Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the “Official Gazette of BiH” no. 53/08.
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 11 to 17 September 2007 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic site of the Fortress in Bosanska Krupa is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of late mediaeval and Ottoman fortifications and movable archaeological materioal housed in the Una-Sana Canton Museum in Bihać.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 21/209/1 (old survey), title deed no. 732, cadastral municipality Bosanska Krupa, Bosanska Krupa Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated
- research and conservation and restoration works, routine maintenance works, and works designed to display the monument shall be permitted, subject to the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority),
- the site of the National Monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes,
- planning and implementing the use of the monument, whether as museum premises or for other tourist purposes, must be carried out in association with the institutions responsible for the National Monument,
- works on the infrastructure are prohibited unless with the approval of the relevant ministry and the expert opinion of the heritage protection authority
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, a Buffer Zone with a width of 50 metres from the boundaries of the protected site is hereby stipulated:
- in this zone the construction of full-profile roads, or any buildings or facilities the size, construction or operation of which could endanger the National Monument is prohibited,
- permission may be granted for the construction of buildings with a maximum height of 6.50 m to the base of the roof frame, i.e. ground + 1 storey, and a maximum footprint of 10 x 12 m,
- the dumping of waste is prohibited.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following works shall be carried out:
- clearing the ramparts of the fort, the walls of the towers and other areas of wild plants constituting a threat to the structure of the monument;
- carrying out structural repairs to the towers and ramparts where there are cracks and the risk of collapse;
- during structural repair, conservation and restoration works, original materials and binders shall be used wherever possible;
- during repair works, existing stone blocks shall be re-used;
- missing parts of dressed stone areas must be replaced using the same or the same type of material as that from which they were originally built;
- the workmanship of the repaired areas of the wall must match that of the remainder of the wall;
- the capping or crown of the walls must be of natural materials (capstones or a hydraulic mortar finish);
- major cracks must be filled with a compound of fine-grade stone aggregate and hydraulic lime mortar;
- self-sown vegetation must be physically removed; the use of herbicides and other chemical substances is not recommended;
- archaeological investigations shall be carried out on the area that has not been investigated and any remains found shall be conserved;
- a programme for the presentation of the National Monument shall be drawn up and implemented.
The removal of the movable heritage items referred to in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision (hereinafter: the movable heritage) from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.
By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable heritage for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Permission for temporary removal under the conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt that it will not jeopardize the movable heritage in any way.
In granting permission for the temporary removal of the movable heritage from Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Commission shall stipulate all the conditions under which the removal may take place, the date by which the items shall be returned to the country, and the responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the relevant security service, the customs authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general public accordingly.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the relevant Federal Ministry, the Federal Ministry responsible for culture, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VI of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 107.
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
12 September 2007
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a Decision to add the historic ensemble of the old fort in Bosanska Krupa to the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, numbered as 107.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land register entry)
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The old fort in Bosanska Krupa is on the left bank of the Una, and developed along with the urban fabric, since the very centre of the civilian settlement developed below it. The Una flows through Krupa from west to north-east and around the town to the west. At the entrance to the narrowest part of the čaršija the Catholic church abuts onto the rocky prominence on which the fortifications stand; just beside the church is the road leading up to the fort.
Archaeological investigations in 1966, limited to the extent needed for conservation purposes, and the material found at the time were insufficient to provide an exact date for the construction of the fort in Bosanska Krupa. The fort is referred to by the name Krupa towards the end of the 13th century, during the rule of the Blagaj Babonić princes.
Krupa, along with Ostrošac, was taken from the family by King Sigismund, as he recorded in a charter issued on 25 August 1395 to princes Stjepan and Nikola of Blagaj, “in order to protect the Kingdom of Slavonia, exposed to frequent attacks by the Bosnians, if agreement is not reached with them soon,” and undertaking to restore the forts to them in the near future. However, King Sigismund allocated both forts to Vuk Vukčić as part of his struggle to win the Bosnian crown. In a campaign against Bosnia and Herceg Hrvoja in late September and early October 1405, Sigismund led his army to Bihać, which he took. On his return to Hungary on 16 October 1405 he paused near the Krupa fortress, which he intended to take, but was prevented from doing so by Lord Našica together with the Ottomans and Bosnians. By February 1406 there was already a royal castellan in the fort of Ostrošac, whereas Krupa was restored to the Hungarian king in 1406, in circumstances that have not been identified (Lovrenović, D, 2006, 78-79, 127, n. 55).
As a royal holding, the fort was originally run by the župans (lords of the county) of Zagreb as castellans, and later by the Counts of Celje (in Styria, present-day Slovenia) from 1429 to 1456 (Lovrenović, D, 2006, 234), followed by the Frankopan princes. Since Krupa was a royal holding, and only mortgaged, in 1464 the Frankopans returned it to King Matthias Corvinus on the basis of a separate agreement, and subject to compensation. To defend the region from Ottoman attack, King Matthias created two chains of forts spaced along the frontiers. Krupa belonged to the second chain, which consisted of the forts between Timosoara through Hungary and the Sava (Dubica), Krupa, Otočac and Bihać to Senj (Lovrenović, D, 2006, 385). The forts of Krupa and Obrovac on the Una, along with a number of other forts in Croatia, went to the Senj captains, who had their own castellans in the frontier forts. On the death of King Matthias, pursuant to an agreement between King Vladislav and the son of King Matthias duke Ivaniš Corvinus dated 1490, Ivaniš acquired the banate of Croatia and several royal towns including Krupa, Obrovac on the Una, and Japra. Ivaniš Corvinus often spent time in Bihać and Krupa between 1495 and 1498, when he bestowed the town of Krupa on his daughter Elizabeta. After his death the forts on the border with Ottoman territory were again taken over by the royal authorities. In the early 16th century Krupa was run by captains, after which it belonged to the state chancellery of Cardina Tomo Bakrač, who entrusted it in 1520 to ban (governor) Ivan Karlović, who in turn held it until his death in 1531.
After Karlović’s death, in line with an inheritance agreemenet between Karlović and the princes of Zrinj, the latter inherited the fort and held it until it fell to the Ottomans in 1565.
Krupa is an exposed site, with no significant natural defences. From 1509 on the Ottomans attacked it on several occasions. It came under heavy attack in 1522 and 1523, when the Ottomans besieged Krupa and pounded it with artillery fire for four months. In 1529 they again made preparations to take Krupa, and the following year they laid waste its surroundings. On the death of Ivan Karlović in 1531, the princes of Zrinj had great difficulty holding on to their properties in this area. The garrison in the Krupa fortress was under the command of the Bihać captain. According to a report by the supreme frontier commander General Ivan Lenković, Krupa had only forty soldiers who were not receiving any regular pay.
On 4 June 1565 the Bosnian pasha Mustafa Sokolović reached Krupa with a strong Ottoman detachment. The defenders of the Krupa fort lacked any signifricant military backup other than the troops of captain Kronšal of Bihać. After just a few days, on 16 June 1565, more Ottoman troops reached Krupa. On 21 June a large army arrived, commanded by Count Auersperg, who had 7,000 men at his disposal, but did not embark on open engagement with the well-equipped Ottoman troops and soon withdrew towards Ostrožac. On 23 June the small company of men defending Krupa, commanded by Matija Bakić, who had been holding out against the siege, decided to penetrate among the Ottoman troops, but was soon overcome.
To the Ottomans, Krupa was an important stronghold for further conquests to the north and west, which was why it was important for them to take Bihać and the surrounding fortresses in the Krajina (frontier region). The commanders of Krupa were dizdars (fortress commanders) and captains. Until the second half of the 18th century the dizdars and captains of Krupa were from the Badanjković (Badnjević) family. In 1577 the Ottoman troops in Krupa numbered 300 cavalrymen and 400 infantrymen. Between the conquest of Krupa and the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, there were frequent battles between Austrian and Ottoman troops. The Austrians laid siege to Krupa in 1581 and 1692. The fighting ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz and the reinforcement of the borders. The last major attack by Austrian troops follows in 1716, and was associated with the battle of Banja Luka. Krupa did not fall, but its surroundings were laid waste and burned (Lopašić, 1943, 162-177; Kreševljaković, 1953, 35).
In the second half of the 16th century the Ottomans concentrated on and succeeded in conquering the forts and towns in the Bihać frontier region. On being conquered, the towns on the right bank of the Una, from Krupa northwards, were incorporated into the Bosnian sandžak. When Bihać was taken in 1592 and the Ottomans began restoring order, they founded the Bihać sandžak. Although the oldest reliable reference to this sandžak is in a document dating from 1620, it was probably founded some time after the fall of Bihać in 1592 and 1620. The second reference to the Bihać sandžak is in a Veneto-Dalmatian description of the Bosnian pashaluk in 1624-1626 (Šabanović, 1982, 82-84). The major towns of the sandžak were Bihać, Kamengrad, Ripač, Cazin, Bužim, Ostrožac and Krupa. The headquarters were in Bihać or, at times, in Krupa. It seems that the Bihać sandžak was abolished in the mid 17th century. It was reestablished at the end of the same century. In the 18th century the Bihać sandžak was one of five in the Bosnian pashaluk, but in 1711 it was finally and conclusively abolished. It was divided into kadiluks (Šabanović, 1982, 85, 230). The Bihać kadiluk was probably founded just after the fall of Bihać in 1592, though the earliest reference to it is in 1619. This kadiluk contained the towns of gradovi Bihać, Izačić, Sokol, Ripač, and others. In the 17th century there is one reference to Krupa and Ripač as separate kadiluks (Šabanović, 1982, 181, 228, 230). Under the administrative disposition of the Bosnian pashaluk in the 19th century, until 1865 the murdirluci (counties) of Bihać and Krupa with Bužim were in the Bihać kajmakamluk (district). After that the Bosnian vilayet was restored as a single province with seven sandžaks or livas. One of these was the Bihać sandžak. The kajmakam (district prefect) had his headquarters in the central town of the sandžak, which was divided into kazas (kadiluks) headed by mudirs, based in the main town of the kaza. The Bihać sandžak consisted of the kazas of Bihać, Petrovac, Ostrožac (headquartered in Cazin), Kostajnica, Stari Majdan, Prijedor, Krupa and Ključ (Šabanović, 1982, 233-234).
According to an inventory conducted in 1833 the fortress in Krupa (in the Kamengrad kadiluk), was well supplied with arms and ammunition, including 14 cannon of various calibre, 3300 barrels of gunpowder (66 chest), 60 oke (1 oke=3 lbs) of lead ingots, 4 oke of tampon fuses, and quantities of cramps, shovels and axes (Kreševljaković, 1952, 178).
2. Description of the property
The entire complex is located on the summit of a rocky hillock between the čaršija to the east and the right bank of the river Una to the west and north-west. A wooden footbridge at the foot of the hill leads from the čaršija to the left bank of the Una. Immediately to the north of the Catholic church a gently sloping path winds its way up the hill to the Lower Fort.
The old fort in Krupa was initially in the form of a Gothic fort with a strong keep (tower A), a courtyard guarded by two more towers (B and C), and a bailey to the south and east. To the north-west and north the fort lies on the steep, rocky side of the hill. There was a fosse below the fort to the east, outside the entrance ramparts. The fortified town was entered via a bridge over the fosse. There were also towers at the south-east and north-east corners of these ramparts. This was the fort as Kuripešić found it on his journeyings in 1530.
Soundings were taken in 1973-74 and it was found that during the 16th to the 17th century the extent of the fortifications and the system of defences were modified, in response to incursions and the development of firearms. In 1565 the Ottomans took Krupa and transformed it, as time passed, into a strong artillery fort with two major cannot emplacements as the stronghold for further conquests on the right bank of the Una. The courtyard of the upper fort was filled in. The keep was demolished and its building materials scattered around the courtyard. A cannon emplacement 1.8 m wide with an opening for the cannon was found by the north ramparts west of tower B. The ground level of the mediaeval fort was about 2.5 m lower than the present level. The remains of houses dating from the Ottoman period were found by the north rampart at a depth of 1 to 1.3 m. It is likely that the area of the Upper Fort was earthed up at least two occasions, using material from the site itself, since the deposits were full of mediaeval pottery. The towers and ramparts were also lowered. The topmost deposits were quite recent.
In 1895 walls were built in the fort and the site was levelled to make a parking place. The fort lost its original physiognomy. The retaining walls were earthed up to the top with rubble and soil.
The fort in Krupa consists of the Lower and Upper Forts. The Lower Fort is in fact the former bailey of the mediaeval fortifications. Truhelka found the faint traces of the rectangular gatehouse; these can no longer be made out. The ramparts of the Lower Fort surround the Upper Fort to the east as a whole, and to the north and south as far as below tower C. The north rampart, or rather its retaining wall, can be reached now only at the north-east corner. The rest of the retaining wall on that side is concealed under dense overgrowth, while houses have been built on the lower periment, by the prominence on which the fort stands. The south rampart of the Lower Fort consists in fact of two large bastions to the south-east and south-west of the wall, between which is a zigzag rampart. The other sides consist of the remains of retaining walls, also zigzag. Two cannon of no great age have been mounted at the south-west and south-east edges.
The Upper Fort is about 35 m long and about 20 m wide including buttresses (as measured on the outside). The eastern part of the fort is wider (about 14 m on the inside), narrowing towards the west (tower C). Where the retaining walls change direction the Upper Fort is divided into an eastern and a western part, of equal length. The entrance to the fort is in the northern half of the east rampart, by the keep (tower B). Rebuilt stone steps lead to the entrance. The entrance to the Upper Fort is in the ramparts, and is arched. Below the entrance is a largish arched niche. Tower A (measuring 7 x 5 m on the outside) stands at the south-east corner, and tower B, which has an oval footprint and has survived to a height of about 15 m, stands at the north-east corner. The eastern part of the Upper Fort has been entirely partitioned into separate areas linked by three entrances. The western part of the fort also contains the remains of walls, the exact purpose of which cannot be identified. Below tower A is a massive semicircular buttress, while at the point where the south rampart changes direction premises D have been built on. Both additions were probably designed to diminish artillery fire power. The south rampart was particularly exposed to fire from the left bank of the Una, but it was also possible to aim effectively from the fort at the area across the Una. Tower C at the top of the fort was later converted into a bastion with lower walls. This tower is about 8 m in diameter, with an entrance about 3 m wide.
Much of the ramparts of the Upper Fort were reduced in height and adapted for cannon fire, while the keep, tower B, is the only tall structure to survive. It matches the height of the other ramparts, since it was built at a lower level.
The fort had a stone plaque with an inscription referring to the conquest of Krupa during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, in 1565.
Lopašić recorded a translation of the inscription on another stone plaque, built into the fort, which remained there until 1884: “On the 11th of the month of Dhu l-Qa’dah, year 1198 [1 August 1783], during the reign of Emperor Abdul Hamid Khan and the viziership of Silihdar Abdalah pasha in Bosnia, thanks to the skills of Nuri beg the Krupa fort was restored to the very picture of heatlh” (Lopašić, 1942, 268, n. 290; Kreševljaković, 1953, 35).
3. Legal status to date
The ruins of the old fort in Bosanska Krupa were recorded as a monument but no decision to protect it was issued by the Republican Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities.
The Regional Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2000, Stage B, Natural and Culturo-Historical Values, compiled in 1980, listed the old fort in Bosanska Krupa as a Category II monument.
The property is on the Provisional List of National Monuments of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments as no. 107 under the heading Bosanska Krupa - old fort.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
In 1966, conservation works were carried out on the old Krupa fort on the Una by experts from the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH.
In 1973-1976, experts from the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH conducted archaeological investigations in the Upper Fort, the conservation and restoration works required were identified, and the works were carried out. The south rampart of the Lower Fort was restored, as was much of the eastern half of the Upper Fort and the massive buttress below tower A and the area below the south rampart of the Upper Fort (marked on the plan as area D), as well as parts of the towers and ramparts. During these works a fair quantity of minor archaeological artifacts was found: cannon balls, pottery vessels and stoves. Of particular interest is part of a maiolica plate, an import from Italy.
5. Current condition of the property
During an on site inspection conducted in August 2007 it was found that the entire fortifications complex, despite having been converted, is in a relatively good state of preservation. To the north, on the rocky hill on which the fortress stands, the foundations are being dug for new buildings. The rest of the northern part of the Lower Fort is densely overgrown.
The revetments of the ramparts are falling away in places, leaving gaps. In places the tops of the ramparts are breaking away, particular on the lower ramparts in the north-western part of the fort, which visitors climb over. Benches have been installed in several places in the fortress. There are rubbish bins beside some of the benches, but they are not much used. The fortifications have been fitted with lighting. The lower part of the fort is used as a parking place. The railing by the steps leading to the entrance to the Upper Fort is falling apart gradually.
6. Specific risks to which the property is exposed
- Climatic factors
- Inadequate maintenance, reflected in the lush overgrowth around and on the ramparts, and in the stone falling away from parts of the revetments of the ramparts
- Future planning of the use of the property
- The construction of houses by the fortress.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.i. material evidence of a lesser known historical era
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.i. form and design
G.v. location and setting
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Proof of title
- Photodocumentation – photographs taken by the Commission on 9 August 2007
- Two maps
- Plan of the fort drawn in the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of SRBiH
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1904. Truhelka, Ćiro, Naši gradovi, opis najljepših sredovječnih gradova Bosne i Hercegovine (Our Towns, Description of the Most Beautiful Old Towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina), Sarajevo, Naklada Knjižare J. Studnička and others. 1904.
1943. Lopašić, Radoslav, Bihać i Bihaćka krajina (Bihać and the Bihać Frontier Region) (2nd ed.), Zagreb, 1943.
1952. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, “Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom upravom”, Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju i istoriju jugoslovenskih naroda pod turskom vladavinom (Contributions to the History of Bosnian Towns under Turkish Administration, Contributions for Oriental Philology and the History of the South Slavs under Turkish Governance), II/1951, Institute for Oriental Studies in Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1952,119-184.
1953. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, “Stari bosanski gradovi” (Old Bosnian Forts), Naše starine I, Sarajevo, 1953, 7-45.
1957. Vego, Marko, Naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1957.
1972 ______, “Pregled konzervatorsko-restauratorskih radova u proteklih dvadesetpet godina” (Overview of Conservation and Restoration Works during the past 25 Years), Naše starine XIII, Sarajevo, 1972, 30-36.
1974. Bojanovski, Ivo, “Krupa na Uni, Krupa-srednjovjekovno i tursko utvrđenje” (Krupa on the Una – Mediaeval and Turkish Fortifications), Archaeological Survey, 16, Belgrade, 1974, 129-132.
1982 Šabanović, Hazim, Bosanski pašaluk, postanak i upravna podjela (Bosnian Pashaluk, origins and administrative division), Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1982
1983, Jusić Enisa, “Informacija o stanju arheološke istraženosti srednjovjekovnih gradova na području Pounja” (Information on the Extent of Archaeological Investigations of Mediaeval Towns/Forts in the Una Valley Region), Proceedings of the Archaeological Society of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1, Arheološka problematika zapadne Bosne (Archaeological Issues of Western Bosnia). Sarajevo, 1983, 239-242.
1991. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Kapetanije u Bosni i Hercegovini (Captaincies in BiH), Collected Works I, Sarajevo, 1991.
1995. Kruhek, Milan, Krajiške utvrde i obrana hrvatskog kraljevstva tijekom 16. stoljeća (Frontier Fortresses and the Defence of the Kingdom of Croatia in the 16th Century), Zagreb, 1995.
2006 Lovrenović, Dubravko, Na klizištu povijesti (sveta kruna ugarska i sveta kruna bosanska) 1387-1463 (On the Landslide of History [The Holy Hungarian Crown and the Holy Bosnian Crown] 1387-1463), Zagreb-Sarajevo, 2006.