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Six prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) in Gomiljani, the group of monuments

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the Official Gazette of BiH, no. 60/08.

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 28 March to 1 April 2008 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The group of six prehistoric grave mounds (tumuli) in Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument). 

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 748/4, title deed no. 34, Land Register entry no. 73(1), c.p. no. 627/3, title deed nos. 23 and 31, Land Register entry no. 108(2), c.p. no. 757/1, Land Register entry no. 28(3), c.p, no. 391/1, title deed no. 92, Land Register entry no. 37(4), c.p. no. 664, title deed no. 12, Land Register entry no. 28(5), and c.p. no. 437, title deed no. 12, Land Register entry no. 28(6), cadastral municipality Gomiljani, and c.p. no. 125/1, Land Register entry no. 37, c.m. Površ, Municipality Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:

-          all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, including works designed to display the monument, with the approval of the ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority),

-          the site of the monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes,

-          works of any kind to the infrastructure are prohibited unless with the approval of the relevant ministry and subject to the expert opinion of the heritage protection authority,

-          the relocation, displacement or removal of stone from the grave mounds are prohibited,

-          the dumping of waste is prohibited,

-          a suitable barrier shall be erected around each separate grave mound to protect them and prevent their becoming further endangered.

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for drawing up a programme to ascertain the current condition of the property with a geodetic survey of its current condition, and for drawing up a programme for the presentation of the National Monument.

 

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.

 

VI

 

The Government of Republika Srpska, the relevant ministry, the heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II – V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 690.

 

X

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

No: 02-2-38/2008-7

29 March 2008

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Amra Hadžimuhamedović

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a decision to add the prehistoric grave mounds in the village of Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, to the Provisional List of National Monuments under serial no. 690.

Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

       

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-          Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry);

-          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc;

-          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The village of Gomiljani is 4 km as the crow flies west of Trebinje. It is believed to have been named after its many mounds (gomila). Twelve such mounds still survived in the 1970s, but now there are only five. Many of them have been dug over and destroyed, and the remains of stone used for various purposes.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 748/4, title deed no. 34, Land Register entry no. 73, c.p. no. 627/3, title deed nos. 23 and 31, Land Register entry no. 108, c.p. no. 757/1, Land Register entry no. 28, c.p, no. 391/1, title deed no. 92, Land Register entry no. 37, c.p. no. 664, title deed no. 12, Land Register entry no. 28, and c.p. no. 437, title deed no. 12, Land Register entry no. 28, cadastral municipality Gomiljani, and c.p. no. 125/1, Land Register entry no. 37, c.m. Površ, Municipality Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historical information

The terms used to denote grave mounds include barrow, mound, burial mound, tumulus and hill (the terms used in the local language in Bosnia and Herzegovina are gomila, gromila, kamena gomila, grobna gomila, tumulus, unka, humka, unjka and zaspa). They are the most numerous prehistoric structures, mainly concentrated in southern Bosnia, the Drina valley and Herzegovina, with scattered instances in central and northern Bosnia. Tumuli are earth mounds, usually circular in plan, though sometimes elliptical, originally probably conical in shape, but now mainly reduced to a dome shape, some quite high, others lower. They consist of a mixture of earth and stone, except in typically karst areas, where they are of stone alone (except those in the poljes). With the exception of tumuli serving as fortifications (liminal tumuli as part of a hill fort system) and those used for cult purposes, known locally as zaspa(7), most tumuli are sepulchral structures with one or more burials, which may be connected (burials from the same chronological stage in family or clan tumuli) or even from different stages of the same period. It is not uncommon to find burials from entirely different periods (for instance, later burials dating from Roman times, or even entire mediaeval necropolises on prehistoric tumuli).

The oldest tumulus burials in Bosnia and Herzegovina date from the Eneolithic (20th-18th century BCE), and include Ljeskova Glavica in Ljubomir near Trebinje, Rudine in Rusanovići, Mt Gosinja in the Glasinac region (near Rogatica), and Naklo in Gravoca in Buško Blato (near Duvno).

Many tumuli belong to the early Bronze Age (18th and 17th century BCE), numbering hundreds of stone tumuli with skeletons in a crouched or foetal position in stone coffins, widespread in Herzegovina, as well as many in the Glasinac area and elsewhere.

Burials dating from the middle Bronze Age (16th-13th century BCE) have been found in large numbers in the grave mounds of the Glasinac area and in the middle and lower Drina valley (the Podrinje group). A distinctive type of this period is a low, quite large mound with numerous burials (typical of the Barice-Gređani group in northern Bosnia), particularly in its early stage, dating from the middle and transition to the late Bronze Age.

The greatest number of tumuli belong to the late Bronze Age (13th-8th century BCE) and in particular to the Iron Age (8th-5th century BCE). In the regions west of the Neretva, burials at the turn of the Bronze and early Iron Ages began to take place in flat graves, but tumuli remained typical of the Glasinac culture in the Glasinac area, the upper Drina valley and eastern Herzegovina.

Towards the end of the prehistoric period, the number of tumuli dwindled, and burials in flat graves became more common (Kačanj near Bileća, Radimlja 2 near Stolac) (Vol. I, 173).

Scholarship has established that there are grave mounds in Bosnia and Herzegovina belonging to the prehistoric Illyrians, on account of which they are also known as Illyrian tumuli.

There are still such grave mounds in the Trebinje region in nine mediaeval necropolises (Bjelač, Gola Glavica, Orah, Začula, Zaplanik, Bijela, Rapti, Gomiljani and Hum). There are two each in Bjelač and Začula, three in Bijela, and a mass of old stone mounds in Gomiljani.

The population here was reluctant to give up the practice of burial in grave mounds, and as a result the majority of mediaeval necropolises, too, came into being on or beside grave mounds. There are thus church sites in mediaeval burial grounds on the top of some grave mounds (Bjelač, Orah, Bijela) or beside them (Ilijina glavica near Gola Glavica, Začula, Zaplanik and Hum). It would seem that new Christian churches were built on the sites of pagan shrines or sanctuaries. Stećak tombstones were set up alongside many churches on grave mounds (Orah, Začula, Zaplanik and Hum); the only place where they are not found is alongside the church sites at Ilijina glavica, near Gola Glavica, and Bjelač (Đ. Tošić, 46-47). Most grave mounds were made of stone or earth.

A topographic overview of prehistoric grave mounds in the Trebinje area was compiled by Đorđo Odavić (Tribunia no. 4, 1978, 149-154).

The tumuli in the village of Gomiljani in Trebinje Municipality have been recorded, but not investigated or excavated archaeologically, and it is not therefore possible to date them accurately. It may be assumed from archaeological investigations so far carried out in Herzegovina that the grave mounds in Gomiljani contain the same or similar grave goods.

A particular feature of these grave mounds is that they were erected to ensure that the site where the deceased were buried was clearly marked. A certain type of ceremony was performed during tumulus burials, as evidenced by the grave goods found, including foodstuffs, beverages and vessels used during the ceremony and either deposited in the mounds or broken.

The mounds themselves are found close to habitations, reflecting the belief that physical death did not break the bond between the deceased and their relatives and descendants, and that their spirit lived on in the vicinity, influencing the life of the community to which they belonged, so that it was important to secure their favour and support (B. Čović, 1966, 114 and 115).

As regards the method of burial among the Illyrians, their geographical position must always be borne in mind, for just as beliefs varied from region to region, so too did methods of burial. In the Bronze Age, burials under tumuli were predominant, and the practice continued into the Iron Age. Such burials were mainly inhumation – skeleton burials – though there were also cases of incineration or cremation (A. Benac, 1984, 133-152).

Inhumation was the principal form of burial in the early Bronze Age, while incineration was practised in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, under the influence of the urnfield cultures. There are cases among the Illyrian tribes of empty stone tumuli, containing nothing more than some shards of prehistoric pottery (A. Faber. 1984, 171-188).

Funerary customs are associated with rites with various magical religious elements, relating for the most part to belief in the afterlife. Rituals associated with belief in the afterlife during or immediately after burial can be surmised from the grave goods alongside the deceased or in the breaking of pottery vessels, which is found in many cultural environments. The ritual breaking of vessels in burial mounds has been recorded from the Eneolithic to the Iron Age. In the later stages of the Iron Age, in the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, vessels were extremely important to the ritual belief in the afterlife, when they would be placed directly alongside the deceased. At that time these grave goods were mainly imported pottery vessels, though bronze vessels have also been found.

Interestingly, even now there are cases among the inhabitants of eastern Herzegovina of breaking a vessel during burial.

Closely associated with belief in the afterlife is ancestor-worship, and the cult of the deceased as hero. The long-term use of burial mounds with several graves or multiple burials in the same tomb is particularly clear evidence of ancestor-worship; this applies to grave mounds and to flat graves in necropolises. Whereas ancestor-worship, one of the most ancient forms of religion, was confined to the immediate community (family, clan), the cult of the deceased as hero was important for the wider community.

A feature associated with the worship of ancestors as heroes is that of building “princely“ tombs, as for instance in Glasinac. The cult of the deceased as hero means that his isolation from other relatives or members of the clan in a separate place (mound or tomb) in the afterlife. The phenomenon of multiple burials in the same tomb, as well as arising from the internal evolution of society and the stratification and crystallization of smaller social units (the family), was indubitably also associated with belief in the afterlife and ancestor-worship. The close ties and common living of close relatives certainly lay behind members of the family being in the same place even after death, as a projection of this life into the hereafter. An important element of belief in the afterlife as well as of the evolution of prehistoric society is the orientation of the tomb, north-south or east-west, with variations.

It remains an open question to what extent the orientation of the tombs, whether of multiple or single burials, was influenced by other factors, mainly religious and, above all, the solar cult. Hypothetically, is not the practice of laying men with their heads facing north (enabling them even after death to continue to follow the sun as it moved from east to west) a distinctive one? (B. Marijan, 2001, 1-624).

Among the Illyrians the actual method of burial varied quite considerably. In the southern regions, the deceased were usually buried lying prone beneath tumuli, in the central regions tombs have been found in the form of stone chests in which the deceased were laid in the foetal position, and in the northern regions the deceased were incinerated and the ashes buried in cinerary urns (A. Benac, 1984, 133-152).

Apart from a few groups of mounds in various places, nothing suggests that there was a major Illyrian settlement in the Trebinje region. Studies to date have not pursued this line, and have thus not provided anything new on the basis of which further investigations might be conducted.

There is no doubt that the Illyrian way of life was not conducive to the formation of a sizeable, organized settlement by the Trebišnjica river or in the polje. There were other reasons too making it impossible to organize a more lasting settlement in the area around the Trebišnjica – insecurity and fear of the enemy and the difficulty of defending the area among them. Despite this, however, one must not overlook the fact that the Illyrians, and especially those engaged in agriculture, failed to make use of the polje and the river that irrigated it. Their already quite advanced agriculture (growing wheat, barley and so on) would seem to suggest the possibility of making extensive use of the conditions provided by the polje around the Trebišnjica.

The mounds at Mosko and Krtinje indicate that there was an Illyrian settlement nearby (in Ljubomir or elsewhere). This is certainly indicated by the mounds scattered around Arslanagića Most and Gomiljani, and in particular in Hrupjeli. This alone to some extent suggests the possibility that there was an Illyrian settlement in this area, which is of considerable interest to a trading community. These two important factors – the possibility of cultivating the polje around the Trebišnjica from Arslanagića Most to Gomiljani, and the finds of mounds and tombs in the Hrupjeli area – suggest that there was indeed an Illyrian settlement there.(8) (V.J. Korać, 1966, 21.-22)

 

2. Description of the property

There are five prehistoric grave mounds (tumuli) in the village of Gomiljani in Trebinje Municipality.

Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 1, located on a plot designated as c.p. 784/4, is behind the church of the Healing Saints to the east. Behind it, again to the east, a stone boundary wall was built surrounding the burial ground. The local macadam road runs along that east side.  Small stone shelters have been built, probably in modern times, on the mound. 

The mound is 31.64 m in diameter and about five metres in height, with a circumference of 99.45 metres and an area of 788.15 sq.m. The lower parts of the mound and those closer to ground level are overgrown with grass, and around it is low thorny scrub, weeds and even sizeable trees. Other than the stone forming a crown at the top, there are no signs of a grave. Outside the church, about three metres away, is a single stećak tombstone, half buried in stone, of poor workmanship, damaged and without decoration. The stećak measures 125 x 59 cm with 17 cm visible above ground.

Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 2 is on a site designated as c.p. 627/3 and 757/1, c.m. Gomiljani. To the east, a dry stone wall has been built over the mound. According to local residents, a narrow-gauge railway line dating from Austro-Hungarian times ran beside the mound to the west, as suggested by the visible remains of stones. This is now a local road.

The mound covers an area with a diameter of 39.94 m and is about 6.5 m high with a circumference of 125.41 m and an area of 1252.075 sq.m. The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees. Other than the stones laid in a circle on the top of the mound, there are no other signs of a tomb.

Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 3 is on a site designated as c.p. 391/1, c.m. Gomiljani. A stone wall has been built behind the mound to the west, to the left is a rubbish dump, and there are the remains of soot and burnt wire on the mound itself.

Unlike the other mounds, this one is not very high, and much of the stone is missing from the south side, suggesting that it has been removed and used for various purposes (building retaining walls and houses).

The mound covers an area with a diameter of 29.17 m, and is about 3.5 m high, with a circumference of 91.59 m and an area of 668.035 sq.m. The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees.

Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 4 (Prtilova gomila) is on a site designated as  c.p. 664, c.m. Gomiljani. An asphalt road runs alongside the mound, and a stone wall has been built behind the mound, to the west, probably in recent times. The remains of soot, burned wire and a small shelter made of stone, probably in recent times, can be seen on the mound. Other than the stones laid in a circle on the top of the mound, there are no other signs of a tomb.

The mound covers an area with a diameter of 24 m and is about 5 m high, with a circumference of 75.36 m and an area of 452.16 sq.m. The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees.

Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 5 is on a site designated as c.p. 437, c.m. Gomiljani. It is on the way out from the village of Gomiljani, by the local macadam road to the right leading from Gomiljani to Volujac. A stone wall has been built behind the mound to the south. Other than the stones laid in a circle on the top of the mound, there are no other signs of a tomb.

The mound covers an area with a diameter of 20.98 m and is about 3.3 m high, with a circumference of 65.87 m and an area of 345.52 sq.m. The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees, which had been swept by fire at the time of the on-site visit, probably as a result of the very hot weather of recent years.

Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 6 is on a site designated as c.p. 125/1, c.m. Površ, in the industrial zone outside the village of Gomiljani, between the village and Volujac.  The mound is much overgrown with tall vegetation and is barely noticeable. Some 30 to 50 m to the east and west of the mound are industrial facilities with testing grounds. About 50 m to the south is the local Gomiljani-Volujac road, separating the tumulus from another industrial facility with its own testing ground. The structure of the tumulus is simple, with stones laid in a circle.  The remains of a small stone coffin lying south-east/north-west can be seen on the platform of the tumulus. The coffin measures 90 x 50 x 40 m. The mound has a diameter of 22.2 metres, is about 3 metres high, and has a circumference of 69.70 m and an area of 386.88 m. The platform and the parts of the mound that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grass, weeds and trees.

 

3. Legal status to date

During the procedure prior to the adoption of a final decision on designation, the records of the protection of the property were inspected. The findings were as follows:

The Regional Plan for BiH to 2000 did not list the prehistoric mounds in Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje.

The prehistoric grave mounds (tumuli) in Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, are on the Provisional List of National Monuments of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments under serial no. 690.

 

4. Research and conservation and restoration works 

Unlike the mounds in the village of Arslanagića Most and in Hrupjeli, where there are signs of incineration and the remains of vessels and coins were found in the graves, the grave mounds in the village of Gomiljani have not been excavated, and no research or conservation and restoration works have been carried out. 

 

5. Current condition of the property

The findings of on site inspections conducted on 17 January, 14 February and 23 April 2008 are as follows:

-          Prehistoric grave mound no.1. The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees. A small shelter (minor trenches) has been made of stone, probably in recent times.

There is moss growing over the entire mound, on which vegetation is beginning to take root (species of low-growing grasses.

-          Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 2. The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees. A dry stone wall has been built over the mound, as a result of which the mound now extends over two plots. According to local residents, a narrow-gauge railway line dating from Austro-Hungarian times ran beside the mound to the west, as suggested by the visible remains of stones. This is now a local  macadam road. No damage was caused to the mound by the construction of the narrow-gauge railway or, later, the macadam road.

Other than the stones laid in a circle on the top of the mound, there are no other signs of a tomb.

-          Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no.3. A stone wall has been built behind the mound to the west, to the left is a rubbish dump, and there are the remains of soot and burnt wire on the mound itself.

Unlike the other mounds, this one is not very high, and much of the stone is missing from the stone, suggesting that it has been removed and used for various purposes (building retaining walls and houses).

The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees.

-          Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 4 (Prtilova gomila) The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees.

An asphalt road runs alongside the mound, and a stone wall has been built behind the mound, to the west, probably in recent times. The remains of soot, burned wire and a small shelter (minor trenches) made of stone, probably in recent times, can be seen on the mound. Other than the stones laid in a circle on the top of the mound, there are no other signs of a tomb.

-          Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 5 is on the way out from the village of Gomiljani, by the local macadam road to the right leading from Gomiljani to Volujac. A stone wall has been built behind the mound to the south. Other than the stones laid in a circle on the top of the mound, there are no other signs of a tomb.

The parts that are lower and nearer the ground are overgrown with low-growing grasses, and the mound is surrounded by low-growing thorny bushes, rank vegetation and sizeable trees, which had been swept by fire at the time of the on-site visit, probably as a result of the very hot weather of recent years.

-          Prehistoric grave mound (tumulus) no. 6 is in the industrial zone between the villages of Gomiljani and Volujac. It is overgrown with tall trees and is barely noticeable. Some 30 to 50 m to the east and west of the mound are industrial facilities with testing grounds.  About 50 m to the south is the local Gomiljani-Volujac road, separating the tumulus from another industrial facility with its own testing ground. The structure of the tumulus is simple, with stones laid in a circle. The remains of a small stone coffin lying south-east/north-west can be seen on the platform of the tumulus. 

 

6. Specific risks

-          disintegration as a result of long-term neglect,

-          digging over and destruction of the grave mounds,

-          the removal of stone for use as retaining walls and other purposes,

-          self-sown vegetation.

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.v.       value of details

D.         Clarity

D.iv.      evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

D.v.       evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period

E.         Symbolic value

E.iv.      relation to rituals or ceremonies

G.         Authenticity

G.i.       form and design

G.iii.     use and function

G.vi.      spirit and feeling

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Copy of cadastral plan,

-          Copy of land register entry,

-          Photodocumentation (photographs taken on site).

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted: 

 

1966.    Čović, Borivoj. “Mlađi praistorjski periodi” (Later Prehistoric Periods) in Kulturna istorija Bosne i Hercegovine od najstarijih vremena do početka turske vladavine (Cultural History of BiH from Ancient Times to the Start of Ottoman Rule). Sarajevo: 1966.

 

1966.    Korać, J. Vojislav. Trebinje - Istorijski pregled I, period do dolaska Turaka (Trebinje – A Historical Overview I, to the arrival of the Turks). Trebinje: 1966.

 

1978.    Odavić, Đorđo. “Praistorijska nalazišta na području Trebinja (gomile i gradine)” (Prehistoric sites in the Trebinje Area [mounds and hill forts], Tribunia 4. Trebinje: 1978.

 

1983.    Bojanovski, Ivo. “Trebinje – Rimsko Asamo (Asamum) s kratkim osvrtom na Ager kolonije Epidaura” (Trebinje – the Roman Asamum, with a brief reference to the Ager of the Colony of Epidaurum), Tribunija 7. Trebinje: 1983.

 

1984.    Benac, Alojz. “Kult mrtvih na ilirskom području u praistorijskom dobu” (The Cult of the Dead in the Illyrian Region in Prehistoric Times) in Simpozijumu o duhovnoj kulturi Ilira (Symposium on the Spiritual Culture of the Illyrians) (Herceg Novi, 4-6 November 1982), ANUBiH, special edition vol. LXVII, CBI, Vol.11. Sarajevo: 1984.

 

1984.    Faber, Aleksandra. “Prilog poznavanju arhitekture tumula na Balkanu” (A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Architecture of Tumuli in the Balkans) in Symposium on the Spiritual Culture of the Illyrians (Herceg Novi, 4-6 November 1982), ANUBiH, special edition vol. LXVII, CBI, Vol.11. Sarajevo: 1984.

 

1988.    Archaeological Lexicon of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vol. I. Sarajevo: 1988.

 

2001.    Marijan, Boško. “Željezno doba na južnojadranskom području” (The Iron Age in the Southern Adriatic Region), Herald of Dalmatian Archaeology and History (VAHD), VAHD vol. 93. Split: 2001.

 

(1) Transferred from Land Register entry no. 251, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 31.01.2007.

(2) Transferred from Land Register entry no. 270, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 13.03.2008.

(3) Schedule I – taken from Schedule I, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 28.11.2006.

(4) Transferred from Land Register entry no. 252, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 05.10.2006.

(5) Schedule I – taken from Schedule I, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 12.09.2006.

(6) Schedule I – taken from Schedule I, c.m. Gomiljani, Municipality Trebinje, on 12.09.2006.

(7) Zaspa is a local term for a particular form of prehistoric tumulus in western Bosnia, increasingly now being replaced by words such as humka, unjka, crkvina, glavica etc., but preserving the tradition that they are buried churches. They are ordinary tumuli covered with earth or a mixture of earth and sand, sometimes with stone too, and are large in size, even as much as 10 m in height. They were first recorded by F. Fiala in 1896. The best known are the zaspa in Benkovac near Bosanska Krupa, Crkvina in Johovica near Bosanski Novi, Glavica (Hunjka) in Rejzović near Ključ, and Hunka in Kljevi near Sanski Most. They date roughly to the Bronze and Iron Ages (18th-3rd centuries BCE) (Vol. I. 190).

(8) In his search for an Illyrian settlement in Trebinje, A.Figurić confined his investigations to Gradina, associating it with the Illyrian settlement of Adzizium. (V.J. Korać, 1966, 21-22). The name Gradina (= hill fort), and its position, suggest that there had been an ancient human settlement there. The Romans called such settlements “urbs opima.” He is even of the view that later the bridge between Gradina and Police linked two settlements, the Illyrian settlement of Gradina and the Roman settlement in Police (Ibidem, 25). Another fact supporting this hypothesis is that present-day Trebinje, or more specifically Police with Crkvina, was the site of the Illyrian and Roman Asamum, the name of a way station on the Ad Zizio Roman road – Asamum to Epidaurum – while the Ad Zizio way station was in Ukšići in the Ljubomir polje.(I. Bojanovski, 1983, 32).



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