Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the “Official Gazette of BiH” no. 75/08.
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 28 March to 1 April 2008 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic monument of the Musafirhana (Salihagić house) in Fojnica is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1009, cadastral municipality Fojnica, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02, 6/04 and 51/07) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
The following protection measures are hereby stipulated, which shall apply to the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision:
- all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, including works designed to display the monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
- the property may be used for residential, educational and cultural purposes in a manner that shall not be detrimental to the integrity of the property and its meaning in the townscape;
- the Government of the Federation shall ensure that a programme for the reconstruction of the property is drawn up.
The buffer zone consists of the plots bordering the plot on which the National Monument is located. In this zone the following protection measures shall apply:
- the extension of existing buildings and the erection of new ones that could be detrimental in size, appearance or any other way to the National Monument are prohibited.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
29 March 2008
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 4 February 2008 the Commission received a petition from Suvad Džafić of Fojnica to designate the Musafirhana in Fojnica as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Documentation on the location and the current owner and user of the property
- An inspection of the current condition of the property
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The Musafirhana is in the oldest quarter of Fojnica, Atik mahala, 20 metres to the west of the regulated course of the river Šćona and 50 metres to the north-west of the Atik mosque. The plot on which the Musafirhana stands, which has an area of approx. 719 sq.m., borders Bosanska street to the north and Konak street to the east. It is surrounded by detached houses, some of two storeys (ground + 1) and some of three (ground + 1 + attic storey).
The National Monument is located on cadastral plot no. 1009, cadastral municipality Fojnica, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The region around modern Fojnica was renowned in mediaeval times for its silver mines. The beginnings of mining in this part of the world are associated with the arrival of German Saxon miners during the time of ban (governor) Stjepan II Kotromanić. There is reference in 1349 to the Ostružnica silver mine, which was very close to Fojnica, and to Dubrovnik merchants who exported silver. The earliest reference to Fojnica itself dates from 1365. In the early 15th century new mines were opened in Deževice (1403) and Dusina (1413), both near Fojnica. Between 1430 and 1450 a total of 365 Dubrovnik merchants were based in Fojnica, the largest Dubrovnik colony in the Bosnian state. The 1468/69 defter (tax census) reveals that Fojnica had 329 households and 20 married (possibly a typo for bachelor households) suggesting that Fojnica had a population of at least 1,600. The Franciscan monastery of St Mary, built in 1442 at Pazarnice and moved in the early 16th century to its present location at the foot of Križ hill, played an important part in the development of mediaeval Fojnica and its urban structure.
The mosque in Atik mahala in Fojnica was built before 1570 by Mustafa, son of Hizr. According to a 1604 record, the capital of the vakuf (pious endowment) of the mosque was 28,000 akčas, from which the mosque officials were paid: the imam and hatib (halifa Mehmed) 6 akčas, the muezzin (Isa, son of Husref) 4 akčas, the servant 1 akča and the vakuf manager 2 akčas a day.(1)
There are four candlesticks in the Atik mosque of which two were endowed by Mehmed-aga Salihagić in 1894 and the other two by Derviša, daughter of Ali beg Džinić of Sarajevo, in 1902/03.
The Atik mosque was restored in 1820, as recorded in the inscription over the entrance door, written by Sheikh Abdurrahman Sirrija. The restoration was managed by Sirri-baba, Sheikh of the tekke at Oglavak.
There is no precise information on the date of origin of the Musafirhana. It was probably built in the first half of the 19th century, given that it was built by the brothers Muhamedaga, Mehmedaga and Muhmutaga Salihagić, the sons (or grandsons) of Salihaga Iskrić, who fought as an aga (agha – officer in the Ottoman army) in the Dubica war of 1788-91 and was decorated with a čalenka, still in the possession of the family. During the Austro-Hungarian period in BiH it was used as a musafirhana (a hostel where travellers could stay free of charge). A pyramid with a spire was attached to the roof of the house, to announce to travellers that they could lodge for a maximum of three days free of charge in the house, during which time they would receive free food for themselves and fodder for their horses.
Two manuscript copies of the Qur'an, dating from 1615 and 1648, were made and housed in the musafirhana. The latter is still in Fojnica, while the former was found in Dubrovnik after World War II. The first manuscript was transcribed by Husrev son of Mustafa and the second by “mevlevija Mustafa,“ probably the same as Katibi Mustafa Bošnjak, a famous scribe and calligrapher.(2)
The 1658 copy of the Qur'an referred to by Halid Buljina is not now in the Musafirhana.
According to the Land Register entry, the owners of the Musafirhana are Kazaferović (Subhija) Fatima of Visoko with an 8/40 share, Salihagić (Subhija) Munib of Fojnica with an 11/40 share, and Salihagić (Subhija) Mujo of Fojnica with an 11/40 share. Since Salihagić (Subhija) Munib has died, his share has passed to his son Edin Salihagić and daughter Aida Memija of Fojnica. The share of Salihagić (Subhija) Mujo, also deceased, has passed to his daughter Muhić Sabira of Fojnica.
2. Description of the property
The Musafirhana occupies 110 sq.m. of the total area of the plot of approx. 719 sq.m. To the east of the plot are two outbuildings, and to the south-east of the Musafirhana is a garden with an orchard, flower garden, decorative box shrubbery and a cobbled path leading from the house to the entrance gateway on Bosanska street. The plot has a stone boundary wall to the north-east (facing Bosanska street) and the south-east (facing Konak street).
The house is rectangular in plan, measuring approx. 6.62 x 15.52 m on the ground floor, with a rectangular projecting entrance area to the south-east measuring approx. 1.88 x 5.36 m. It is a two-storey building (ground + 1) and has a steeply pitched hipped roof (approx. 55-60 degree pitch) clad with wooden shingles.
The first floor is larger in area than the ground floor:
- The south-easternmost part of the first floor has a jutty of approx. 145 cm beyond the ground floor, with the jetty joists of the first-floor room resting via a wooden jetty plate (beam) approx. 440 cm in length on a wooden pillar 15 x 21 in section and approx. 230 cm in height, set on a stone base of about 15 cm in height;
- Above the entrance to the musafirhana is an oriel projecting out from the wall face of the second floor [sic] by approx. 110 cm and from the wall face of the second floor [sic] by approx. 225 cm.
The materials used on the masonry ground floor of the property vary: the north-west wall (approx. 72 cm thick) and the north-east wall (approx. 65 cm thick) are of quarry stone with wooden tie beams, while the south-west and south-east walls are of unbaked brick, and are approx. 46-48 cm thick, with wooden tie beams. The first floor is half timbered with an infill of unbaked brick; here the walls are approx. 18 cm thick. The floor joists are wooden, and the daylight height of the ground-floor rooms is approx. 216 to 227 cm and that of the first-floor rooms approx. 257 to 269 cm (approx. 274 cm in the kamarija [a kind of balcony]).
The floor level of the hajat (vestibule) is about 40 cm above ground level, with two steps leading up to the hajat. To the left (south-west) and right (north-east) of the hajat, which measures approx.390 x 389 cm, is a halvat measuring 462 x 360 cm and 455 x 391 cm respectively. Each halvat leads into a smaller room measuring 282 x 176 cm and 476 x 145 cm respectively, abutting onto the north-west wall of the Musafirhana. To the north-west of the hajat was a hudžera (pantry) measxuring approx. 144 to 153 x 318 cm extending up through both floors. At some stage this was converted into a bathroom.
A double-flight wooden staircase about 90 cm wide in the corner of the hajat leads up to the kamarija on the first floor, which measures 490 x 447 cm. The part of the kamarija facing the oriel is stepped up by about 20 cm from the corridor part of the kamarija leading into two rooms to the south-west, measuring respectively approx. 448 x 424 cm and 484 x 348 cm, and to the largest room of approx. 442 to 507 x 662 cm – the divanhana of the Musafirhana. The divanhana has a musandera (built-in wall cupboard) with dušekluk (cupboard for storing bedding during the day), sećijas or minderas (built-in wall settees), and a hand-woven woollen ćilim (kilim rug) on the floor. It has six windows in all measuring 85 x 136 cm, two of which are set on the corners of the room which are “chamfered“ at an angle of 45 degrees, giving these windows a fine view along Bosanska street. The windows in the divanhana are about 20 cm wider than those in the other first-floor rooms.
The ground-floor windows, with masonry measurements on the outside of approx. 87 x 102 cm and on the inside of approx. 118 x 166 cm, being in thicker walls, are set in deep niches of about 33-36 cm in depth which have pointed vaults with a rise of about 60 cm.
The ceilings of all the first-floor rooms are of wooden slats. On the ground floor the smaller rooms by the north-west wall have plastered ceilings and the larger rooms facing the musafirhana garden have slatted ceilings.
The roof frame is of the kind known as “simple truss,“ steeply pitched at approx. 55-60 degrees, with horizontal bracing beams at two levels in the top part of the roof frame, one about 120 cm above the other. At the top, the rafters are joined by a ridge beam, and at the bottom, the rafters rest on the eave purlin.
The musafirhana had no chimney – all the smoke from the hudžera was led into the roof space, from which it escaped through louvres (the roof of the musafirhana now has one louvre in the top third of the north-west roof pane). This had a dual effect: part of the roof space was used as a drying-room for meat, and the smoke also carbonized the timber roof frame, and particularly the shingles (which were the most exposed to damp), providing additional protection from damp and fungi. This way of life having been abandoned, a layer of hydroinsulation has been laid on roof boarding, over which the shingles were laid.
3. Legal status to date
Under the terms of Ruling no. 1303/50 of 9 October 1950, the Musafirhana (Salihagić house) in Fojnica was placed under state protection and entered in the Register of immovable cultural monuments of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of NRBiH in Sarajevo.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works and interventions on the property
The descriptive section of the Protection File reads: ”...The house is rectangular in plan. The lower storey is of stone and the upper of dizma [close-set wooden upright or slanting posts]. The ground floor has two halvats, a hajat (vestibule) and a mutvak (kitchen) with no ceiling, open to the roof. A staircase leads from the hajat to the first floor, where there are three rooms and a kamarija. Before the adaptation, the stairs were outside, against the wall of the house. Apart from the halvat, the rest of the ground floor was rather different in layout. During the alterations all the doors and windows were replaced apart from the five in the kamarija arch. The old dulafs (wall cupboards) and rafas (high wall shelves) of fine carved work were removed. All that was left was the old door to the washroom and the shelf around the stove in one čardak. The swivelling djulaf (hatch) in the wall of one halvat and the hudžera, through which food was handed to travellers and the empty dishes were returned, has also disappeared.”(3)
The 1989 bill of quantities and cost estimate for repairs to the roof of the Musafirhana provide information on the type and extent of the repair works: a total area of 248 sq.m. of decrepit shingles and slats was stripped, together with a total of 71 m of decrepit eaves rafters, 22 decrepit 14 x 16 cm rafters and 6 m of decrepit 15 x 18 cm purlin; in addition, a total of 8.70 m of the wooden eaves flashings was removed; the usable material, and 5 m3 of shingles (for 248 sq.m. of roof) was pressure-impregnated with a solution of Wolman salts(4) using the technological procedure of an impregnation company from Vitez(5); rafters and 24 mm juniper-board flashings and roof boarding were laid over an area of approx. 248 sq.m. and 5 x 5 cm roof slats were laid 40 cm apart over the entire roof frame; new short 8 x 10 cm rafters of juniper-wood were laid along the eaves, a total of 71 m; approx. 30 m of new 14 x 16 cm rafters were installed; approx. 6 m of new 15 x 18 cm purlins were installed, as were new ridge flashings over a length of approx. 8.70 m; approx. 248 sq.m. of a single layer of Biverplast T-30 hydroinsulation strip was laid over the roof boarding on the rafters. The total cost of the works was 129,263,360 dinars, and the works were carried out by Pugonja Asif of Ragalo.(6)
The timber for the repairs to the Musafirhana was provided by Mujo Salihagić, who cut and felled it in his own woods(7), and the Biverplast was purchased by the Fojnica local ward.(8) According to the delivery note(9), the timber for the repairs to the Musafirhana roof was cut in 1988.
The symbol of the musafirhana – a hexagon in plan of 80 cm to a side and a total height of about 300 cm, mounted on a central wooden beam about 8 m long, with the flashings on visible part above the roof consisting of planed boards and a cladding of small shingles, was not remade because there was no money for it.(10)
5. Current condition of the property
The Musafirhana is not in use and no-one is living in it. The building is in poor condition. The ground-floor walls are affected by damp, and the plaster on the façade on the south-west and south-east sides of the building is in an almost completely ruinous state or has fallen away, which has long-term adverse implications for the structure of the walls (unbaked brick). There are numerous cracks in the walls; those in the north-west bearing wall can be described as structural cracks that could threaten the stability of that wall and of the building as a whole. The slatted first-floor ceilings are badly damaged. The half-timbered construction is still sound, as is the roof structure, but the shingle cladding on the south-west side of the building has been completely destroyed. According to the petitionery, the shingles on that pane of the roof were an additional order during the repair works on the roof frame and were of much poorer quality than the shingles laid on the rest of the roof.
The ivy planted close to the entrance to the building has grown over much of the south-east façade and has a damaging effect on the building.
Much of the stone boundary wall on the south-eastern boundary of the plot has collapsed.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.i. quality of workmanship
C.ii. quality of materials
C.v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E.iii. traditional value
E.iv. relation to rituals or ceremonies
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.i. relation to other elements of the site
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.ii. material and content
G.iii. use and function
G.iv. traditions and techniques
G.v. location and setting
G.vi. spirit and feeling
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Property ownership documentation:
- Copy of cadastral plan, c.p.no. 1009, c.m. Fojnica, p.l. 1058, plan no. 6 F 16-27-2, Scale 1:1000, issued on 22 February 2008 by the Department of Town Planning, Reconstruction, Construction, Cadastral and Property Affairs, Fojnica Municipality, Central Bosnia Canton, Federation of BiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina;
- Land Register entry for plot no. 1009, c.m. Fojnica (3), Land Register entry no. 1058, issued on 22 February 2008 by the Department of Town Planning, Reconstruction, Construction, Cadastral and Property Affairs, Fojnica Municipality, Central Bosnia Canton, Federation of BiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Documentation on previous protection of the property:
- Letter from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport no. 07-40-4-607-1/08, of 22.02.2008;
- Ruling no. 1303/50, of 09 October 1950, pursuant to which the Musafirhana (Salihagić house) in Fojnica was placed under state protection and entered in the Register of immovable cultural properties of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of NRBiH of Sarajevo;
- Old photographs of the Musafirhana in Fojnica from works consulted (see bibliography);
- Photographs of the Musafirhana in Fojnica taken on 20 March 2006, received from Fojnica Municipality;
- Photographs of the Musafirhana in Fojnica taken on 29 February 2008 by architect Emir Softić using Canon PowerShot A450 digital camera.
During the procedure to designate the historic building of the Musafirhana in Fojnica as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1957. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Hanovi i karavansaraji u Bosni i Hercegovini (Hans and Caravanserais in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 1957
1984. Kreševljaković, Muhamed, Hanovi i musafirhane (Hans and Musafirhanas), Sarajevo, 1984.
1986. Hatidža Čar-Drnda, Prilog proučavanju prošlosti Fojnice i Kreševa od uspostave Osmanske vlasti do početka 17 stoljeća (Contribution to the Study of the Past of Fojnica and Kreševo from the Establishment of Ottoman Rule to the Beginning of the 17th Century), Contributions 35, Oriental Institute in Sarajevo, POF 35/1985, Sarajevo, 1986.
1991. Buljina, Halid, Tekije u fojničkom kraju (Tekkes in the Fojnica Region), Svjetlost, 1991.
Documentation provided by the petitioner, Suvad Džafić of Fojnica:
- Letter from Salihagić Mustafa of Fojnica (application for approval to clad the roof of the Musafirhana) to the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo (the application is undated but was certainly made in the 1990s).
- Letter from Salihagić Mustafa of Fojnica (application for a loan to clad the roof of the Musafirhana) to the Executive Committee of the Assembly of Fojnica Municipality (the application is undated but was certainly made in the 1990s).
- Request to the Cultural Section of the Municipal Conference of Fojnica (Socialist Council of the Working People of BiH) no. 140/88 of 20 May 1988 to the Workers' Council of Šumarstvo (Forestry) OOUR of Fojnica for the approval of 10 m3 of split juniper wood to make shingles.
- Delivery note no. 1358, 25 October 1988, Šipad-Jahorina OOUR – Šumarstvo Fojnica.
- Order form no. 31/89 (Material for the Musafirhana in Fojnica), of 12 September 1989, Fojnica Local Ward.
- Official minute, 24 August 1989, Assembly of Fojnica Municipality.
- Confirmation from the Fojnica Local Ward no. 61/89 of 31 August 1989 on contribution to repairs works on the Musafirhana (purchase of Biverplast).
- Official note on allocation of roof cladding works to Pugonja Asif of Ragalo and payment of dues for the said works, 26 September 1989, Assembly of Fojnica Municipality.
- Conveyance no. 484 of 9 October 1989 for 5 m3 of deal (fir) shingles and one 50 litre bucket of a solution of Wolman salts, Šipad-Sebešić Travnik, OOUR Impregnacija, Vitez.
Data from projects, studies, bills of quantity and cost estimates:
- Project for repairs to the roof of the Musafirhana in Fojnica, Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, designed by architect Alma Simić, Sarajevo, June 1989.
(1) Hatidža Čar-Drnda, Prilog proučavanju prošlosti Fojnice i Kreševa od uspostave Osmanske vlasti do početka 17 stoljeća, Contributions 35, Oriental Institute in Sarajevo (data from Ankara, TD No 477, OIS no.203, f.142).
(2) Buljina, Halid, Tekije u fojničkom kraju, Svjetlost, 1991, 14.
(3) Details from Protection File (brief description, as integral part of Ruling no. 1303/50 of 9 October 1950, Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of NRBiH of Sarajevo.
(4) This term is given in the documentation on the works as “Volmanove soli.” According to Antun Stipetić (Željeznički kolodvori, Zagreb, 1995), Wolman salts are used to impregnate timber, and are a water-soluble antiseptic substance which diffuses into the cells of the timber, designed to prevent fungal infections and rotting, as well as an insect repellent. The chemical composition of Wolman salts is sodium fluoride, sodium bichromate, sodium arsenate and dinitrophenol [however, Barry A. Richardson (Wood Preservation, 1993) gives the composition as “about 3 parts sodium fluoride, 3 parts zinc sulphate, 1 part sodium dichromate and a small amount of dinitrophenol – Trans.].
(5) Conveyance no. 484 of 9 October 1989 for 5 m3 of deal (fir) shingles and one 50 litre bucket of a solution of Wolman salts, Šipad-Sebešić Travnik, OOUR Impregnacija, Vitez.
(6) Letter from Salihagić Mustafa of Fojnica (application for a loan of 2,000.00 dinars to clad the roof of the Musafirhana) to the Executive Committee of the Assembly of Fojnica Municipality (the application is undated but was certainly made in the 1990s).
(7) from Official Minute, 24 August 1989, Assembly of Fojnica Municipality.
(8) Order form no. 31/89 (Material for the Musafirhana in Fojnica), of 12 September 1989, Fojnica Local Ward.
(9) Delivery note no. 1358, 25 October 1988, Šipad-Jahorina OOUR – Šumarstvo Fojnica.
(10) from Official Minute, 24 August 1989, Assembly of Fojnica Municipality.