Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the „Official Gazette of BiH“ no. 3/08.
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 22 to 28 May 2007 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The architectural ensemble of the Hadžimuratović Daira (the Large Daira) in Sarajevo is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 712 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. nos: 24, 25, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 and 62, mahala XXI (old survey), the property of Stari Grad Sarajevo municipality, cadastral municipality Sarajevo I, Municipality Stari Grad Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, and display the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated, which shall apply to the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision.
- all works on the properties forming the architectural ensemble are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, including those designed to display the monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority).
The Government of the Federation shall be responsible in particular for ensuring that the following measures are implemented:
- clearing the National Monument of weeds and waste material;
- urgent repairs to the roof structure and cladding;
- drawing up a restoration project;
- ensuring that investigative, preparatory and restoration worksare carried out in line with a project approved by the relevant ministry and under the constant expert supervision of the heritage protection authority.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
23 May 2007
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a Decision to add the urban townscape ensemble in Sarajevo to the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, numbered as 546. The architectural ensemble of the Daira falls within this townscape ensemble.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- Ownership details,
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The architectural ensemble of the Daira in Sarajevo is in the eastern part of the city, in the old city, in Halači street in Baščaršija. It is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 712 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. nos: 24, 25, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 and 62, mahala XXI (old survey), the property of Stari Grad Sarajevo municipality, cadastral municipality Sarajevo I, Municipality Stari grad Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The entrance to the architectural ensemble is from Halači street.
Daira is an Arabic word meaning circle; architecturally, it denotes a separate group of magazines for storing goods under a common roof and with a single shared entrance from the street into the central courtyard. The storerooms in the daira are grouped around a courtyard, which may be small or quite large, in such a way as effectively to surround it, hence the name.
A daira is thus a true goods storage area around a courtyard which is in the common ownership of each storeroom, and was used to load and unload goods from the packhorses. The entrance to the courtyard was through a large arched gateway, high and wide enough to allow a laden packhorse horse to enter unimpeded. The magazines themselves were built on the same principle as those belonging to shops and in hans (hostels). Single-storey buildings with pent roofs, they were built of materials that would ensure the premises were protected from the fires that often broke out in the city: stone, oak beams and iron.
To protect them not only from fire but also from burglars, dairas were built with a high surrounding wall and all their doors facing inwards onto the courtyard.
Dairas are to be found in this part of the world only in Sarajevo; there were none in other trade centres in BiH or around the other major trade centre of Skoplje. There are no reference to them even in Sarajevo prior to the 18th century, and they were presumably, therefore, after the disastrous fire of 1697 to provide more secure premises for goods. (Bejtić, 1953. p. 265)
As far as is known, there were five dairas in Sarajevo in 1879, the year in which a major fire swept through the centre of town. All the dairas were probably built in relatively recent times: 16th and 17th century sources do not refer to any. They were presumably, therefore, built in the 18th century, most likely after the disastrous fire of 1697. This can safely be said of some of Sarajevo's daires (Kreševljaković, 1953. p. 164).
One of Sarajevo's five dairas (the Hadžimuratović daira), was built in Halači, another (the Hajji Bešlija daira) near the Emperor's Bridge and Tabačka mosque, the third (the Hajji Gazanfer daira) by the Čekrekčija mosque in Nova Testa street, the fourth (Crkvena, the Church daira) by the old Orthodox church, and the fifth in present-day Kundurdžiluk street.
The Hadžimuratović daira in Halači(1) was built somewhat before January 1776(2) by a Sarajevo merchant, Hajji Ibrahim, son of Hajji Murat, a resident of the Careva (Emperor's) mahala. Here he built ten magazines on land owned by Hajji Isa's vakuf. This was a site 30 arshins long and 28 wide, consisting of four plots. He paid Hajji Isa's vakuf 1080 akča a year as mukata (ground rent). The buildings that formerly stood on those four plots were burned down in the 1697, since when the site had remained vacant until the magazines were built.
The daira has lost something of its original appearance as a result of the demolition of the three magazines next to the street, where three new ones were built in or around 1900, with a flat above. In addition, four magazines have been partitioned, so that there are now fourteen in the daira.
When the Hadžimuratović family died out, the magazines passed into the ownership of several merchant families and one vakuf. By 1952 they were in very poor condition, and were restored by the Museum of the City of Sarajevo under the supervision of architect Juraj Neidhardt (Kreševljaković, 1953. p. 165)
In 1952, funds from the County Council were used to carry out conservation and restoration works on the magazines inside the courtyard. The works were completed in 1952 with the restoration of nine magazines.
These works were followed by works to convert the dairy to new use – as a café and Bosnian-style eating-place. In 1964 the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, based in Sarajevo, drew up a project for the adaptation and reconstruction of the Daira in Halači. The investor was the Beograd Catering Co. Sarajevo, and the project was drawn up by Turist-projekt of Sarajevo.
During the conversion works on the Daira, all the walls in the east and the south walls of the Daira, formerly separating one magazine from the next, were demolished, in order to provide larger premises for the new use. As a result of the creation of this new, single space, there is now no evidence of what the previous appearance of the premises.
The building began to be used for its new purpose in 1965, under the auspices of the Beograd catering company.
The large daira in Halači street was later used by the Balkan catering company as a café, and is now used by the Merhamet Muslim charitable society. It is in mixed ownership – part private, part vakuf-owned (Koštović, 1995, p. 237).
The townscape ensemble of Halači suffered badly during the war. The vakuf properties from Bravadžiluk street to the Hadžimuratović daira caught fire, and there was damage to the north wall, roof and courtyard of the daira. Properties no. 10 and 12 were burned down, and all the rest were badly damaged (Koštović, 1995, p. 280).
2. Description of the property
The architectural ensemble of the Daira in Halači is an important historical urban and architectural ensemble that has largely retained the features of town planning and architecture that took shape during the Ottoman period of the development of the Sarajevo čaršija, with properties of architectural, historical and townscape value.
The Hadžimuratović Daira in Halači street consists of thirteen single-storey magazines around a square courtyard. The entire property is square in plan, adjusted to fit into the existing structure of the čaršija.
The outside walls of the property are constructed of solid stone and brick. The lower part of the walls, to the height of the wall on the inside face of the property, is of uneven cut blocks left exposed. The top part is of brick, plastered on the west, entrance facade. The walls on the inside, i.e. the walls of the magazines, are of solid stone left exposed.
The floor and roof structure of the property are of solid oak beams. The pent roof is clad with hollow tiles.
The nature of the materials used means that the west, entrance facade of the property is divided into two horizontal sections. The only opening in the entrance facade is the portal, which is of regular cut stone. The opening is arched by an accurately made segmental arch. The double doors are made of iron.
The arched entrance leads into the square courtyard with magazines on all four sides.
The courtyard is cobbled, and has a small fountain in the middle, made of stone(3).
The thirteen magazines face inwards onto the courtyard. All except one on the north wall are built with one doorway and one window opening. The central magazine on the north wall has two windows.
All the doorways are of regular cut stone and are arched in shape. The openings consist of a stone threshold, jambs and lintel, all subsequently plastered. The single doors are made of iron.
Later interventions to the property have altered the original interior layout of the magazines.
3. Legal status to date
The City Institute for the Protection and Refurbishment of Cultural Monuments in Sarajevo issued Ruling no. 91/67 of 7 April 1967 under the terms of which Halači street, where the Daire complex is located, as part of the old Sarajevo čaršija, was of the nature of a cultural monument.
The Regional Plan for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2002 listed the Daire in Halači and the Mala (Small) Daira as a category I monument.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
Issue no. 1, 1953, of the periodical Naše starine records that in 1952 major restorations were carried out to the Hadžimuratović daire in Halači by the Museum of the City of Sarajevo, under the supervision of architect Juraj Neidhardt.
Stage one of the conservation and restoration works entailed replacing the dilapidated floor and ceiling structures of the daira(4). The roof was cladded with hollow tiles, the upper courses of the walls were rebuilt and the window and door jambs and the door lintels were repaired. The flooring was re-covered and made good (some magazines were floored with thick oak boards, others with bricks laid at an angle). The stone wall and facade were repointed. The courtyard was recobbled and a drainage channel was installed. The works were completed in 1952 with the restoration of nine magazines.
In 1964 the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, based in Sarajevo, drew up a project for the adaptation and reconstruction of the Daira in Halači. The investor was the Beograd Catering Co. Sarajevo, and the project was drawn up by Turist-projekt of Sarajevo. Based on the treatment proposed by the project, the commission to inspect and review the project decided to send the project back to the investor on the grounds that the proposed treatment was unsuitable: functionally, a café-restaurant or ašćinica could not work. The interior of the premises should be arranged to form several smaller facilities: a coffee-shop, ćevabdžinica (kebab shop), pastry shop, bakery and so on. The daira was to remain a single entity, without using the magazines in Mali Bravadžiluk.
The conversion works were carried out in 1965. During these conversion works, restoration works also continued on the property, entailing the demolition of a residential property built above the magazines facing Halači street, and the restoration of three magazines. The restoration of the outside wall of the daira, the west facade, was also completed at this stage. The lower part of the wall was retained as random limestone masonry and the upper part as plastered and whitewashed brick.
During the conversion works on the Daira, all the walls in the east and the south walls of the Daira, formerly separating one magazine from the next, were demolished, in order to provide larger premises for the new use (Naše starina 11, pp. 163-166).
5. Current condition of the property
The Hadžimuratović Daira in Halači street suffered damage to the roof structure during the 1992-1995 war. Remaining exposed to the elements after the war, the property suffered further deterioration. The findings of an on site inspection were as follows:
- the roof and ceiling structure of the property are badly damaged or completely destroyed in several places;
- the walls are in fairly good condition, but the damage to the roof structure means they are constantly exposed to damp;
- the woodwork (windows) is completely destroyed;
- most of the entrance openings to the magazines are without their iron doors;
- the metal parts of the openings (the entrance doorway and the door to one of the premises) are somewhat damaged;
- the Daira is in a state of neglect and the courtyard is overgrown with low weed growth.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.vi. value of construction
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
D. v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period
E. Symbolic value
E.iii. traditional value
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.i. relation to other elements of the site
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.i. form and design
G.iii. use and function
G.v. location and setting
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
I.i. physical coherence
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- copy of cadastral plan no. 7
- technical documentation from the Institute for the Preservation of Monuments of the Federal Ministry of Culture and Sport (section through Halači street and the Daira, and entrance elevation prior to conservation and restoration works)
- photodocumentation dating from the time a final decision was being adopted by the Commission (March and May 2007).
During the procedure to designate the architectural ensemble of the Hadžimuratović Daira in Sarajevo as a national monument, the following works were consulted:
1951. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, „Kazandžijski obrt u Bosni i Hercegovini“ (The Coppersmiths' Craft in BiH), Jnl of the National Museum, n.s. vol. VI, Sarajevo, 1951.
1953. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, „Sarajevske daire“ (The Sarajevo Dairas) Naše starine I, Annual of the National Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of NR Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 1953.
1953. Bejtić, Alija, „Spomenici osmanlijske arhitekture u Bosni i Hercegovini“ (Monuments of Ottoman architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina) offprint – Contributions to oriental philology and the history of the Yugoslav peoples under Turkish rule, volume. III-IV, Oriental Institute, Sarajevo, 1953.
1967. Tihić, Smail, „Hadžimuratovića daira i Gazi Husrev-begov hamam u Sarajevu u novoj funkciji“ (The Hadžimuratovića Daira and Gazi Husrev-beg hamam in Sarajevo Used for New Purposes), Naše starine XI, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 1967.
1975. Regulatory plan for the repair, conservation, restorationand revitalization of the Sarajevo čaršija (abridged version), Assembly of the City of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1975.
1980. Institute for architecture, town planning and regional planning of the Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, Regionial Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina; Stage «B» - valorization of natural, cultural and historical monuments, Sarajevo, 1980.
1991. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Izabrana djela II – Esnafi i obrti u Bosni i Hercegovini (1463-1878), (Selected Works II – guilds and trades in BiH 1463-1878), Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1991.
1995. Koštović, Nijazija, Sarajevo između dobrotvorstva i zla (Sarajevo Between Benefaction and Evil), Rijaset of the Islamic Community, El-kalem publications, and Merhamet Charitable Association, Sarajevo, 1995.
2006. Documentation of the Cantonal Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage Sarajevo, 2006.