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Necropolis with stećak tombstones at Potkuk in Bitunja, the historic site

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the Official Gazette of BiH, no. 01/10.

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 11 to 17 September 2007 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The historic site of the necropolis with stećak tombstones at Potkuk in Bitunja, Berkovići Municipality, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument). 

The National Monument consists of a necropolis with 243 stećak tombstones and the Kuk quarry (limestone outcrop).

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 439/1, title deed no. 13, Land Register entry no. 3, cadastral municipality Bitunja SP, c.p. 439/2 and 441, Land Register entry no. 215, c.p. 439/3, 439/4 and 442, Land Register entry no 244, and c.p. 440, Land Register entry no. 121, cadastral municipality Bitunja, municipality Berkovići, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/04) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up notice boards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated:

-          all works are prohibited other than research and conservation and restoration works, routine maintenance works, and works designed to display the monument, with the approval of the Ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska;

-          the site of the monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes;

-          the extraction of stone, the location of potential environmental polluters as defined by regulations, and the construction of industrial buildings and facilities, major infrastructure, and any facilities the construction or operation of which could endanger the National Monument are prohibited;

-          the dumping of waste is prohibited.

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall ensure that a geodetic survey and a survey of the current condition of the site are conducted and that a project for the repair, restoration and presentation of the National Monument is implemented.

 

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Republika Srpska, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.

 

VI

 

The Government of Republika Srpska, the Ministry of Republika Srpska responsible for regional planning and the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II – V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba).

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

No: 05.2-2-1069/03-9

12 September 2007

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Dubravko Lovrenović

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

On 11 May 2006, archaeologists from the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo submitted a proposal/petition to designate the historic site of the remains of the necropolis with stećak tombstones of Potkuk in Bitunja, municipality Berkovići, as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (1)   

Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V, para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

    

II - PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-          Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry);

-          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc;

-          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property.

 

The findings based on a review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The Bitunja area is about 8 kilometres to the south-east of Stolac and about 28 km from the municipal town of Berkovići; the best road is via Stolac. The villages of Bitunja consist of Donja and Gornja Bitunja and the hamlet of Zabrđe. Zabrđe is reached from the Stolac-Ljubinje road, taking a turning to the east by the Novakinje concrete cistern (the first bend at Žegulja).

The stećci (pl. of stećak) of Gornja Bitunja (Zabrđe) are situated at four sites, generally known as Lokve, Potkuk, Zakuk and Baba. The central part of the area where the necropolises are located is the Potkuk necropolis and the Kuk limestone outcrop which was used as a quarry for the stećci in the nearby necropolises.

First to be reached is Lokve, after which comes the Kuk outcrop, about 500 m to the east by the road to Gornja Bitunja, with the Potkuk necropolis below its southern slopes. To the north of Kuk is the Zakuk necropolis, with the Baba necropolis another 300 m or so further on. Apart from Potkuk, which is one of the largest necropolises in Bosnia and Herzegovina with 243 stećci, the other necropolises in Bitunja are quite small: Lokve has seven stećci, and Zakuk nine, along with some graves with stone surrounds and the surviving foundations of a mediaeval church, while the Baba necropolis has 24. Of the total of 282 stećak tombstones, 62 are decorated (22%).

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 439/1, title deed no. 13, Land Register entry no. 3, cadastral municipality Bitunja SP, c.p. 439/2 and 441, Land Register entry no. 215, c.p. 439/3, 439/4 and 442, Land Register entry no 244, and c.p. 440, Land Register entry no. 121, cadastral municipality Bitunja, municipality Berkovići, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historical information

The earliest reference to the mediaeval župas (counties) of Zahumlje is to be found in chapter XXX of the written document "Regnum Sclavorum", by the Orthodox Doclean priest, where he refers to nine Hum župas(2). The Bitunja area belonged to the mediaeval župa of Dubrava, which bordered on the župas of Dabar, Popovo, Žaba, Luka and Večerić. Dubrava župa was mentioned in a Dubrovnik document dated 13 October 1285, and later in several documents from 1405, 1406, 1443, 1444, and 1449. Gornja Bitunja (Zabrđe) is located not far from the south-eastern župa border, and is linked with Ljubinje via a mountain road.

The Bitunja neighbourhood is referred to in documents in the Dubrovnik archive dating from 1442 in regard to cattle rustling by twelve of Grgur Šimraković's men. In 1449, the landowner Petar Šimraković's men, together with men from Bitunja, took part in a robbery(3). It is not known whether the Šimraković's, a landowning clan from the neighbouring county of Žaba, had any lands in Bitunja(4). Documents dating from about 1470 provide no direct information on Bitunja but, when taken together with the epitaphs on the stećci, supply plenty of information on the Lower Vlachs from the Stolac, Ljubinje and Bileća municipalities(5). 

The Vlach clans of Hrabren-Miloradović, Boljuni, Burmaz and Godun were in the county of Dubrava.

The name census of the sanjak of the vilayet of Herzegovina for 1475-1477 refers to Bitunja as the winter quarters in the community of Herak, son of Radonja, and of Đuran, son of Vladislav, with 16 homes in the Blagaj kadiluk. When these parts were conquered by the Ottomans they formed a nahija (minor administrative unit) from part of the territory of the mediaeval county of Dubrava. Elsewhere in Dubrava new nahijas were also formed, such as the Vidoška nahija, which included the villages of Donja Bitunja and Ošanići, where there were a number of timars [feudal landholdings entailing military obligations].  

The Zabrđe stećci have been in existence for a relatively long time. The Zakuk necropolis contained a church, with nine stećak tombstones around it. It is not known when this church was built. The arrangement of the tombstones around the church suggests that it predates the time when the necropolis was in active use, in the 14th and 15th centuries(6). There are more than 200 stećak tombstones in the Potkuk necropolis, some of which are decorated, so it was obviously the necropolis of a fairly large community. A specific feature of the Baba necropolis is its famous decorative designs, found in necropolises throughout eastern Herzegovina, particularly on tall chest-shaped tombstones narrowing at the base, with a decoration of arcades. Baba was probably a family necropolis, as was the one in Lokve. It is hard to determine the chronology of these necropolises on the basis of the decorations or shapes of the tombstones, the more so since none has any cruciform tombstones, but they do have carved crosses, as well as shields.  The location of the necropolises with stećci, as well as the burial grounds that came later and are still in existence, as well as the constant development of watering places for cattle, suggest that the place was formerly of much greater importance, even though it is not recorded in historical documents and there are no epitaphs on the stećci. Burials in these necropolises must have taken place throughout the 15th century, and presumably both before and after, from the late 14th to the early 16th century.

 

2. Description of the property

The Potkuk necropolis is on a relatively level site below the southern side of Kuk, covering an area of 70 x 40 m extending east-west. The burials are in rows running north to south. There are two large groups of stećak tombstones in the necropolis, one to the east, the other to the west, with a slight gap between them where there are a few scattered tombstones.

There is a hedge running along the southern edge of the necropolis, behind which are two small groups of stećci and one isolated one. There are also two small separate groups of stećak tombstones on the northern edge of the necropolis. The latter two small groups consist of 9 and 15 stećci, and are probably a separate family burial area within the necropolis. Despite forming separate groups, they fit into the system of rows in the necropolis.

Most of the tombstones lie west-east, with just eleven lying north-south.

Apart from two chest-shaped tombstones with plinths cut from a single piece of stone, two gabled (ridge-shaped) and five massive slabs more than 2 m long and wide and up to 0.3 m in height, all the other tombstones are chest-shaped.

Forty-five of the tombstones, or about 19-20%, are decorated. The decorations are in bas relief, apart from a few examples in which they are incised, as noted in the descriptions of the individual tombstones. Several craftsmen worked on the decoration of the tombstones. The most common scenes are of deer, individually or as part of a deer-hunting scene. Judging from the hunting scenes and the moment at which the spear is thrust into the animal's neck, as well as from the characteristic figures of the deer, it seems clear that a single craftsman was responsible for these scenes.

Many of the tombstones are well cut and quite well preserved, but there are others with roughly dressed or rounded corners. Some are chipped at the edges. The stećci in the western area are on average of better workmanship than those in the rest of the necropolis.

-          The group of stećci in the western area of the necropolis consists of 66 tombstones, all lying west-east. Sixteen of them are decorated:

No. 1 - chest, measuring 1.55 x 1.12 x 0.55 m., of average size, with rounded corners. A top bears a massive carved cross, 0.9 m long with cross-bars 0.63 m wide, and the cross-bars and lower part of the upright 0.3 to 0.35 m thick while the top of the upright is 0.25 m thick.

No. 2 - monolithic chest with plinth, the sides slanting towards the base, measuring (chest) 1.61 x 0.96 x 0.65 m; (plinth) 2.0 x 1.4 x 0.3 m. The top is decorated with two crosses with the arms ending in the shape of an anchor, in bas relief. This motif is so badly weathered as to be barely visible. The west-facing end has a deer-hunting scene with a hunter on horseback, wearing a cap with a drawn-out tip falling over the back of his head. The deer's head is raised, with straight antlers, branching like those of a stag. All four sides of the plinth are decorated with scrolling vines with trefoils.

No. 3 - chest (tallish), measuring 1.55 x 0.73 x 0.56 m. The west end bears the figure of a deer with branching antlers. The south side has five carved birds, four in a row above a single bird, all facing the same way. Four of the birds have long legs, short tails and bent heads; the fifth has a long tail and raised head.

No. 4 - chest (smallish), measuring 1.15 x 0.54 x 0.35 m. The top bears a badly worn and barely visible scene of a deer with a hollow in the stone to collect rainwater in front of it and a dog behind. There is a small human figure on the other side of the hollow.

No. 5 - chest (one corner chipped), measuring 1.41 x 0.76 x 0.57 m. The top bears a badly eroded motif of a rectangular shield with one angled side; below it is a long two-handled sword laid flat. To the east of the shield is the figure of a deer. The north, south and east faces are decorated. The north side has two animals most resembling horses, and the south a lion with three female figures behind it. Above the figural scene is a frieze with a motif of scrolling vines. The east end also has a motif of scrolling vines. The west end is undecorated.

No. 6 - chest, rather wider than average, measuring 1.33 x 1 x 0.4 m. The top bears a carved crescent moon.

No. 7 - chest, measuring 1.60x 0.54 x 0.57 m. The border on the top and sides is in imitation of a rope-twist.

No. 8 - chest, measuring 1 x 0.53 x 0.39 m. The south face bears a deer-hunting scene. The hunter, on horseback, is portrayed at the moment of thrusting his spear into the deer's neck. The figure of the hunter is no longer entirely clear.

No. 9 - monolithic (largish) chest with plinth, measuring (chest) 1.64 x 0.97 x 0.44 m; (plinth) 1.80 x 1.2 m. A hunting scene can be made out on the west end, with a hunter on horseback thrusting his spear into the neck of a deer, the same motif as on tombstone no. 8.

No. 10 - chest (quite large), measuring 1.7 x 0.83 x 0.84 m. The top bears a carving of an arm to the elbow, with a large-fingered hand holding a sword. The decoration is almost unrecognizable.

No. 11 - chest (large), measuring 1.86 x 1.12 x 0.55 m. The top bears a hollow in the stone to collect rainwater, surrounded by a rope-twist.

No. 12 - chest (high), measuring 1.69 x 0.83 x 0.84 m. There is a rope twist at the top of the sides. The north side has the figure of a man holding a sword, with a large shield behind him.

No. 13 - gabled, measuring 1.6 x 0.64 x 0.9 m. Tilted and partly buried. Around the top of the south, east and north faces is a frieze of diagonal parallel lines framed by two lines. Below the frieze on the south side are carved arcades with five intercolumnar spaces.  The columns and arches are indicated by two incised lines. There is a rosette on the east-facing gable.

No. 14 - chest, measuring 1.6 x 0.85 x 0.48 m. This tombstone is of extremely good workmanship. Around the top of the sides is a frieze of scrolling vines surrounded by rope-twist.

No. 15 - chest, measuring 1.6 x 0.8 x 0.54 m. A tombstone of good workmanship. The north, south and west faces (the latter the head end) are decorated. The frieze at the top of the north side consists of two intertwining lines framing seven elliptical medallions, each containing a single bird. Below the frieze is a scene of a women's round dance with four figures holding hands. At one end is the large figure of a man holding a long sword in one hand. There are small female figures between the women. The other end of the round dance ends with a small female figure, with the large palm of her hand held at shoulder height. The south side bears a deer-hunting scene like that on tombstones nos. 8 and 9. The west end has a broad frieze of scrolling vines.

No. 16 - chest, measuring 1.65 x 1.4 x 0,63 m. The tombstone is rather wider than the other chests, and is of good workmanship. A straight line is cut into the middle of the top, dividing it into two sections.

-          Group of 9 tombstones standing apart at a rather higher level, by the northern edge of the necropolis, just below Kuk itself. The tombstones lie west-east. Two of the tombstones in this group are decorated:

No. 17 chest, measuring 1.6 x 0.65 x 029 m. Sunken. The top has a border of diagonal parallel lines, within which is the carved figure of a deer. A frieze of scrolling vines runs around all four sides.

No. 18 chest, measuring 1.7 x 0.79 x 0.46 m, of good workmanship. Sunken. The horizontal surface bears a shield with a sword below it. On the east end is the figure of a woman leading a horse and rider. The south side has a frieze of scrolling vines with trefoils, below which is a rope-twist. Overgrown.

-          Group of stećci in the central and eastern part of the necropolis. This is the largest, with 137 stećci:

No. 19 slab (smallish), measuring 1.17 x 0.6 x 0.2 m. The top has a border with within it the figure of a man wearing a knee-length cloak. Beside him is a staff, at an angle, from his chest to his feet. The decoration is damaged by weathering.

No. 20 chest, damaged and sunken. The top bears a stylized cross with semicircular ends to the upright.

No. 21 chest, measuring 1.6 x 0.81 x 0.35 m, damaged, partly buried. The top bears the figure of a deer with branching antlers and a round water basin.

No. 22 slab, of irregular shape. The top has a hollowed-out water basin.

No. 23 chest, of irregular shape. The top bears a rectangle, probably representing a coat of arms.

No. 24 chest, of irregular shape, and of average workmanship. On the top is a large square.

No. 25 chest, of average workmanship, badly damaged. The horizontal surface bears a cross with the arms widened at the ends.

No. 26 chest, measuring 1.87 x 0.76 x 0.42 m. Of average workmanship, partly buried. Two-thirds of the top is occupied by a large rectangular shield from beneath which emerge the two ends of a sword. Beside the shield is a small male figure with raised arms, bent at the elbow. Above the figure is a circular garland. The other third bears the figure of a lion with a curly tail, held high. The north-facing side has a frieze of scrolling vines, with below it a barely recognizable scene of a round dance with several figures.

No. 27 chest, narrowing at the base, of good workmanship. The sides are decorated with a carved rope-twist.

No. 28 chest. The horizontal surface bears a cross with the arms widened at the ends.

No. 29 chest, measuring 1.68 x 0.7 x 0.35 m, of good workmanship. The top bears a large cross with the arms widened at the ends.

No. 30. chest, measuring 1.78 x 0.8 x 0.4 m, of good workmanship, sunken. The top is decorated with incised motifs that can barely be made out. The border consists of diagonal parallel lines, while the central motif is hard to make out.

No. 31 chest (smallish), beside no. 30, lying north-south. A crescent moon motif is carved on the top.

No. 32 chest (smallish). The top bears a cross with the arms widened at the ends.

No. 33 chest, measuring 1.7 x 0.7 x 033 m, of good workmanship. The top bears the worn motif of a hand with large fingers and a sword.

No. 34 chest, measuring 1.53 x 0.75 x 0.3 m. Partly buried. The top bears a carved deer with a deep water basin in front of it.

No. 35 chest, smallish, sunken. The top bears a cross with the arms widened at the ends.

No. 36 large slab, 2.2 x 2.3 x 0.3 m, with a line incised across the middle of the top.

No. 37 chest, smallish, sunken, with a rope-twist at the top of the sides.

No. 41 chest, measuring 1 x 0.47 x 0.24 m. The top bears a hunting scene, with the deer in front. Behind it is a dog and a hunter attacking the deer with a sword. The north and south sides are decorated with a frieze of scrolling vines.

No. 42 chest, measuring 1.75 x 0.94 x 0.75 m. Tall chest, well cut. The top bears the motif of a rectangular shield with a sword below it.

No. 43 buried stećak in the shape of a chest? The top is incised with a line across the middle.

No. 44 slab, partly buried. The top bears a cross with the arms widened at the ends.

No. 45 slab, partly buried, undecorated.

No. 46 chest, measuring 1.9 x 0.95 x 0.82 m, well cut. The south side has a frieze with a motif of scrolling vines; below it are two animals that are difficult to make out – possibly horses

-          Small separate group of 15 stećci at the extreme north-eastern corner:

No. 38 chest, lying north-south. The top of the sides has a rope-twist.

No. 39 chest, lying north-south, sunken. The west (front) end has a frieze of scrolling vines.

No. 40 chest, measuring 1.85 x 0.82 x 0.81 m.Tall and of good workmanship. The top of the sides has a rope-twist.

-          Group of 16 stećci separated by a hedge, at the southern edge of the necropolis. 

-          From east to west are two small groups of stećci and a single stećak at the extreme western end.

 

3. Legal status to date

The Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2000 lists 32 sites of necropolises with stećci (2319 stećci in all) in Stolac Municipality as a Category I monument, without identifying them in detail.(7)  

 

4. Research and conservation and restoration works

In the early 1960s, Š. Bešlagić recorded stećak tombstones in the Stolac area, including all four necropolises in Gornja Bitunja.

No other research or conservation works have been carried out.

 

5. Current condition of the property

An on-site visit conducted in July 2007 ascertained as follows:

The access to the archaeological site and the site itself are badly overgrown, making the area hard to reach.

The stećci have suffered from long-term exposure to the elements and the presence of plant organisms, lichen and moss.

There is no construction in progress in the vicinity.

 

6. Specific risks

            The decoration on the monuments could suffer permanent damage as a result of long-term lack of maintenance.

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iv.      composition

C.v.       value of detail

G.         Authenticity

G.i.       form and design

G.ii.      material and content

G.v.      location and setting

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Copy of cadastral plan;

-          Copy of land register entry;

-          Plan of the necropolis, drawing from: Š. Bešlagić, Naše starine,1964;

-          Photo documentation from the field, April 2006 and July 2007.

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:

 

1928.    Šišić, Ferdo. Letopis popa Dukljanina (Chronicles of the Doclean Priest). Belgrade-Zagreb: Serbian Literary Cooperative, 1928.

 

1964.    Bešlagić, Šefik. “Stećci u Bitunjoj” (Stećci in Bitunja), Naše starine IX (Our Antiquities IX). Sarajevo: 1964. 79 -101.

 

1967.    Dinić, Mihajlo. Humsko-trebinjska vlastela (Hum-Trebinje Landowners) Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Special Editions, bk. CCCXCVII, Social Sciences Dept., Bk. 54. Belgrade: 1967.

 

1980.    Various authors. Prostorni plan Bosne i Hercegovine, faza b – valorizacija, prirodne i kulturno-historijske vrijednosti (Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Phase B – valorization of natural and cultural assets). Sarajevo: Institute of Architecture, Town Planning and Spatial Planning of the Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo and Planning Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 1980.

 

1999.    Anđelić, Pavao. “Srednjovjekovna župa Žaba” (The Mediaeval County of Žaba) in: Anđelić, Pavao, Sivrić, Marijan and Anđelić, Tomislav, Srednjovjekovne humske župe (Mediaeval Hum Župas). Mostar: 1999.

 

1999.    Tošić, Đuro. “Prilog identifikovanju i datovanju vlaških stećaka i istočnoj Hercegovini” Istorijski zapisi (Contribution to the Identification and Dating of Vlach Stećak Tombstones in Eastern Herzegovina. Historical Records), Yr. LXXII, no. 1-2/1999. Podgorica: 1999, 105-129.

 

(1) Until the 1992-1995 war Bitunja belonged to the Berkovići local ward of  Stolac municipality.

(2) Ferdo Šišić, Letopis popa Dukljanina, Belgrade-Zagreb: SKZ, 1928, 327.

(3) Anđelić, Pavao, “Srednjovjekovna župa Žaba,” in Anđelić, Pavao, Sivrić, Marijan and Anđelić, Tomislav, Srednjovjekovne humske župe, Mostar: 1999, 64.

(4) Dinić, Mihajlo, “Humsko-trebinjska vlastela,” Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, special edition, vol. CCCXCVII, Social Sciences Dept., vol 54, 1967, 39; Anđelić, Pavao, op.cit. Mostar: 1999, 64.

(5) Tošić, Đuro, “Prilog identifikovanju i datovanju vlaških stećaka i istočnoj Hercegovini,” Podgorica:

Istorijski zapisi, yr. LXXII,  no. 1-2/1999, 1999, 105-129.

(6) Bešlagić, Šefik, “Stećci u Bitunjoj,” Sarajevo: Naše starine IX, 1964, 100.

(7) Various authors, Prostorni plan Bosne i Hercegovine, faza b – valorizacija, prirodne i kulturno-historijske vrijednosti, Sarajevo: Institute of Architecture, Town Planning and Spatial Planning of the Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo and Planning Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 1980, 52.



Plan of the necropolis Part of the Potkuk necropolisView from the Potkuk necropolis at the Baba necropolisWestern part of the site
Group of stećak tombstonesGroup of stećak tombstonesStecak tombstones no. 2 and 3Decoration on stecak no. 2
Stecak tombstone no.5Stecak tombstone no.7Stecak tombstone no.9Stecak tombstone no.15
Decoration on stecak tombstone no. 15Decoration on stecak tombstone no. 15 - round dance Decoration on stecak tombstone no. 10Decoration on stecak tombstone no. 21
Decoration on stecak tombstone no. 26Decoration on stecak tombstone no. 41  


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