protection authority;

-          the dumping of waste is prohibited.

 

On all the plots adjoining the protected site (c.p. 1983/1 and 1892), the reconstruction of existing buildings shall be permitted, provided that the existing footprint and height are retained.  Infills of residential properties of no more than two storeys (ground + 1) of a maximum height of 6.50 m to the roof cornice may be permitted.

 

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.

 

VI

 

The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 759.                  

                                                                                                                                                               

X

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, and Ljiljana Ševo.

 

No: 06.2-2-40/09-53  

September 2009

Sarajevo     

 

Chair of the Commission

Amra Hadžimuhamedović

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a decision to add the mosque in Todorovo, Velika Kladuša to the Provisional List of National Monuments under serial no. 759.

Pursuant to the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

Statement of Significance

The Todorovo (Novigrad) fort was one of the more important forts in western Bosnia. It was built in the late 15th and early 16th century to defend the Novigrad nobility from enemy attack. The fort was independent, but under the protection of Krupa fort and the Babonić overlords of Blagaj. In 1539, Novigrad came into the possession of the Zrinski overlords, and was governed by Captain Mihajlo Deli Todor until 1560, when it came under attack from the Ottoman army, which laid it waste. Deli Todor was killed, and the fort was renamed Novi Todor, and later Todorovo, in his memory. The Todorovo fort stands on high ground by the road in the village, and was one of the largest forts of its kind in the Bosnian krajina (military frontier region). It was built in two stages. The mediaeval fort consisted of a keep and curtain wall, and was influenced by the great Gothic forts of the Cazin krajina. The second stage dates from the Ottoman period, when a great new curtain wall was built to the west, in the form of an irregular equal-sided hexagon. The ground plan of this part is typical of the Ottoman forts of the Una valley, which differ from forts in other parts of Bosnia. The mosque in Todorovo was built in 1868, and was used as a place of worship until 1973, when a new domed mosque was built outside the fort. The principal feature of the mosque is the high two-storey wooden mahfil.

 

II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-          Documentation on the location and the current owner and user of the property (copy of title deed, cadastral plan and Land Register entry);

-          Details of the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc;

-          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The village of Todorovo is on the road from Velika Kladuša to Cazin, 12 km from Velika Kladuša and 22 km from Cazin. The Todorovo fort is on a slight elevation by the road, and the mosque is in the western part of the fort.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1 and 5 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2736 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 395, c.p. 2729 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 408, title deed no. 399/03, c.p. 2 and 9 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2730/1 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 495, c.p. 2735 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 296, title deed no. 349/04, c.p. 3 and 8 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2733/2 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 495, title deed no. 102/02, c.p. 6 and 7 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2733/8 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 1487, title deed no.  952/01, c.p. 4 (new survey) corresponding to c.p. 2730/2 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 495 and c.p. 2737 (old survey), Land Register entry no. 26, title deed no. 494/04, cadastral municipality Todorovo, Municipality Velika Kladuša, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historical information

The fortified towns of mediaeval Bosnia date from the time when it was an independent state, from the 12th to the 15th century.

The forts of western Bosnia, the Una valley region and the Cazin frontier region were primarily of a military defensive nature. Fortified towns came into being as the administrative centres of various districts, and differ from forts in that within their walls were houses and other buildings to accommodate a military garrison. The principal walled towns of the area were Bužim, Bihać, Cazin, Podzvizd, Todorovo, Ostrožac, Velika Kladuša and Vrnograč, though there were also many others.

The Todorovo (Novigrad) fort was built in the late 15th and early 16th century to defend the Novigrad clan from enemy attack. The fort was independent, but under the protection of Krupa fort and the Babonić overlords of Blagaj. In 1531, Novigrad came into the possession of the Zrinski overlords, who appointed their own captains. The first of these was Captain Budišić of Hotuče, who was appointed in 1543, followed by Captain Mihajlo Deli Todor, who governed the fort from 1549 to 1560. In June 1560 it came under attack from an Ottoman force of 6,000. The powder magazine in the middle of the fort was set on fire and the fort was laid waste. There were many casualties, including Deli Todor and his family. Later the fort was repaired, and renamed Novi Todor, and later Todorovo, in his memory.

Ottoman troops occupied Todorovo in 1578, but the fort was permanently settled only from 1635. At first under the Ottomans Todorovo belonged to the Krupa and later to the Ostrožač captaincy. During the Ottoman period Todorovo became the stronghold of a permanent garrison, under the command of a dizdar (fortress commander). The forts in which there were Ottoman garrisons were enlarged and built up, and in almost every case a small mosque was built for use by the garrison.

Kreševljaković records the tradition that the mosque was built by coastal masons Vicko, Pepo and Lovro in 1868. The same tradition has it that there was an old mosque in Todorovo fort built of wooden planks, which was demolished to make way for the new one(1).

Todorovo fort was attacked on several occasions by Austrian troops, and in 1682 it was destroyed by the Karlovac banate army.

At the beginning of 20th century the fort was still in a good state of preservation. Local people used the stone from the fort to build new buildings.

            The mosque was used as a place of worship until 1973, when a new domed mosque was built outside the fort.

 

 2. Description of the property

Todorovo fort

The fort stands on high ground by the road in the village of Todorovo. It was once one of the largest forts in the Bosnian Krajina. It was built in two stages. In the first, which was during mediaeval times, the eastern part of the fort and the great keep were built. The keep was to the east, where the access was easiest and the need for defence was the greatest. A regular rectangular bailey surrounded the keep, with four round corner towers. The bailey measured approx. 17 x 15 m, and its walls were about 1.2 m thick. This fortification design matches that of the Gothic forts of the Cazin frontier region and Una valley area, the best example of which is Bužim fort.

The second stage was during the Ottoman period, when a large bailey, in the shape of an irregular straight-sided hexagon was built to the west of the fort. The geometric layout is typical of the forts of the Una valley region, and differs from the informal layout of the fortified towns of other parts of Bosnia. The large new bailey measured approx. 52 x 40 m, with walls about 1 m thick. The central feature of Todorovo fort was the round keep, which was 8.4 m in diameter on the inside and 5 m on the inside, with walls about 1.7 m thick. The corner towers were about 5.2 m in diameter on the outside and 3 m on the inside, with walls about 1.1 m thick. The keep is an example of a fortification structure built at the highest point of the site. The entrance was on the south-west side, high above ground level. The keep had loopholes two-thirds of the way up. The polygonal roof was clad with shingles. The tower was 16 to 18 m in height from ground level to the roof. The steps and gallery inside were of wood.

The stone used to build the Todorovo fort was roughly dressed on the outside, and was laid in lime and sand mortar(2). 

Mosque in Todorovo

There were 786 mosques in Bosnia and Herzegovina with wooden minarets – 70% of all the country’s mosques. Mosques with wooden minarets were first built in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the mid 15th century. The mosque in Todorovo was one of the finest architecturally of those with wooden minarets in Bosnia and Herzegovina(3).

In layout and the organization of its interior space the mosque in Todorovo has features of the mosques in Pećigrad and Šturlić, but it differs from both in outward appearance(4). It has the same layout of the first mahfil as the mosque in Pećigrad, while the second mahfil, like the one in the mosque in Šturlić, is in the loft space. Both these mosques are of earlier date than the one in Todorovo.

The mosque in Todorovo belongs to the type of single-space mosque designed to accommodate as many worshippers as possible. This was achieved by introducing two mahfils at different levels, a distinctive feature of this mosque. The mosque is oriented north-west/south-east.

The mosque is rectangular in plan, measuring approx. 8.8 x 14 m on the outside. The entrance was in the form of a portico the lower part of which was walled in, above which were wooden posts and slats. The entrance area measured approx. 7.3 x 1.7 m on the inside, and included a wooden staircase leading to the first mahfil. The main prayer hall measured approx. 7.3 x 10.2 m on the inside, with a ceiling height of approx. 4.8 m. As well as the mihrab and mimber, the prayer hall had two wooden 24 x 24 cm posts supporting the first mahfil and one 20 x 20 cm post supporting the minaret.

The mosque was entirely built of rubble stone, with walls approx. 75 cm thick, plastered inside and out. It had a hipped roof clad with shingles.

The first mahfil was built of wood, and rested on the walls of the mosque. It was approx. 6 m deep, with an area of approx. 60 m2. In front of the mihrab was an open space of approx. 4 x 4 m. A single pillar in the first mahfil supported the second mahfil.

The second mahfil was also built of wood, and occupied the roof space, without masonry walls. The roof frame was of wood, and was 5 m in height. It consisted of rafters and struts, which meant that only the area in the middle, approx. 57 m2, could be used for prayer. A single flight of wooden steps led from the first to the second mahfil.

Including the main prayer hall and both mahfils, the mosque in Todorovo had a total area available for worship of 190 m2.

As in most Bosnian mosques, acoustic cups were built into the walls to enhance the acoustics: three in each of the side walls and two in the mihrab wall.

A particular feature of the space are the two wooden posts with moulded headtrees. The posts, which were circular in section, had square bases and capitals (24 x 24 cm). The capitals are moulded and elaborately decorated with carved and painted floral motifs.

The south-east and south-west walls each had four rectangular windows, two upper and two lower, slightly inset into the wall and fitted with grilles.

The mosque had a classical wooden minaret measuring approx. 11.4 m in height from the floor of the second mahfil to the base of the roof. It was built of boards set vertically, fixed to a primary wooden structure of posts and props. The minaret emerged from the roof of the mosque, and had an enclosed šerefe [balcony] with small openings.

 

3. Legal status to date

The historic site of the Todorovo fort and mosque in Todorovo, Municipality Velika Kladuša, has not been subject to protection.        

The Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2002 lists the Todorovo Fort as a Category III property.

The mosque in Todorovo is on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina under serial no. 759.     

           

4. Research and conservation and restoration works

There is no information concerning any conservation or restoration works on the fort and mosque in Todorovo.

 

5. Current condition of the property

During an on-site inspection it was found that parts of the stone walls of the round keep and of the east rampart wall are all that remain of the Todorovo fort. The other walls have either fallen in or been dismantled and the stone removed for new buildings.

The mosque in Todorovo is without its roof, windows and door. The stone walls have survived almost intact. The absence of a roof and consequent exposure to the elements has caused the walls to deteriorate. Their structural stability needs to be tested. The plaster on the walls is cracked and fallen away in places.

The interior of the mosque is overgrown with rank vegetation which also poses a threat to the stability of the walls.

 

6. Specific risks

If measures are not taken as a matter of urgency to protect the fort and mosque in Todorovo, there is a risk that the remains of the walls will collapse entirely.

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iii.      proportions

C.iv.      composition

C.vi.      value of construction

D.         Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)

D.i.       material evidence of a lesser known historical era

D.ii.      evidence of historical change

D.iv.      evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

E.         Symbolic value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iii.      traditional value

E.v.       significance for the identity of a group of people

F.         Townscape/ Landscape value

F.i.       relation to other elements of the site

F.ii.       meaning in the townscape

G.         Authenticity

G.i.       form and design

G.ii.      material and content

G.iii.     use and function

G.v.      location and setting

G.vi.      spirit and feeling

H.         Rarity and representativity

H.i.       unique or rare example of a certain type or style

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Copy of cadastral plan;

-          Copy of land register entry and proof of title;

-          Photodocumentation;

-          Drawings of the present condition of the mosque by a member of staff of the Commission.

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted: 

 

1943.    Lopašić, Radoslav, Bihać i Bihaćka krajina (Bihać and the Bihać Krajina), 2nd ed, Zagreb, 1943.

 

1952.    Kreševljaković, Hamdija, “Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom upravom”, Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju i istoriju jugoslovenskih naroda pod turskom vladavinom (Contributions to the History of Bosnian Towns under Turkish Administration, Contributions for Oriental Philology and the History of the South Slavs under Turkish Governance), II/1951, Institute for Oriental Studies in Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1952, 119-184.

 

1953.    Kreševljaković, Hamdija, “Stari bosanski gradovi” (Old Bosnian Forts), Naše starine I, Sarajevo, 1953, 7-45.

 

1990.    Bećirbegović, Madžida, Džamije sa drvenom munarom u Bosni i Hercegovini (Mosques with wooden minarets in BiH), Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1990.

 

2000.    Hilić, Hasan, Džamije Velike Kladuše (Mosques of Velika Kladuša), UNSKO SANSKE NOVINE Bihać, 2000.

 

2006.    Lovrenović, Dubravko, Na klizištu povijesti (sveta kruna ugarska i sveta kruna bosanska) 1387-1463 (On the Landslide of History [The Holy Hungarian Crown and the Holy Bosnian Crown] 1387-1463), Zagreb-Sarajevo, 2006

 

2009.    Redžić, Husref, Srednjovjekovni gradovi u Bosni i Hercegovini (Mediaeval Towns/Forts in Bosnia and Herzegovina), Sarajevo Publishing, d.d. Sarajevo, 2009.

 

2009.    European Heritage Days – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport, Old Forts/Towns of Una-Sana Canton, Bihać Institute for the Preservation of the Cultural Heritage, 2009.


(1) Kreševljaković, Hamdija, “Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom upravom,” Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju i istoriju jugoslovenskih naroda pod turskom vladavinom II, Oriental Institute in Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1952, 119-184.

(2) Redžić, Husref, Srednjovjekovni gradovi u Bosni i Hercegovini, Sarajevo Publishing, d.d. Sarajevo, 2009, 199.

(3) Bećirbegović, Madžida, Džamije sa drvenom munarom, IRO, Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1990, 53.

(4) Bećirbegović, Madžida , 1990, 138.



Old Todorovo fort, planOld Todorovo fort in thirties of the twentieth centuryOld Todorovo fort, old photoRemains of the tower in 2009
TowerWallsMosqueMosque (Bećirbegović, Džamije sa drvenom munarom)
Mosque\'s door (Bećirbegović, Džamije sa drvenom munarom)Interior of the mosqueMosqueMosque
Window   


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