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Decisions on Designation of Properties as National Monuments

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Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac, the architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the “Official Gazette of BiH” no. 94/09.

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 7 to 13 July 2009 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The architectural ensemble of the Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac, Tuzla is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument consists of the church of St George the Great Martyr with murals consisting of 29 paintings, an iconostasis with 17 icons, and a burial ground.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 3303 (new survey), title deed no. 1265, cadastral municipality Tuzla II, Municipality Tuzla, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

           

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:

-          all works are prohibited except for routine maintenance works, works designed to ensure the sustainable use of the property, investigative works, conservation works, repairs and restoration works on the National Monument and those designed for its presentation, with the approval of the federal ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);

-          during restoration, conservation and presentation works, the original appearance of the building shall be preserved, original materials shall be used and original methods of treating the material and building techniques shall be applied.

 

The following works shall be carried out as a matter of urgency in order to protect the National Monument: works to remedy the effects of rising damp and structural repairs to the entrance steps to the church, after a prior investigation of the causes of rising damp in the walls and of cracks in the structure of the steps and subject to a remedial works project approved by the relevant ministry and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority;

 

The following protection measures are hereby stipulated for the movable heritage:

-          the Government of the Federation shall provide suitable physical and technical conditions for the safe-keeping of the movable heritage;

-          the display and other forms of presentation of the movable heritage in Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be effected under the terms and conditions stipulated by the federal ministry responsible for culture;

-          supervision of the implementation of the protection measures pertaining to the movable heritage shall be exercised by the federal ministry responsible for culture.

 

The following protection measures are hereby stipulated for the burial ground:

-          digging over old graves and relocating tombstones dating from the late 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries (hereinafter: old graves and tombstones) is prohibited;

-          new burials may be permitted in the burial ground subject to respecting the provisions set out in the preceding bullet;

-          archaeological investigations and conservation and restoration works relating to the old graves and tombstones are permitted subject to the approval of the relevant ministry and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority;

-          the construction of buildings and the erection of temporary or permanent structures not designed solely for the protection and presentation of the National Monument are prohibited;

-          all works are prohibited that could have the effect of altering the landscape;

-          the burial ground shall be cleared of self-sown vegetation;

-          an accurate geodetic survey of the site shall be conducted marking the precise position of each old tombstone;

-          a survey of the condition of the site shall be conducted, recording all damage to the old graves and tombstones;

-          old fallen tombstones shall be set upright;

-          the old tombstones centuries shall be cleaned to remove dirt, moss, lichen and microorganisms;

-          all works that could have the effect of altering the landscape are prohibited;

-          the burial ground shall be landscaped;

-          all tree felling is prohibited with the exception of felling for the maintenance of tree health and vitality;

-          the dumping of waste is prohibited.

           

IV

 

The removal of the movable heritage from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.

By way of exception to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable heritage for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Permission for temporary removal under the conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt that it will not jeopardize the movable heritage in any way. 

In granting permission for the temporary removal of the movable heritage, the Commission shall stipulate all the conditions under which the removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina may take place, the date by which the items shall be returned to the country, and the responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the relevant security service, the customs authority of  Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general public accordingly.

 

V

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

VI

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.

 

VII

 

The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federal Ministry responsible for culture, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VI of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VIII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

IX

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

X

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Martin Cherry, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović and Ljiljana Ševo.

 

No: 06.1-2040/09-41

8 July 2009

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Amra Hadžimuhamedović

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

On 4 March 2008 the Serbian Orthodox Parish of Tuzla submitted a proposal/petition to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to designate the church of the St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Pursuant to the provisions of the Law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

Statement of Significance

St George’s church in Trnovac (1899-1900) is an outstanding building of unusual architectural design, an imaginative example of historicist architecture illustrating a blend of different mediaeval styles. It was endowed by the Jovanović family (the brothers Jovo, Pero and Lazo), a wealthy Orthodox merchant family from Donja Tuzla, great benefactors, who were also the legators and founders of many other institutions and religious edifices, which earned them respect and standing as citizens of Tuzla and its environs. The church of St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac is in fact a family mausoleum which is also used for public worship.

The church in Trnovac is of unusual architectural design in the historicist spirit with references to the architectural features of mediaeval Serbian religious architecture.

The burial ground at Trnovac is the largest in Tuzla, and is of interest in that, though it is the property of the Serbian Orthodox parish of Tuzla, people of other confessions are also buried there, in a separate plot. Prominent public figures from Tuzla and Bosnia and Herzegovina are buried there, among them Đorđe Mihajlović, the first academic painter of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a native of Tuzla, and the artist Ismet Mujezinović. Many old tombstones, the oldest of which date from the late 18th century, are still to be found in the burial ground.

 

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, details of war damage, details of restoration and other works on the property, etc.

-          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The architectural ensemble of the Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr with burial ground is located on the hill known as Trnovac in Tuzla, at an altitude of approx. 292 m above sea level, some 860 m as the crow flies to the north-east of the Tuzla pedestrian zone and about 250 m west of the hospital complex at Slatina.

The plot where the church and burial ground are located has a total area of approx. 35.70 hectares. The site slopes from west to east by about 1:10 (height) to 11 (width), or about 5 to 6 degrees from the horizontal. The church was built on a small area of level ground on the hilltop, by the western boundary of plot no. 3303 (new survey), title deed no. 1265, c.m. Tuzla II.

There are two access roads to the burial ground to the east, from Trnovac street, and another to the south. Road access to the sepulchral church itself is along a macadam road leading up from Trnovac street to the church along the east, south and south-west boundaries of the burial ground.

Historical information

            The reforms introduced in the Ottoman Empire in the mid 19th century made it easier for the Christians of Tuzla to obtain a permit (imperial firman) to build churches (the Tanzimat period – the 1839 Hatt-i Şerif of Gülhane prescribing equality for all faiths and freedom of religion in Turkey, and the 1856 Hatt-i Hümayun, the new constitutional law for the Bosnian vilayet, the provisions of which including granting the Christian church in Turkey the protection of international law).

The episcopal see was transferred from Zvornik to Tuzla at the same time as was the seat of the Zvornik kajmekam(1), and the eparchy was renamed the eparchy of Zvornik and Tuzla.(2)    

The church of St George the Great Martyr was an endowment of the Jovanović family (the brothers Jovo, Pero and Lazo), a wealthy Orthodox merchant family from Donja Tuzla. The foundations of the church were laid on 2 August 1899, on St Elijah's day, and the church was completed on 14 October 1900, on the feast of the Cerement of the Virgin, when it was consecrated by Metropolitan Grigorije Živković of Zvornik and Tuzla and dedicated to St George the Great Martyr, with the Cerement of the Virgin as the church's patron saint's day.

The Tuzla Jovanović's were originally from Jerovi Lug in the Spreča valley, in what is now Kalesija Municipality, before they settled in Tuzla, where they prospered and became one of the town's leading Serbian bourgeois families.

The Koloseum, one of the three cinemas in Tuzla before World War I, was owned by the Jovanović families (the other cinemas were the Korzo and the Josip Prižando cinema).

The founder and first president of the Njegoš Donja Tuzla choral society was Risto Jovanović, whose father was Jovan and whose mother Mara, who died in 1903, left a fifth of her entire estate to the Njegoš choral society, making her its largest benefactor. The legacy consisted of a number of houses in the čaršija, in Džamijska and Čaršijska streets, in which there were shop premises in the 1930s.

Risto J. Jovanović was born in Tuzla in March 1864, but his few years of grammar school education were in Novi Sad. He was a wealthy man, and it was at his instigation that the first voluntary fire service was set up in Tuzla in 1883. He also started a fund-raising campaign to establish a charitable foundation for the poor, the disabled, war victims and other people in need. His campaign was met with a generous response, both financial and in terms of moral support, from the people of Tuzla.

There are no surviving members of the Jovanović family, whose members are buried in the crypt of the church at Trnovac.

 

2. Description of the property

Description of the church

The sepulchral church at Trnovac is triconchal in plan with a Greek cross. In layout, it belongs to the type of single-nave church with parvis, nave, altar area and choir gallery.

The church lies east-west, with the apse at the east end and the entrance at the west end. The church is 9.46 m wide and 11.61 m long on the outside(3), and has walls approx 65 cm thick, plastered inside and out.

A triple flight of steps at the west end, in the axis of the entrance portal, leads to the entrance. The flight of steps measures approx. 274 x 590 cm, with five steps of which the risers are 16 cm high and the tread 30 cm deep; the platform outside the entrance doorway measures approx. 124 x 278 cm. The round-arched doorway, of which the opening measures approx. 147 x 278 cm, is set in a round-arched entrance portal approx. 250 cm wide and 315 cm high, consisting of stepped moulded archivolts resting on colonnettes with a diameter of approx. 13.50 cm.

The bases of the colonnettes have two tori and one trochilus, and rest on square 25 x 25 cm plinths; the capitals are approx. 40 cm in height.

The overall height of the colonnettes from floor level to the base of the archivolts is approx. 190 cm. Directly over the entrance portal, about 65 cm above it, is a rosette with a diameter of approx. 175 cm, through which light enters the choir gallery.

The vestibule of the church measures approx. 170 x 300 cm, and has a barrel vault along the shorter axis (170 cm). Where it adjoins the flanking corner towers of the church, the vestibule has two extensions with round vaults (the extensions are approx. 99 cm deep x 114 cm wide). The north extension to the vestibule has a wash-hand basin with running water on the west wall.

A wooden spiral staircase in the north-west tower, with a diameter from wall to wall of approx. 153-155 cm, leads up from the north extension to the vestibule to the choir gallery. The oak staircase has a newel with a diameter of approx. 19 cm, and 20 steps approx. 67 cm wide, with risers of approx. 19 cm. Four 30 x 110 round-headed windows allow light into the staircase, two on the west and two on the north façade of the tower, set directly one above the other, the lower at a level of approx. +2.50 m(4), and  the upper at approx. +4.70 m.

Two steps in the south extension to the vestibule lead to a niche for lighting candles, with a diameter of approx. 153 cm, at ground-floor level in the south-west tower. Above this niche, level with the choir gallery, from which it is separated by a doorway of 83 x 179 cm, is the bell tower platform. There are bells only in the south-west tower. The fenestration of the south-west bell tower is identical to that of the north-west tower.

The choir gallery is at a level of approx. +3,60 m(5), over the vestibule. It has a barrel vault running west-east with the apex at a height of approx. +7.50 m(6). Visually and functionally, the choir gallery is connected with the nave by a round-arched opening of approx. 2.70 m wide and 1.78 m high. The east side of the gallery, facing onto the nave, has a wooden railing approx. 73 cm in height.

The vestibule leads into the nave. The crossing, which measures approx. 5 x 5 m, is flanked by semicircular conchal transepts with a radius of approx. 1.98 m, and is surmounted by a dome on an octagonal drum resting on four rebated arches via a masonry structure in the form of a rounded octagonal pyramid(7). The top of the intrados of the rebated arches is at a height of approx. +6.50 m.(8)  

The north and south conches are vaulted with stereotomic constructions in the form of regular quarter-spheres of which the length of the inner perimeter is approx. 545 cm at floor level.  Each has a single round-arched window of approx. 85 x 265 cm in the central axis of the conch walls, at a parapet height of approx. +165 cm.

A solid walnut iconostasis partition separates the nave from the altar area. The iconostasis partition is in three parts, and is polygonal in plan, with the three shorter sides of approx. 103 cm in length(9) set at an angle to the end of the wall face of the east wall of the nave, and sides with a length of approx. 204 cm parallel with the east wall of the nave and set approx. 97 cm inside the nave area. The iconostasis is approx. 4.85 m in height from the floor of the nave to the top of the cross on the iconostasis.

The altar area is set in the conch with a radius of approx. 1.98 m at the east end of the church. The outer perimeter of the conch is approx. 830 cm long at floor level, and the inner approx. 622 cm; the walls are approx. 65 cm thick.

The proscomidion, in the form of a round-arched wall niche of approx. 78 cm wide, 119 cm high and 32 cm deep, is in the northern part of the conch wall, about 29 cm along the arch as measured at the start of the conch, at a parapet height of approx. 95 cm.

There is another round-arched wall niche of approx. 76 cm wide, 183 cm high and 26 cm deep in the eastern part of the conch wall, about 166 cm along the arch from the edge of the proscomidion niche, in the zone of the window parapet of the apse.

The diaconicon, in the form of a round-arched niche of approx. 77 cm wide, 112 cm high and 33 cm deep, is in the southern part of the conch wall, about 166 cm along the arch as measured from the edge of the niche on the east side of the conch, at a parapet height of approx. 95 cm.

Light enters the altar area through a round-arched window of approx. 85 x 265 cm at a parapet height of approx. +189 cm in the central axis of the east conch.

The altar, a stone table measuring approx. 100 x 100 cm with a height of approx. 105 cm, is in the middle of the altar space.

All the windows through which light enters the church are round-arched, and all are splayed to provide more light inside the church.

The floors of the parvis, nave and altar area are paved with square 20 x 20 cm ceramic tiles. The choir gallery has a wooden floor.

The crypt where the members of the family who founded the church, the Jovanović merchant family of Donja Tuzla, is below the part of the church which is trefoil in plan (the north, south and apse conches and the nave). A rectangular hatch in the floor of the nave provides access to the crypt. Over it, directly in line with the Royal Doors of the iconostasis, is a catafalque.

The crypt is provided with air vents below the ceiling joists(10) and in line with the axes of the conch windows. The vent to the north measures approx. 60 x 32 cm, to the east, approx. 24 x 15 cm, and to the south, approx. 43 x 15 cm.

Both the layout and the formal design of the church, as well as the treatment of the details, reveal the influence of the Moravian school, of which the most characteristic feature is the triconchal ground plan.

The church exterior is of very exuberant volumes, its silhouette dominated by the central dome and two domed corner towers, the quadratic mass of the nave, the entrance projection with its semicircular fronton and the semicylindrical forms of the conchal trefoil, surmounted by semidomes.

The church is flanked at the west end by north and south corner towers which are rectangular in plan, with sides of approx. 258 x 225 cm. The walls are approx. 36 cm thick at their thinnest point(11), and the cylindrical interior, housing the wooden staircase in the north tower and the belfry and candle-lighting room in the south tower, is approx. 153 cm in diameter.

The towers are surmounted by domes on regular octagonal drums on each side of which is a window. All the windows of the towers are round-arched. The transition from the rectangular base of the tower to the octagonal drum is effected by pendentives.

A typical feature of Moravian architecture is the presence of a single tower over the parvis, as against the Rascian school, where two bell towers are often to be found. To this extent, St George’s church in Trnovac represents a departure from the neo-Moravian style.

The west entrance end of the sepulchral church is strongly accentuated by its 100 cm deep projection, surmounted by a round-arched fronton, its central flight of steps, the entrance portal and the rosette. The curve of the semicircular fronton is echoed by a moulded string course with radiating arcades with stepped mouldings, and by the semicircular window opening set centrally in the fronton.

The church façade is articulated by a roof cornice and a frieze consisting of a series of arcades, a feature of the neo-Romanesque or Rascian school influence. The arcades are approx. 40 cm high and the overall height of the cornice is approx. 80 cm. The cornice runs all the way round the church, at a height of approx. + 6.20 m as measured from ground level at the entrance to the church up to the top of the roof cornice.

Level with the projecting quadratic body of the nave is a perimeter cornice with a frieze of arcades identical to the cornice surrounding the church.

The roof consists of a combination of domes (one over the nave and two on the towers),  semidomes (over the corner towers), a multipaned pitched roof (over the nave and between the drum of the dome and the eaves over the perimeter walls of the nave), and a barrel roof (over the parvis).  The roof cladding and flashings are copper. There is no guttering on the eaves; instead, water drains off from dripstones.

Description of the murals and iconostasis

Two inscriptions carved onto stone record the construction and consecration of the church of St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac near Tuzla.  One is inside the church, to the right of the entrance door, and the other is outside, on the wall of the east conch, also on the right-hand side. The first is in Cyrillic, and provides valuable information on the donors of the church and the year of construction: JDFO CDTNB <J:OB {HFV CFPBLFIT( J CDJVT NHJIRE <HF?F OJDJ^ GTHJ( B KFPJ H& OJDFYJDB?B NHUJDWB BP( LJST NEPKT^(12)  

            The second inscription on a stone plaque, bearing the date 1882 (some years before the church was built), was erected by the brothers Jovo, Pero and Lazo in memory of their father Risto Jovanović, also a merchant. Also in Cyrillic, the fifteen-line epitaph reads:

Here in this  tomb/lie the mortal/remains/of Risto Jovanović/a merchant of this place/and resident, who died/in his 75th year, and was buried/on Good Friday 26 March/1882./Out of devotion to/their father/his grateful sons/Jovo, Pero and Lazo/have erected this monument to him./1882.

            During World War II the interior of the church of St George the Great Martyr was vandalized on several occasions.(13) After the war, work began on its detailed renovation, which entailed repainting the murals, and making an iconostasis and other church furnishings. The icons on the walls of the church were painted by icon-painted Dragan Bjelogrlić of Novi Sad in 1980 and 1981.

The iconographic programme of the murals was designed to suit the type of church, to a formula applied in the case of domed churches, in which Christ Pantocrator features at the highest point (the dome), with below him, in an octagonal pyramid-shaped area, the four evangelists with their symbols. The niches of the east conch are painted with the Virgin Platytera (Vaster than the Heavens or Heavenly Mother), with below her Christ with a crown. The church of St George the Great Martyr has a total of 29 murals.

The medium used was tempera, and most of the paintings are the same size (238 x 105 cm), with the exception of two paintings in the east conch in the niches below the window, the image of Christ Pantocrator in the dome, the four evangelists with their symbols, one painting in each of the calottes of the south and north conches, and that of the Elder of Days above the parvis.

The visual link from the centre of the nave to the conches and the parvis has been achieved by painting an inscription which follows the arched outline of the conches. Four inscriptions in Cyrillic are painted on a background of a trompe l'oeil unrolled scroll:

-          Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts (east)

-          I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world (north)

-          Blessed are the peacemakers (west)

-          I am the way and the truth (south)

An analysis of the murals reveals the indirect influence of late 19th century mural painting and western Christian iconography. The paintings in the lower register of the murals are arched, and the figures are portrayed in close-up in the foreground. The painting of the dignified figures of the saints reflects the skill of the artist, particularly in the accurate treatment of the anatomy. He treats the faces of the saints portrait-style, with pronounced characteristic features (long, pointed grey beards, youthful beardless faces and so on).

Christ Pantocrator is portrayed half length, holding an open book with the text I AM A AND ω, with the symbolic meaning “I am that I am.” 

Below Christ Pantocrator are the four evangelists, pen in hand writing their gospels in a book.  Each is portrayed with his symbol – the lion of St Mark, the ox of St Luke, the eagle of St John and the angel of St Matthews:

-          St Mark the Evangelist begins with the text: “The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David.”

-          St Luke the Evangelist is writing the following lines in his book: “Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things. . .”

-          St John the Evangelist: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God.”

-          St Matthew the Evangelist: “The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the son of Abraham.”(14)  

The diversity of the iconographic concept is particularly noticeable in the painting of the lower register of the church, full of the figures of saints, martyrs, apostles, evangelists, church fathers, episodes from the Great Feasts and archangels.

The six paintings in the east conch, to the left and right of and below the window, are of:

-          St Gregory the Great and St Basil the Great (left),

-          St John Chrysostom and St Stephen the Archdeacon (right),

-          The Virgin Platytera and Christ crowned.

The south conch is painted with the figures of St Mrata, St Peter the Apostle, Holy Mother Eugenia and St Sisoes the Great, and the north conch with the figures of St Basil of Ostrog, St Nicholas, Prince St Lazar, and St Procopius the Great Martyr.

The calottes of the south and north conches are painted with scenes of St George the Great Martyr slaying the dragon, the saint to whom the church is dedicated (south conch) and the Cerement (Protecting Veil) of the Virgin, the feast when the church was consecrated, celebrated on 1 October.

The corners of the walls of the nave each have two paintings:

-          St Simon the Myrrh-gusher and St John the Baptist (north-east),

-          St Sava and St Alypius the Stylite (south-east),

-          Archangel Michael and the Holy Great Martyr Kyriakos (south-west),

-          Archangel Gabriel and St Petka (north-west).

The chronicle of the Tuzla church provides valuable information on the artists and workshops hired to restore the church, and there are the signatures of some of the artists on the works of art themselves. A metal plaque by the icon of Jesus Christ reads: “THIS ICONOSTASIS WAS MADE BY/MILAN MILOŠEVIĆ, WOODCARVER/OF PRELJINA (SERBIA) IN 1980.”

The skilled hand of the master craftsman carved the demanding body of the iconostasis with ease, and the nature of the walnut, so suitable for carving, is particularly noticeable in the details, whether in the frames of the icons, the columns around which grape-laden vines are twining, or the geometric and floral ornaments.

The symmetrical body of the iconostasis, rising from plinth to peak, is divided visually into five vertical bands. The somewhat wider central band is accentuated by a cross painted with the Crucifixion. The iconographic programme of the iconostasis, showing scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin and of certain feasts and saints, is depicted in 17 icons in oil on panel with gilding. The icon of Christ, to the right of the Royal Doors, bears an inscription in Cyrillic with the name of the icon painter and the date: BRJYT HFLBJ OTHJVF{ GFDKT RFKFS 1980& UJL.

-          Pavle Kalanj, Archangel Gabriel (Royal Doors), 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 58 x 23 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

-          Pavle Kalanj, Virgin (Royal Doors), 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 58 x 23 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon of the Archangel Gabriel is set within a flat-topped portrait-format rectangle. The archangel, portrayed in profile, is approaching the Virgin, the position of his legs indicating his rapid steps, right foot raised and the left firmly planted on the ground. As he approaches the Virgin, the archangel is holding in his clumsily-modelled left hand a prophet's staff (sceptre) as a symbol of his status as messenger from heaven.(15) An architectural scene of a building with a blue roof and a low wall with a window occupies the background, serving to enclose and create a sense of privacy for this significant event. The visual coherence of the composition is achieved by the beam of light illumining the Virgin's troubled face (right-hand royal door). Artists base this treatment of the Virgin's face on a passage in the Gospels (Lk 1, 26-35) and on mediaeval commentaries to the effect that the sudden appearance of an archangel would be sufficient to “trouble and alarm her, as it would any young girl.”(16) The beam of light, within which is a white dove, symbolically denotes the moment of conception or “overshadowing”: “And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. ”(Lk 1, 35).(17)  

-          Pavle Kalanj, Jesus Christ, 1980, oil on panel, gilded, 110.5 x 45.5 cm, Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr); inscription bottom centre: BRJYT HFLBJ OTHJVF{ GFDKT RFKFS 1980& UJL.)

The icon is set within an arch-topped rectangle in portrait-format, and portrays Jesus  Christ. The middle of the icon is dominated by the exalted figure of Christ enthroned, leaning against a cushion. The artist has constructed the composition along vertical and horizontal lines, thereby creating coherence not only between its various parts but also of the whole. The vertical line runs from the top of the composition through the gilded background and Christ's halo to his footstool, and the horizontal line is accentuated by the dark green line of the background and by the cushion. Jesus is giving benediction with his right hand and holding an open book in his left with the text “I am/the way/the truth/and the life.”

-          Pavle Kalanj, Archangel Michael, 1980, oil? on panel, gilded, 112.5 x 43 cm, Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The last icon to the far right of the Royal Doors portrays the Archistrategos of the Heavenly Host, the Archangel Michael. The icon is in the shape of a flat-topped portrait-format rectangle. The artist has formed the background from horizontal bands of light green and gold, onto which he has “applied” the body of the archangel, making it difficult for the viewer to read the spatial relations.  Nonetheless, the substantial body of St Michael dominates the foreground.(18)  The archangel's wings, blue on the inside and red on the outside, are outspread before the viewer. He is holding a sword in his right hand, attesting to his victory over the rebellious angels. The treatment of the left hand, in which St Michael is holding a scroll inscribed with an Old Slavonic text, is anatomically inaccurate (the hand is not in proportion with the arm, the position of the hand holding the scroll is wrong). The emphasis is on the youthful face of the archangel, with its long nose, small mouth and ears concealed by his wavy hair. Above his halo, accentuated by a thin red line, is the inscription CD& FH{& VB{FBK

-          Pavle Kalanj, The Virgin Enthroned, 1980, oil? on panel, gilding, 110.5 x 46.5 cm, Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon of the Virgin Enthroned is set within an arched portrait-format rectangle.  The composition is dominated by the figure of the Virgin in close-up, seated and with the Child on her lap. The placing of the figure in the centre of the composition provides its symmetry, further accentuated by a line running from the top, from the Virgin's halo, to the bottom of the composition, through the infant Jesus's golden halo.

The seat on which the Mother of God is seated is depicted as a throne, indicating that this is the iconographic type of the Virgin Mary Queen of Heaven. As appropriate to the iconography, the Virgin is wearing a maphorion – a long blue robe – and a purple mantle. To emphasize her well-proportioned figure without the need to show her anatomy, the artist has made use of the folds of the garments enveloping the bodies of the Mother of God and the Child, with the folds running in many different directions. The infant Jesus's right hand is raised in benediction, and he is holding a scroll in his left. To the left and right of Mary's head are Greek words Meter Theou, Mother of God, in their abbreviated form: MP ΘY.

-          Pavle Kalanj, St Stephen the Archdeacon, 1980, oil? on panel, gilding, 112.5 x 43 cm, Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon of St Stephen is set with a flat-topped portrait-format rectangle. The icon painter has used simplified visual elements to form the background and frame of the composition, which is completely filled by the figure of the saint.  This treatment has given rise to the wholly static quality of the composition, particularly noticeable in certain elements:

the treatment of the background, composed of two uniform horizontal light-green bands occupying ¼ of the composition in the lower register and a gold band filling the rest,

the colours, of which there are four (white for the saint's robe, gold and green for the background, and red for the inscription of the archdeacon's name and the highlights on his halo) with a complete absence of intermediate tones, shadows and contrasts,

the [lack of] movement: the archdeacon is standing, as the position of his feet indicates, with his hands still, holding part of his vestments,

as regards the viewer: the archdeacon is portrayed in profile, gaze turned away from the viewer, with whom there is no communication.

Above the saint is the following inscription: CD& FH{BMFRJY CNTAFY

The area above the Royal Doors contains the scene of the Last Supper.  Following the customary thematic programme for altar partitions, the artist has painted two episodes from the Great Feasts to right and left of the Last Supper: the Cerement of the Virgin (left) and the Resurrection of Christ (right).  Further to the left of the Cerement of the Virgin are St Nicholas and St John the Baptist, and to the right of the Resurrection are St George and St Sava.

-          Pavle Kalanj, Last Supper, 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 68.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon of the Last Supper is in an arch-topped rectangle. The foreground of the composition is bounded by the horizontal line of the table, ending to left and right with the bodies of apostles. The middle ground widens out from the centre to the shorter sides of the icon, and is denoted by the figure of Jesus Christ and apostles. The architectural scenes surrounding the scene of the Last Supper fill the background of the composition and enclose the scene. The deployment of the figures and the relations between them (with the other figures and with the background) has provided the composition with stability and symmetry, whether it is read vertically or horizontally. There are six apostles on each side of Jesus Christ. The artist paid particular attention to the modelling of the figure of Jesus, who is portrayed as rather larger than the apostles.(19) Another distinctive feature is that Jesus is the only figure in the composition to have a large gold halo; the apostles have none. Since the event depicted was the Jewish Passover, the table is covered with plates, carrots, bread and fish which the apostles have blessed. The gesture of the figure to Jesus's left identifies him as the Apostle John, known as the beloved disciple, and who is described in the eponymous gospel as “leaning on Jesus's bosom” (Jn 13, 23 [not Luke as in the local-language version of this Decision]). The icon painter also based his portrayal of Judas (second to the right from Jesus) on a gospel text, in this case Matthew (Mt 26, 23), for Judas is reaching out to dip his hand into a dish. Above the architectural scene, on a blue background, is an inscription in Cyrillic: NFOYF DTXTHF&

-          Pavle Kalanj, Cerement of the Virgin, 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 46.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon depicts one of the feasts of the Virgin in a portrait-format, arch-topped rectangle. The composition is in wide frame, with 18 figures and the outlines of a church in the background. Attempting to indicate the perspective, the artist divided the composition into two horizontal registers, consisting of the bodies of the figures. He also used a central vertical running from the top of the dome through the Virgin's body to the bottom of the composition, thereby creating a symmetrical composition. The deployment of the figures in this way, without a clear footing, means that the composition is not fully readable. This is especially the result of the absence of foreground, middle and background, which are merely suggested (the foreground, for instance, begins with the feet of the saints, the middle ground with the cloud on which the Virgin is seated, and the background with the blue dome of the church). The iconography of this scene was formed “in memory of the vision of St Andrew the Fool for Christ and his pupil Epiphania in the 10th century, when the Virgin appeared in the famous church of Blachernae in Constantinople during a vigil in her honour, spreading her maphorion protectively over the congregation.”(20)

In the Trnovac icon, the Virgin is descending among the saints on a cloud, holding an omophorion (the most important part of episcopal vestments, without which a bishop cannot perform a religious service) instead of her outstretched maphorion. Below her, separated from the other saints by a raised area with a railing reminiscent of an ambon, is one of the most celebrated hymnographers, Roman Melod, also known as Slatkopjevac, the sweet-voiced singer. The different vestments of three of the figures identify them as another three leading church dignitaries and liturgists of the Orthodox church: St Basil the Great, St Gregory the Divine, and St John Chrysostom. To the left and right of the dome of the church in the upper register of the composition is the inscription GJRHJD <JUJHJLBWB.

-          Pavle Kalanj, The Resurrection of Christ, 1980, oil on panel, gilding,60 x 46.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

Theologians and art historians are of one mind that the Resurrection is one of the central themes of Christian art. It is firmly grounded in the fundamentals of Christian religious thought and belief in the resurrection: “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” (1 Cor 15, 22).(21)  

The icon of this scene in the Trnovac church is set in an arch-topped, portrait-format rectangle. The composition is in wide frame, including part of a landscape – the cave where Christ was laid in the tomb. The composition is wholly symmetrical: the artist has divided it into two equal halves by placing the figure of the risen Christ in the centre. Appearing in a mandorla to the other figures in the scene, Christ extends his hands to a man to the left and a woman to the right, kneeling before him in open sarcophagi. He is wearing a long white robe, and has a red band on his right upper arm - “the colour of willing martyrdom and the shedding of his blood on the cross.” (22) Pairs of saints on either side serve to close the composition inwardly. The title of the event is inscribed at the top of the icon: DFCRHCTST {HBCNJDJ

-          Pavle Kalanj, St Nicholas, 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 34.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The format of the icon with the figure of St Nicholas is an arch-topped portrait-format rectangle. To create harmony and symmetry, the artist has used certain features – the dominant background and the position of the saint's figure.  Despite this, the effect of the gold used to model the background and the dominant position of the saint, shown in half length, make it impossible to read the spatial relations. Using precise, even brush strokes, the artist modelled the saint's face in the manner of a portrait, with gentle eyes, accentuated by the long nose and thin brown moustache, and the grey hair and beard. The anatomically disproportionate right hand is held in the benediction position, and the left, concealed beneath his robes, is holding a closed book aloft. Beside the gold halo, highlighted by a red border, is the inscription CD& YBRJKF

-          Pavle Kalanj, St John the Baptist, 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 34.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon with the figure of St John the Baptist is set in an arch-topped portrait-format rectangle. The background is mainly in gold, to create a sense of extratemporality. St John the Baptist is set slightly to the right, in half length.  There is a certain linearism in the modelling of the saint's face and robe. These sharp, unnatural lines are prevented from dominating the composition by the saint's halo, highlighted by a thin red border. Above his halo is a Cyrillic inscription: CD& OJDFY RHCNBNT}

-          Pavle Kalanj, St George, 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 34.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The youthful figure of St George, patron saint of the Trnovac church, is painted in an arch-topped, portrait-format rectangle. As in the previous two compositions, the figure is shown half length. Appropriately to the function ascribed to him (slaying the dragon), he is wearing military armour and a chlamys. There is a certain inconsistency in the modelling of the right hand, in which the saint is holding his spear (for example, the disproportionately long fingers). The inscription to left and right of the saint's halo reads: CD UTJHUBOT

-          Pavle Kalanj, St Sava, 1908, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 34.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The figure of St Sava, first Serbian archbishop, is painted in an arch-topped, portrait-format rectangle. The composition is dominated by the figure of the saint, who is shown in 1/3 length. The background is formed by the interaction of two colours – gold, which dominates in the upper register of the icon, and light green in the lower register. The saint's raised arms emerge from his long, plain vestments, allowing the artist to set the vertical lines of the drapery against the horizontals accentuated by the position of the saint's hands and thereby to create equilibrium. The right hand is held in the position of benediction, with the thumb touching the fourth finger(23), and his left a closed book. The saint is facing to the right, so that there is no communication with the viewer. The sophistication of the artist's brushstrokes is particularly noticeable in the treatment of the face of St Sava, with its long brown beard and hair, almond-shaped eyes and bushy eyebrows. To the left and right of his halo, which is accentuated by a thin red border, is a Cyrillic inscription reading: CD CFDF

-          Pavle Kalanj, Holy Trinity, 1980, oil on panel, gilding, 60 x 68.5 cm. Trnovac: church of St George the Great Martyr.

The icon of the Holy Trinity is in an arch-topped rectangle. It depicts a private, enclosed space in an architectural setting, where three angels are gathered around a table, two seated at the ends of the table and the third between them. In Orthodox art this motif developed “on the basis of the Christian dogma that God is in nature one, but consists of three persons: God the Father (the first person of the Trinity), God the Son or Christ (as the incarnation of the Logos, the second person of the Trinity), and the Holy Spirit.”(24) The iconographic nucleus for the development of this scene, where the Holy Trinity is depicted angelomorphically, is based on the Old Testament account of Abraham's hospitality, when the ancestor of the Jewish people, Abraham, when three men, who were in fact angels, stood before him “at the tent door,” and one of them told him that his wife Sarah would bear a son, though “Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age” and Sarah was past child-bearing age.

The angels in this scene are wearing the garments of Antiquity: a chiton and himation. The effect of the folds on their robes is enhanced by their magnificent wings, red on the outside and blue on the inside.

The emotional mildness of the icon is achieved by the way the angels at each end of the table are looking at each other while the angel in the middle is facing the viewer. The line of communication between the figures on the icon and the viewer is triangular, and assures the stability of all the visual elements.

At the top of the icon is an inscription reading: CD  NHJOBWF&

-          The highest point of the iconostasis is crowned by a cross with trefoil arms, within which the artist has painted the Crucifixion on a gold background. The body of the dead Christ is supported by a suppedaneum (footrest), in slight contrapose.  The head, with its gold halo, has fallen to his right shoulder.

-          Below the arms of the cross with the Crucifixion, in separate oval icons, are the Virgin, the stillness of her figure accentuated by the linearism of the folds of her maphorion, to the left, and St John, his body hunched over, to the right.

Description of the burial ground and tombstones

The burial ground beside the church of St George the Great Martyr in Trnovac covers an area of 35,689 m2.  It has always been multiconfessional, even though it is owned and run by the Serbian Orthodox parish in Tuzla. As a result, burials are allowed to the rites of all confessions or none. The burial ground has been in constant use since the late 18th century, but is probably even older than the oldest dated tombstone found there, which is dated 1800.

The tombstones are to be found over the entire area of the burial ground, suggesting that it has never been divided into plots. As a result, it is not possible to determine the exact total number of graves and tombstones. 

A study of the tombstones on the site has made it possible to assemble basic information about them. Most of the older tombstones date from the 19th and early 20th century. Taking the burial ground as a whole, on the basis of the workmanship of the tombstones, the type of stone used and the type of tombstone, it is possible to identify the specific features of various periods.  Some tombstones, mainly dating from the 19th century, bear information about the workshops where they were made. This is important as it provides evidence that there was a certain prototype of the variety of stone and the workmanship of the tombstones at certain periods, as confirmed by an on site inspection.

The shape of the tombstones usually depends on their date. Those dating from the early 19th century are cruciform, without plinth, and set in the ground. The epitaphs (usually facing east in relation to the church(25)) provide basic details of the deceased (year of death, occasionally the year of birth), sometimes in abbreviated form. These tombstones often have decorative elements carved on the stone slab on the other side from the epitaph, usually in the form of a cross of which the arms bear the monogram of Jesus Christ (IS/HS/NI/KA, standing for Iēsoũs Khristòs Nīkā, Jesus Christ Victorious). 

In the 19th and early 20th century the shape of the tombstones alters, so that pillars, obelisks and stelae are to be found. The tombstones of this group often stand on plinths on which the names of the people who erected them or the name of the stonemason's yard where they were made are carved.

Various types of stone were used to make the tombstones, with a certain type of stone often typical of a certain period: tufa, sandstone, limestone, and even the occasional marble tombstone.

As well as the technical aspects of the workmanship of the tombstones, their partly or wholly preserved epitaphs provide additional information, particularly those relating to linguistic changes, the type of script, the presence of decorative elements, etc.

The registers of births and deaths maintained by the priests of the Tuzla parish since it was first established were confiscated after World War II. Despite this, the parish archives still contain a register of births for 1904 to 1913 and a register of births for 1913 to 1935.

The register of deaths, which consists of a form with general information about the deceased (year, month, day and place of death; cause of death; age; full name; sex; marital status; whether baptised, a communicant and confessed; which religion they professed; etc.), provides much valuable information from which it is possible to indicate what sort of people were buried in the Trnovac graveyard, what their profession or occupation was, the origins of certain families, and influxes of foreigners at certain times (Russians, for example) and other social phenomena.

The Tuzla branch of the “Prosvjeta” Serbian Educational and Cultural Society and the Tuzla International Portrait Gallery have erected a memorial plaque to Đorđe Mihajlović (Tuzla, 4 February 1875 – Tuzla, 18 September 1919), a little-known artist whose works belong to the early stages of the development of modern art in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He is buried in the Trnovac graveyard, but the location of his grave is not known.

Another and more prominent artist from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ismet Mujezinović (Tuzla, 2 December 1907 – Tuzla, 7 January 1984), is also buried here alongside his wife Marija Mujezinović.

Staff members of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments have identified many of the tombstones on the site. Since the burial ground has not been divided into plots, they opted for an improvised division of the area into three zones: zone A (north of the church), zone B (below the road) and zone C (by the church, up to the road and the start of zone B).

A total of 321 tombstones were identified over the course of two days' work.

Tombstone no. 1 (A-005)(26)  

A cruciform tombstone measuring 71 x 41 x 11.5 cm. The epitaph, now completely illegible because of the presence of lichen and moss, was carved on the stone surface facing east. On the other side the tombstone was decorated with a triple cross extending over the entire surface, with arms ending in trefoils. In addition, uniform dots and stars were carved above and below the arms along the edge of the cross. The tombstone is overgrown with vegetation, leaning and sunken.

Tombstone no. 2 (A-011)

The tombstone is in three parts: a plinth, a slab with an epitaph, and a massive cross.  The tombstone measures 106 x 40 x 12 cm, and stands to the north-east of the church. The epitaph is in Cyrillic, with the use of abbreviations. The lack of skill of the mason is particularly obvious from the archaic, uneven lettering. The tombstone is upright, but covered with moss (especially the cross and plinth). The names of the persons who erected the tombstone are carved on the plinth, in archaic Cyrillic lettering, partly illegible:

MRKONJ Ć /DUŠAN. BORN 23.III.1857/DIED 27.X.1862. THIS TOMBSTONE IS ERECTED BY HIS FATHER/NEDELJKO/MOTHER...

Tombstone no. 3 (A-012)

A tombstone measuring 108 x 40.5 x 17 cm in the form of a stela. The top of the tombstone is accentuated by a pointed arch. The upper part of the tombstone is decorated with a cross flanked by two branchlets, with below a church in relief. The relief modelling of the church displays the outstanding skill of the master mason.The plinth is also decorated with a simple geometric motif. 

Tombstone no. 4 (A-025)

The tombstones of Ismet Mujezinović (1907-1984) and his wife Marija (1911-1985) stand in a separate area with overall dimensions of 6.33 m [sic]. The tombstones are of equal size at 238 x 141 x 46 cm, and are of white marble. They are in the form of a sarcophagus with their names and year of death cast on the top marble slab. Three steps lead to the grave site. To the left, by the tombstone of Ismet Mujezinović, is a stone bench measuring 141 x 40 cm. The area around the tombstones is neglected and overgrown.

Tombstone no. 5 (C-001)

A cruciform tombstone facing north-east and measuring  131 x 75 x 17.5 cm, the stone covered with lichen. It is decorated with floral motifs and crosses. The top part, above the epitaph, is decorated with a simple carved cross. The epitaph is of particular interest on account of the features of the early 20th century language. In Cyrillic, it provides the following information:

HERE LIE/THE MORTAL REMAINS OF RISTO NEDELJKOVIĆ/WHO LIVED 62 YEARS ON THIS EARTH/DIED IN OLD AGE AND PASSED INTO ETERNAL LIFE/ON 19 JULY 1905/THIS TOMBSTONE WAS ERECTED BY HIS BEST MAN/ĐORĐO ERIĆ/MAY HE REST IN PEACE. (27)

Tombstone no. 6 (C-002)         

A small tombstone measuring 71 x 39 x 12 cm standing beside tombstone no 5. It is cruciform, leaning and sunken. Lichens are growing on the stone, but the epitaph remains legible:

HERE/LIES/THE SERVANT/OF GOD/NIKO/ TOŠIĆ/PASSED AWAY/1855.

Tombstone no. 7 (C-003)

The family tomb of members of the Erić family consists of three tombstones beneath which a total of nine members are buried. All the tombstones are of the same size: 126 x 66 x 17 cm, and are cruciform, with small stone slabs between them. The earliest date of death recorded on them is 1860, but the tombstone is probably of more recent date.

Tombstone no. 8 (C-005)

A tombstone measuring 74 x 52 x 16.5 cm, leaning and sunken. Lichen and moss have covered the epitaph, which is illegible. On the side to which it is leaning, the other side from the epitaph, an unusual decoration has survived – a simple carved cross with two stylized hands below the crossbars.

Tombstone no. 9 (C-016)

A cruciform tombstone with overall dimensions of 136 x 69 x 18 cm. The top arm is decorated with a simple cross below which is the epitaph in Cyrillic:

HERE/LIE THE MORAL REMAINS/OF LJUBICA NEE ERIĆ/WIFE OF OBREN SIMIĆ/WHO/LIVED 49 YEARS AND PASSED AWAY/INTO ETERNAL LIFE/ON 8/FEBRUARY/1901. THIS TOMBSTONE/WAS ERECTED/BY HER BROTHER ĐORĐO ERIĆ/AND SISTER-IN-LAW JULKA/MAY SHE EREST IN PEACE.

The tombstone is relatively well preserved, though lichen and moss are growing on it and there are small cracks and surface flaking.

Tombstone no. 10 (C-017)

A tombstone in the form of a stela, measuring 116 x 56 x 11 cm, consisting of a stone slab with an epitaph and a plinth. The top of the tombstone is damaged, and lichen and moss are growing on it. The tombstone is overgrown, leaning and sunken. The effects of the elements in addition to these factors have left the epitaph only partly preserved. The date of death is recorded as 1891. The tombstone is of interest for another reason: on the bottom right corner, it bears the surviving signature of the stonemason:

GAVRA MARKOVIĆ/REZO U. D. T./

Tombstone no. 11 (C-018)

Seven members of the Ristić family are buried in a grave site with four tombstones (overall measurements 335 x 520 cm). The oldest tombstone dates from 1892. Three of the tombstones display the same stylistic features and are identical in size; they are decorated at the top, below the cruciform top, with the tree of life or an anchor. The fourth, which is in marble, is of more recent date.

Tombstone no. 12 (C-019)

This tombstone is of interest in that it supplies further information about the Jovanović family, members of which built the Trnovac church. The tombstone, measuring 162 x 57 x 17 cm, consists of three parts: a cross at the top, a slab with an epitaph flanked by two pillars in relief, and a plinth. Below the cross but above the epitaph is a carving of a tree with a much-branched crown. The epitaph is on the slab, facing north-east in relation to the church and plinth. It is carefully carved in Cyrillic:

BENEATH THIS/DARK GRAVE LIE/THE REMAINS OF THE LATE/SAVVKA/WIFE OF THE LATE/ALEKSA OSTOJIĆ/WHO PASSED INTO/ETERNAL LIFE IN THE 28TH YEAR OF HER YOUTH ON/1 MARCH 1871.

An inscription on the plinth provides the following information:

THIS SAD AND MOURNFUL TOMBSTONE/WAS ERECTED BY SAVKA'S FATHER/RISTA JOVANOVIĆ A MERCHANT OF THIS PLACE.

Tombstone no. 13 (C-020)

Not far from the tombstone of Savka Ostojić (née Jovanović) is that of her husband Aleksa Ostojić. The tombstone measures 85 x 33 x 17 cm, and is in the form of a stela. It is leaning and sunken, and covered with moss. It faces north-east in relation to the church. Above the epitaph is a well-preserved decoration in relief. The triangular projections radiating in a semicircle on the top part of the tombstone suggest that it represents the sun. This is corroborated by the cross in the middle of the sun, above the arms of which are diagonal sun rays. The epitaph is partly preserved, and the name of the deceased can still be made out:

THE TOMB OF ALEKSA OSTOJIĆ

as well as the beginning of a text in Cyrillic:

PAUSE HERE, PASSER-BY, AND READ THESE WORDS...

Tombstone no. 14 (C-021)

A tombstone of cruciform outline, measuring 66 x 66 x 21 cm, facing south-west in relation to the church. It has no plinth, is sunken, and is leaning slightly. Though covered with moss and lichen, the Cyrillic epitaph is well preserved and legible:

HERE/LIES/THE LATE SERVANT/OF GOD JOVO LAZAREVI/ Ć WHO PASSED AWAY ON 24/SEPTEMBER 1866/IN TUZLA.

Beside this tombstone is a smaller one almost completely buried (only the top is showing, 21 x 37 x 13 cm).

Tombstone no. 15 (C-030)

This cruciform tombstone measures 57 x 59 x 18 cm. It is leaning and sunken, and the stone slab with the epitaph is in poor condition; the epitaph, though partly preserved, is illegible. On the other side from the epitaph is a carved decoration in the form of a cross with the monogram of Christ below the crossbars (IS/HR/NI/KA).

Tombstone no. 16 (C-033)

In shape and treatment of the stone and the decoration, this tombstone forms part of a group that are set randomly but fairly close together. It is cruciform, measuring 61 x 61 x 23 cm. It is leaning and sunken, and covered with moss and lichen. The partly preserved epitaph is illegible. On the stone slab, on the other side from the epitaph, is a decoration in the form of a cross with the monogram of Christ below the crossbars (IS/HR/NI/KA).

Tombstone no. 17 (C-034)

This cruciform tombstone measures 43 x 40,5 x 20 cm. It is leaning and sunken, and the epitaph has been completely destroyed. On the other side from the epitaph, a cross has survived, with the monogram of Christ.

Tombstone no. 18 (C-036)

This cruciform tombstone measures 85 x 74 x 25 cm. The side with the epitaph is leaning over towards the ground. It is sunken and covered with moss and lichen. The partly preserved epitaph reveals that the date of death was 1867.  Above the epitaph is a well-carved cross, also with the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 19 (C-038)

This group of graves consists of four cruciform tombstones later placed on a single concrete plinth measuring 206 x 43 cm. The tombstones are covered with moss and lichen, and there are visible cracks in and damage to the stone. The epitaphs in Cyrillic are partly preserved, and reveal that the tombstones date, from right to left, to 1853, 1851, 1865 and 1870.

Tombstone no. 20 (C-039)

This cruciform tombstone measures 74 x 41 x 10 cm. It has no plinth, and is leaning and sunken. The epitaph has been completed faded by the elements. Only the decoration on the other side from the epitaph has survived, consisting of a cross and the monogram of Christ carved outside it, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 21 (C-043)

This cruciform tombstone measures 64 x 48,5 x 22 cm, and is set in the ground without a plinth; it is now leaning and sunken. The stone surface with the epitaph is partly preserved. The epitaph in Cyrillic contains numerous abbreviations, but it is possible to make out:

/THE LATE SERVANT OF GOD/LUKA MISILOVIĆ/PASSED AWAY 1850.

On the other side from the epitaph is a carved decoration, consisting of a cross and the monogram of Christ carved outside it, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Group of tombstones no. 22 (C-044), no. 23(C-045), no. 24 (C-046) and no. 25 (C-047)

These four tombstones, all roughly of the same size (34 x 40 x 17 cm; 26 x 27 x 10 cm; 35 x 33 x 21cm; 40 x 41 x 18 cm), are similar in shape and form. All are cruciform, and all have, on the other side from the epitaph, a carved cross on the ends of which the monogram of Christ is carved, IS/HR/NI/KA. This group of tombstones has clearly been damaged by the erection of new tombstones. The tombstones are covered with moss and lichen and the stone is visibly damaged. The surviving parts of the epitaphs suggest that they were in Cyrillic.

Group of tombstones no. 26 (C-055), no. 27 (C-056), and no. 28 (C-057)

This group consists of three tombstones all quite near to each other. All are cruciform, and of roughly the same size (48 x 42 x 16 cm; 45 x 31 x 12 cm; 61 x 40 x 16.5 cm). They are overgrown, leaning and sunken, and moss and lichen are growing on the stone.  The epitaphs are eroded and illegible. They differ in decoration, to be exact in the way the cross and the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA, are carved:

1.       no. 26 and no. 28 – the cross is carved inside a square panel with the monogram of Christ above and below the crossbars

2.       no. 27 – the decoration consists of two parallel lines following the outlines of the cruciform tombstones.

Tombstone no. 29 (C-058)

This cruciform tombstone measures 94 x 48 x 23.5 cm. It is overgrown with weeds and covered with moss and lichen, and is leaning and sunken. Like a previous group, it has been damaged by the introduction of new grave sites. The epitaph is partly preserved, but does not give the year of birth or death. On the other side from the epitaph is a decoration with a cross and the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 30 (C-068)

This cruciform tombstone measures 85 x 78 x 22 cm. It is partly overgrown with low-growing vegetation and is covered with moss and lichen; it is leaning and sunken. The epitaph is to the east of the church, and on the other side of the stone surface is a decoration of a cross and the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA. The epitaph is well preserved and legible. In Cyrillic, it reads:

HERE/LIES/THE SERVANT OF GOD/ ANĐA WIFE OF BOŽO/PAVLOVIĆ PASSED AWAY/18 FEBRUARY 1863.

Tombstone no. 31 (C-069)

Tombstone no. 31 is also cruciform, measuring 84 x 75 x 25 cm. It is leaning over to the left and is overgrown with low-growing plants and partly covered with moss and lichen.  The epitaph is in Cyrillic using abbreviations. The lettering is archaic, but the year of death, 1850, can be made out. On the other side from the epitaph is a decoration in the form of a cross above and below the cross arms of which are the letters of the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 32 (C-071)

This group consists of three tombstones, two in the form of stelae topped by a cross and the third, in the form of an obelisk, between the first two. The letters have partly faded making the epitaph difficult to read. The cross on the first tombstone is decorated with a carved crucifix and the monogram IS/HR/NI/KA, the only example of such a decoration among the tombstones identified here. They date from the late 19th century.

Tombstone no. 33 (C-072)

The tombstone stands to the east of the church. It is leaning slightly and sunken. The stone surface with the epitaph is partly preserved. In the top part, before the text in Cyrillic, is a tree with a much-branched crown. At the bottom the year of death, 1896, can be made out. The other side is decorated with lines following the cruciform outline of the tombstones. Inside is a carved freestanding cross with the arms ending in circles.

Tombstone no. 34 (C-076)

The tombstone stands to the east of the church. It is leaning and sunken, and partly overgrown with low-growing vegetation. Moss and lichen are growing on the stone. The epitaph is illegible and partly destroyed. On the other side is a simple decoration – a cross and the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 35 (C-080)

A tombstone in the form of a stela topped by a massive cross. The stone surface with the epitaph is flanked by two pillars in relief. The tombstone is partly overgrown with low-growing vegetation, and minor damage and flaking of the stone was observed. The epitaph is in Cyrillic, but the effects of the elements and, in part, because of the quality of the stone, it has faded. It is still possible to make out the year of death, 1819.

Tombstone no. 36 (C-082)

This cruciform tombstone measures 58 x 56 x 19 cm. It is overgrown, and much of the surface of the stone is covered with moss and lichen. The tombstone is leaning and sunken. The partly preserved epitaph reveals that the person buried here is

SERVANT OF GOD/ANKA . . . 1865.

The other side is decorated with a carved cross and the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 37 (C-084)

This cruciform tombstone measures 90 x 69 x 22 cm. It is overgrown with low-growing plants, leaning and sunken, and the entire surface is covered with moss and lichen. The partly legible epitaph is in Cyrillic in archaic lettering. At the bottom the year of death, 1800, can be made out. The other side is decorated with a simple cross.

Group of tombstones no. 38 (C-089), no. 39 (C-090) and no. 40 (C-091)

The tombstones stand relatively close to one another. They are cruciform, and in this and the type of script and decoration may be regarded as a single group. They are overgrown, leaning and sunken, and the entire surface is covered with moss and lichen. The epitaphs are partly preserved but illegible. The tombstones are of roughly the same size: 43 x 44 x 13 cm; 35 x 43 x 16 cm i 64 x 48 x 19.5 cm. The year of death, 1864, can be seen on tombstone no. 40.

Tombstone no. 41 (C-094)

This cruciform tombstone measures 53 x 45 x 16 cm. Lichen and moss are growing on the surface of the tombstone. The epitaph is partly preserved, and is in Cyrillic; the year 1863 at the bottom is given as the year of death. The other side is decorated with a cross and the monogram IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 42 (C-096)

The tombstone stands to the east of the church.  It is two-thirds buried. The epitaph, in Cyrillic, is partly preserved. On the back the visible part of the decoration consists of a cross and the monogram of Christ, IS/HR/NI/KA.

Tombstone no. 43 (C-097)

A tombstone in the form of a stela, measuring 96 x 39 x 14 cm, standing to the east of the church. It is leaning slightly and sunken. Above the epitaph it is decorated with a sun motif and a cross with rays extending from the centre. The epitaph in Cyrillic is legible in full:

HERE LIES/THE LATE/STAKA/JOŠILOVIĆA/A NATIVE OF/SARAJEVO MARRIED TO /MAKSIM JOVANOVIĆ/IN TUZLA, MARRIED ON/16//II 1863 AND PASSED AWAY/INTO ETERNAL LIFE ON 9 9//.1892 GOD/AT THE AGE OF 54.  THIS/TOMBSTONE /WAS ERECTED BY HER GRIEVING/HUSBAND MAKSIM ANDSON/MIKAILO WITH DAUGHTER-IN-LAW.

Tombstone no. 44 (C-100)

This tombstone in the form of a stela measures 77 x 29 x 10.5 cm. The top part is damaged (part of the tombstone is missing), but part of the decoration has survived – a cross inscribed in the disc of the sun. It is leaning slightly and sunken. Moss and lichen are growing on the surface. The epitaph is in Cyrillic and has faded from exposure to the elements. Even the date is unclear, with the last digit missing: 186..

Tombstone no. 45 (C-103)

This tombstone in the form of a stela measures 107 x 40 x 17 cm. At the top is a well preserved decoration in the form of the disc of the sun within which a cross is carved, with rays of the sun extending from the arms of the cross. The tombstone is overgrown with low-growing vegetation, and is leaning slightly and sunken. The epitaph, in Cyrillic, provides information on yet another Tuzla merchant family.

HERE IN THIS/DARK GRAVE/LIES

THE BODY OF/KOSTA/JOVANOVIĆ/MERCHANT AND RESIDENT/OF TUZLA/WHO LIVED TO THE AGE OF 31 AND PASSED AWAY/INTO ETERNAL LIFE IN 1875/20 APRIL/THIS MONUMENT WAS ERECTED/BY HIS BROTHERS/OUT OF THEIR GREAT LOVE/FOR HIM IN PERPETUAL MEMORY RISTO . . .

Tombstone no. 46 (C-104)

This cruciform tombstone measures 85 x 62 x 19 cm. It is overgrown with low-growing vegetation, leaning and sunken. Moss and lichen are growing on the surface of the stone. The epitaph is partly preserved and legible. At the bottom is the year 1866 as the year of death. It is decorated on the other side with a small cross.

Tombstone no. 47 (C-107)

This small tombstone measure 58 x 29 x 11.5 cm, and is leaning and sunken. Moss and lichen on the surface make it impossible to decipher the two-line Cyrillic inscription. Above and below the epitaph are carved floral motifs.

Tombstone no. 48 (C-111)

This cruciform tombstone measures 74 x 58 x 9 cm.  It is overgrown, leaning slightly and sunken. Moss and lichen are growing over the entire surface, and the stone has darkened from exposure to the elements. Part of the top arm of the cross is missing. Probably because of lack of space, the text of the epitaph is cramped, with no spaces between the words. Above the epitaph is a simple carved cross, with below it, in Cyrillic, the following epitaph:

HERE IN/THIS GRAVE LIES THE BODY/OF JOVO B. BLAGOJEVIĆ/PASSED AWAY IN 1855.

The other side of the tombstone is decorated with a cross following the outlines of the tombstone, with the arms ending in circles.

Tombstone no. 49 (C-114)

This cruciform tombstone measures 151 x 100 x 27.5 cm. It is leaning slightly and sunken. Moss and lichen are growing on the stone surface. Even so, the Cyrillic epitaph is largely preserved and legible:

HERE IN/THIS GR/AVE/PEA/CEFULLY/LIE/THE/BONES OF THE SERVANTOF GOD/MANOILO BLAGOIEVIĆ MERCH/ANT AGED 44/PASSED AWAY IN 1871/JANUARY/TOMBSTONE ER/ECTED BY HIS SON/ALEKSA.

The other side of the tombstone is decorated with a cross and the monogram of Christ above and below the cross arms.

Tombstone no. 50 (C-125)

No 50 covers the ten tombstones beneath which members of the Tuzla merchant family Stokanović are buried. The tenth dates from the mid 20th century; the earlier ones range in date from 1849 to 1909. The differ in shape, size and type of stone, ranging from cruciform to stelae. Their measurements are as follows:

1.       tombstone dating from 1868, 142 x 92 x 26 cm,

2.       tombstone dating from 1849, 109 x 54 x 25 cm,

3.       tombstone dating from 1853, 108 x 67 x 24 cm,

4.       tombstone dating from 1852, 118 x 54 x 23 cm,

5.       tombstone dating from 1872, 107 x 39 x 9 cm,

6.       tombstone dating from 1904, 220 x 66 x 15 cm

7.       tombstone dating from 1909, 200 x 79 x 26 cm

8.       tombstone dating from 1885, 210 x 79 x 46 cm

9.       tombstone dating from 1905, 210 x 79 x 46 cm.

 

3. Research and conservation and restoration works

The records of the monument, no. 03-1/08, enclosed with a letter(28) from the Institute for the Protection and Use of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Tuzla Canton, state that the church has been damaged on several occasions. In World War II the interior was vandalized, and in 1992 the church was hit by a shell and the roof was damaged. The roof has since been repaired.

According to architect Dražen Kosec(29), the church was damaged by shell fire in the summer of 1992. It was hit above the roof cladding at the junction of the north and east conches and the wall, causing damage to the flashings. The Institute for the Protection and Use of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Tuzla Canton recorded the damage and ordered it to be repaired; the repairs were carried out in the autumn of 1992 by Tehnograd of Tuzla.

 

4. Current condition of the property

The property was probably built without adequate insulation, which has resulted in rising damp in the lower part of the walls. The combination of rising damp and, most likely, the effects of nitrates, chlorides or sulphates, has resulted in efflorescence in the walls and in damage to the plaster.(30) Since the dado zone of the walls is clad with carpeting which has been glued to the walls to a height of approx. 1.60 m, and given the musty smell that betrays the presence of damp, it is very likely that the building is suffering from the effects of rising damp.

There is visible damage to the plaster to an area of approx. 1 m2 on the ceiling between the central dome and the apse, probably also caused by damp. Given the position of this damage, it is likely that it was caused by the damage to the copper roof cladding or to the flashings at that point when the church was hit by a shell in 1992.

No evidence that the roof was leaking at that point was found during on-site visits to the property on 22 April 2009 and later, on 3 and 4 June 2009.(31)  

Structural cracks can be seen at the junction of the entrance flight of steps and the church. These are about 2 cm wide and run parallel with and over the full length of the entrance portal. They have probably been caused by uneven subsidence beneath the steps by comparison with the foundations.

Current condition of the murals, iconostasis and icons

The inspection of the condition of the murals, wooden iconostasis and icons on the iconostasis revealed them to be very well preserved.  

Current condition of the burial ground

Regular maintenance of the burial ground at Trnovac is preventing it from becoming neglected and overgrown. Most of the late 19th century tombstones are leaning and partly sunken, and some are cracked. Most of the epitaphs have disappeared or become barely legible from the effects of the elements and the growth of moss and lichen on the tombstones.

 

5. Legal status to date

According to the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport, the church of St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac, Tuzla, was neither registered nor protected by the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of BiH.(32)  

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.i.       quality of workmanship

C.ii.      quality of materials

C.iii.      proportions

C.iv.      composition

C.v.       value of details

C.vi.      value of construction

D.         Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)

D.i.       material evidence of a lesser known historical era

D.ii.      evidence of historical change

D.iv.      evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

E.         Symbolic value

E.i.       ontological value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iii.      traditional value

E.iv.      relation to rituals or ceremonies

E.v.       significance for the identity of a group of people

F.         Townscape/ Landscape value

F.i.       relation to other elements of the site

F.ii.       meaning in the townscape

F.iii.      the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site

G.         Authenticity

G.i.       form and design

G.ii.      material and content

G.iii.     use and function

G.iv.      traditions and techniques

G.v.      location and setting

G.vi.      spirit and feeling

G.vii.     other internal and external factors

H.         Rarity and representativity

H.i.       unique or rare example of a certain type or style

I.          Completeness

I.i.         physical coherence

I.ii.        homogeneity

I.iii.       completeness

I.iv.       undamaged condition

For the graves and burial ground

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C. i.      quality of workmanship

C.ii.      quality of materials

D.         Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)

D.i.       material evidence of a lesser known historical era

D.ii.      evidence of historical change

D.iii.      work of a major artist or builder

D.iv.      evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

E.         Symbolic value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iv.      relation to rituals or ceremonies

E.v.       significance for the identity of a group of people

F.         Townscape/ Landscape value

F.i.       relation to other elements of the site

F.ii.       meaning in the townscape

F.iii.      the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site

G.         Authenticity

G.iii.     use and function

G.v.      location and setting

G.vi.      spirit and feeling

G.vii.     other internal and external factors

I.          Completeness

I.i.         physical coherence

I.ii.        homogeneity

I.iii.       completeness

I.iv.       undamaged condition

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Copy of cadastral plan, scale 1:1000, c.p. no. 3033 (new survey), c.m. Tuzla II, Municipality Tuzla, plan nos. 60 and 71, issued on 27 May 2008 by the Department of Geodetics and Proprietary Affairs, Municipality Tuzla, Canton Tuzla, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

-          Identification of c.p. no. 3033 (new survey), c.m. Tuzla, corresponding to c.p. nos. 1338/1, 1338/2 and part of 1340, c.m. Tuzla (old survey), issued on 27 May 2008 by the Department of Geodetics and Proprietary Affairs, Municipality Tuzla, Canton Tuzla, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

-          Copy of proof of title no. 1265 (for c.p. no. 3033, property of the Serbian Orthodox parish in Tuzla); c.m. Tuzla II, issued on 21 May 2008 by the Department of Geodetics and Proprietary Affairs, Municipality Tuzla, Canton Tuzla, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

-          Photodocumentation: photographs of the architectural ensemble of the Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr with burial ground at Trnovac in Tuzla, taken on 22 April 2009 and 3 and 4 June 2009 by art historian Aleksandra Bunčić and architect Emir Softić using Canon PowerShot S3IS and Canon PowerShot A450 digital cameras.

-          Drawings: technical drawing of the Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr at Trnovac in Tuzla; surveyed and drawn on 22 April 2009 by architect Emir Softić

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the architectural ensemble of the Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr with burial ground at Trnovac in Tuzla as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted: 

 

1930     Vojislav Bogićević, Spomenica Prosvjetinog đačkog doma u Tuzli, 1919-1929 (Commemorative Volume of the Prosvjeta Boarding School in Tuzla, 1919-1929), Tuzla, 1930

 

1949     Đorđe Pejanović, Štampa u BiH (1850-1941) (The Press in BiH [1850-1941]), Svjetlost, Sarajevo,1949

 

1966     Memoari Živka Crnogorčevića (Memoirs of Živko Crnogorčević), prepared for the press by Milenko S. Filipović, ANBiH, 1966

 

1977     Srpska pravoslavna eparhija zvorničko-tuzlanska, Šematizam (Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Zvornik and Tuzla, Schematism), Tuzla

 

1981     Dragiša Trifković,Tuzlanski vremeplov (Tuzla Timewarp), 1981

 

1984     Brkić, Nemanja, Tehnologija slikarstva, vajarstva i ikonografija (The Techniques of Painting, Sculpture and Iconography), Belgrade: University of Art.

 

2005     Jovanović, Zoran M., Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva (ABC of Orthodox Iconography and Architecture), Belgrade, Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Dina.

 

2006     Badurina, Anđelko (ed.), Leksikon ikonografije, liturgike i simbolike zapadnog kršćanstva (Lexicon of the Iconography, Liturgy and Symbolism of Western Christianity), Zagreb: Kršćanska sadašnjost.

 

            Documentation from the archives of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Tuzla.


           

(1) A senior representative of the Ottoman authorities.

(2) The following is an account of the origins of the original Zvornik eparchy: “At the time of the Turkish conquest, when the Srebrenik metropolitanate ceased to be, the area that fell to the Turks probably belonged to the Arilje metropolitanate, while the area that remained under Hungarian rule became part of the Srem eparchy. When they fell to the Turks in the late 15th and early decades of the 16th century, north-eastern Bosnia and Mačva became part of the new Zvornik eparchy, which covered the same territory as the Zvornik sanjak and was based in Zvornik, as was the seat of the sanjak. The areas between the rivers Bosna, Sava and Spreča and Mt Majevica were part of the eparchy, along with the whole of the Drina valley on the right bank of the river Drina, and the Brvenik kadiluk, joined in 1528-1533 by Mačva.” (Srpska pravoslavna eparhija zvorničko-tuzlanska, Šematizam, Tuzla, 1977, 19). [Reviewer's note: I have no objection to these details but would recommend Boris Nilević's book on the Serbian Orthodox Church in BiH as a relevant reference work.]

(3) This length does not include the steps, which are about 2.74 m in length, making an overall length including the steps of approx. 2.74 + 11.61 = 14.35 m (op. E. Softić)

(4) As measured from the floor of the church (op. E. Softić)

(5) As measured from the floor of the church

(6) As measured from the floor of the church

(7) The arches abut onto the perimeter walls of the nave

(8) As measured from the floor of the church

(9) These measurements have been taken axially not in terms of footprint (op. E.Softić)

(10) (between the crypt and the ground floor)

(11) A circle is inscribed within the rectangle, making the wall thinnest at mid point on the sides of the towers E. Softić).

(12) Translator's note: this is as provided in the original of this Decision, and is unintelligible to me, as are all the other inscriptions of this kind in later passages of the Decision.

(13) Information provided by the Institute for the Protection and Use of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Tuzla Canton.

(14) Translator's notes: 1) the translations of the passages are taken from the King James version of the New Testament. However, 2) the opening words of the Gospel according to Mark and the Gospel according to Matthew seem to have been switched; in the King James version, Mark begins “The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the son of God [rather than son of Abraham],” and Matthew begins “The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David.” Not having an Orthodox bible to hand, I cannot verify whether this is a mistake by the author of this text or an accurate quotation from the two gospels in question, which seems unlikely. A quick search of the internet failed to turn up an on-line version of the bible in Serbian, but a version in Macedonian matches the King James version.

(15) Zoran M. Jovanović. Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva. Belgrade: Dina: 2005, 19.

(16) Zoran M. Jovanović. Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva. Belgrade: Dina: 2005, 15.

(17) King James Version of the Holy Bible, see fn.14 re failure to find an on-line Serbian Orthodox version of the bible in the limited time available.

(18) Note: since the composition lacks spatial relations, the notion of foreground should be regarded with some qualifications

(19) Whether deliberately or not, the artist painted Jesus rather larger than the other figures. It is well known that children often use this device to indicate the importance of a particular person.

(20) Zoran M. Jovanović. Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva. Belgrade: Dina: 2005, 99. [The feast day celebrates the appearance of the Mother of God at Blachernae (Vlaherna) in the tenth century. At the end of St. Andrei (Andrew of Constantinople) Yurodivyi's life, he, with his disciple St.

Epiphanius, and a group of people, saw the Mother of God, St. John the Baptist, and several other saints and angels during a vigil in the Church of Blachernae, nearby the city gates. The Blachernae Palace church was where several of the relics [of the Virgin] were kept. The relics were her robe, veil, and part of her belt that had been transferred from Palestine during the fifth century. The Theotokos approached the center of the church, knelt down and remained in prayer for a long time. Her face was drowned in tears. Then she took her veil (cerement) off and spread it over the people as a sign of protection. During the time, the people in the city were threatened by a barbarian invasion. After the appearance of the Mother of God, the danger was averted and the city was spared from bloodshed

and suffering. (Taken from: http://newsgroups.derkeiler.com/Archive/Soc/soc.culture.romanian/2008-10/msg00016.html, consulted on 15 January 2009).  Trans.]

(21) King James Bible

(22) Zoran M. Jovanović. Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva. Belgrade: Dina: 2005, 126.

(23) For more see Nemanja Brkić. Tehnologija slikarstva, vajarstva i ikonografija. Belgrade: University of Art, 1984, 294.

(24) Zoran M. Jovanović. Azbučnik pravoslavne ikonografije i graditeljstva. Belgrade: Dina: 2005, 377

(25) Translator's note: It is not quite clear to me what the expression “facing east [or some other direction, as below] in relation to the church” means. Surely the direction in which a tombstone is facing, if expressed in terms of points of the compass, is unaffected by the presence of the church? Or does it mean that the tombstone is standing to the east, or whatever, of the church?

(26) The number of tombstones in the records of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, for each of which a file was set up including dimensions, state of preservation and proposals for conservation.

(27) Translator's note: the epitaphs are translated rather freely, since the linguistic features are not relevant to the English language and there seems little point in attempting to find early 20th century archaicisms (if indeed so recent a date can be regarded as archaic) into which to translate them.

(28) Letter dated 23 May 2009-8 [sic] from the Institute for the Protection and Use of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Tuzla Canton

(29) A staff member of the Institute for the Protection and Use of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Tuzla Canton (op. E. Softić)

(30) The pressure caused by swelling exerts a significant “explosive force” which damages the plaster, causing cracks and flaking.

(31) 3 and 4 June 2009, when Aleksandra Bunčić and Emir Softić of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments surveyed the property at Trnovac, were very wet days (op. E. Softić).

(32) Letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport, no. 07-40-4-1896-1/08, of 21 May 2008, to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.       



Orthodox church of St George the Great Martyr at TrnovacEntrance facadePortalIconostasis
Pavement of the nave of the churchChoirRosette Central dome
Pavle Kalanj, Cerement of the Virgin, 1980, oil on panel, gildingThe oldest tombstone dating from 1800Tombstone Tombstone


BiH jezici 
Commision to preserve national monuments © 2003. Design & Dev.: