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60th session - Decisions

Mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović (the Ljubović mosque) in Odžak, the site and remains of architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the „Official Gazette of BiH“ no. 36/07


Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 6 to 9 March 2007 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović (the Ljubović mosque) in Odžak near Nevesinje is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument consists of the remains of the mosque with its burial ground.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1470 (new survey), title deed no. 278, Land Register entry no. 10, cadastral municipaloity Odžak, Municipality Nevesinje,  Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to rehabilitate, protect, conserve, restore and display the National Monument.

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the funds to draft and implement the technical documentation required for the rehabilitation of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following protection zones are hereby stipulated:

            Protection Zone I consists of the area defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision. The following protection measures shall apply in this Zone:

  • the mosque shall be rehabilitated using conservation, restoration and anastylosis procedures on the remains of the original building, in its original form, using the same or the same type of materials and building methods wherever possible, on the basis of documentation on its original appearance and investigative documentation on its present condition, with the approval of the ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);
  • all original fragments of the building found and assembled on the site or at some other site to which they were removed after the destruction of the building shall be recorded, photographed and reintegrated into the reconstructed building. Until such time as they are so reintegrated they shall be suitable protected;
  • fragments that are too badly damaged to be reintegrated shall be suitable conserved and presented within the site and remains of the architectural ensemble;
  • the remains of the courtyard wall shall be structurally repaired and restored;
  • the nišan tombstones in the mosque harem shall be conserved.

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible in particular for implementing the following measures:

  • drafting a structural repair and restoration project;
  • carrying out investigative, preparatory, structural repair, restoration and rehabilitation works on the National Monument, which must comply with a project approved by the relevant ministry and be carried out under the constant expert supervision of the heritage protection authority.

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and restoration thereof.

 

VI

 

The Government of Republika Srpska, the relevant ministry and the heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II – V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

X

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

No. 09-2-669/03-5                                                        

8 March 2007

Sarajevo                                                                                 

 

Chair of the Commission

Ljiljana Ševo

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

 

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

On 17 March 2003 the Commission received a petition from the Centre for Islamic Architecture, Sarajevo, to designate the hajji Hanuma Ljubović mosque in Nevesinje as a national monument.

Pursuant to the law and to the provisions of Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and.

 

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

 

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

  • Documentation on the location and ownership of the property (title deed, copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry
  • Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
  • Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović (the Ljubović mosque) in Odžak near Nevesinje are located in the centre of the village, to the north-east of the Nevesinje-Berkovići road, on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1470 (new survey), title deed no. 278, Land Register entry no. 10, cadastral municipaloity Odžak, Municipality Nevesinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Access to the National Monument is from the north-east.

The main axis of the mosque lies north-west/south-east. The entrance is at the north-west end, and the mihrab wall is at the south-east end.

Historical information

The village of Odžak is about 7 kilometres to the south-east of Nevesinje. The odžaci (manors), towers and landholdings of the Ljubović beys, from which the village acquired its name, were once located where the village now stands.

The periodical Znakovi vremena (Signs of the Times) reports that in the opinion of some authorities the Ljubović family was one of the prominent families of the mediaeval Bosnian nobility, and was one of the most eminent and influencial Bosniac bey (aristocratic) families during Ottoman rule in this part of the world(1).

The earliest known member of the Ljubović family was hajji Sulejman-bey, who lived in the second half of the 16th century.

There are references to members of the Ljubović family in many local folk tales and songs.  Ali-bey Ljubović, who lived in Odžak in the mid 18th century, features as the hero in the works Sreća mladog Ljubovića (Young Ljubović's good fortune) and Legenda o jednoj ljubavi (The legend of a love story), written by Husein Đogo and Abdurahman Nametak.

Local tradition has it that the mosque in Odžak was built by Hana hanuma Ljubović, wife of Osman bey Ljubović, in 1625.  A mekteb and a stone bridge over the river Zalomca were built beside the mosque, about 3 km from Odžak. She endowed a mill and extensive property in Odžak for the maintenance of her legacies.

Evliya Çelebi, who passed through Odžak on his way from Nevesinje to Zovi Do in 1664, does not mention a mosque in the village. Husein Đogo, who researched the history of the family for his novel Sreća mladog Ljubovića, claims that there was no mosque in Odžak in the mid 18th century.

The only certain fact concerning this mosque, therefore, is that it was built as a legacy of the Ljubović family, by the end of the 18th century at the latest. Members of the Ljubović family were mutevelijas of the vakuf (managers of the pious endowment) as long as they lived in Odžak, until the end of the 19th century (Hivzija Hasandedić, Muslimanska baština u istočnoj Hercegovini, pp. 146 and 147).

The locals call the mosque the Hana mosque or the mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović or the Ljubović mosque.

Since it was first built the mosque has been demolished and rebuilt on several occasions.

It was damaged for the first time on 3 July 1876, during the insurrection in Herzegovina.

During World War II the mosque was badly damaged: the roof was completely destroyed, as were parts of the walls and the šerefe (balcony) of the minaret. The mosque was renovated between 1970 and 1973, but without the supervision of a member of the heritage protection authority. The renovation entailed reconstructing the missing parts of the šerefe of the minaret and the walls and roof of the mosque, fitting a concrete ring beam on the upper part of the mosque walls and concrete window frames to some of the window openings, and using concrete for the upper part of the mihrab. The restored mosque was formally opened on 23 September 1973. There is no technical documentation on the said restoration of the property.

During World War II the mekteb and imam's quarters were also badly damaged. After World War II the stone blocks from the walls of the mekteb were used to build the Social Cooperative building in Odžak.

The mosque was also badly damaged during the 1992-1995 war. Work began on clearing the site of the mosque in September 2006.

 

2. Description of the property

The site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović are located on a small plot in the middle of the village of Odžak. The ensemble is surrounded by a concrete wall, the part of which bordering the south-east side of the courtyard was completely demolished during the 1992-1995 war.

The entrance to the site and remains of the architectural ensemble is from the north-east.

Mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović

In terms of spatial layout, the mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović in Odžak is of the type of single-space mosque with open portico and stone minaret. It has a hipped roof.

The exterior measurements of the building are approx. 13.70 x 10.70 m (including the portico; the sides of the mosque itself are approx. 10.70 m in length).

The stone walls of the mosque consist of two layers. The inner layer is of roughly cut stone, plastered and whitewashed on the inside. The outer layer of the walls is of regular cut stone left exposed on the outside. The quoins, the blocks marking the openings and those of the minaret are ashlar blocks, larger in size than those used on the rest of the building.

The interior is enclosed by four walls which take the load of the flat ceiling and the hipped roof truss.

The portico of the mosque, which measures 3.55 x 10.70 m, is open only to the north-west entrance side. Wooden pillars at the corners of the exterior sofas support the roof truss of the portico(2). 

The exterior sofas, measuring 3.55 x 3.50 m to the left and 3.55 x 3.80 m to the right, are made of regular cut stone blocks.

The portico has a pent roof.

The roof of the mosque is clad with tiles.

The rectangular base of the minaret, measuring approx. 1.10 x 1.95 m, is made of large blocks of regular cut stone. The twelve-sided shaft of the minaret is of regular cut blocks and is slightly conical in shape.

The stone is left exposed on the outside of the minaret, and is decorated with carved stone work. The points at which the diameter of the minaret changes are accentuated by a simple string court. The part between the shaft of the minaret and the šerefe parapet is decorated with stalactite decoration. The šerefe parapet is decorated with carved rhombs(3).

There are two rows of windows on the facades of the building.

The first row has two windows each on the entrance (north-west), mihrab (south-east) and north-east walls of the mosque.The window openings are rectangular, framed on the outside by simple stone window casings(4). The windows are fitted on the outside with wrought iron bars. The south-west wall of the mosque has one window opening, identical in every respect to those on the other facades.

The windows of the second row are set directly above those of the first row. They are framed on the outside by simple stone window casings, but are arched. There is no upper window on the north-west entrance facade.

The entrance portal belongs in general concept and typological features to the fourth group of portals (as classified by A. Andrejevićin his Islamska monumentalna umetnost XVI veka u Jugoslaviji [16th century Islamic Monumental Art in Yugoslavia]). The portal, which measures 2.40 m wide x 2.70 m high, projects out from the wall face by 17 cm. It is surrounded by a 60 cm wide moulded stone frame. The opening of the portal, which is 1.21 m wide, is topped by a semicircular lunette.

The traces of the place where there was probably once a tarih (chronogram) can be seen in the axis of the portal arch, in a rectangular frame, but there is no written record of such a chronogram.

The main prayer space of the mosque is an almost regular square, measuring 9.40 x 9.20 m on the inside. The floor of the mosque is about 20 cm lower than the level of the exterior sofas(5).

            The interior space of the mosque is divided into two sections, interior sofas from which the mahfil is reached, and the main prayer area(6).

The interior sofas are raised above the level of the prayer area by about 20 cm, and separated from it by a wooden railing.

In terms of its location, the mahfil of the mosque is a front mahfil, meaning that it runs along only one wall, the entrance wall.  It rests on wooden pillars.

The mimber was made of wood and elaborately decorated.

The mihrab area is round-arched, with a simply moulded rectangular stone frame.

There is a wooden podium, raised by about 20 cm above the floor level of the prayer area, on either side of the mihrab. This space, which is some 50 cm wide, is separated from the rest of the prayer area by a wooden railing.

The entrance to the minaret, which is in the south-west wall, is of large, regular cut stone blocks. The entrance opening, which is 60 cm wide, has a slightly pointed arch formed of a single stone block.

Burial ground beside the mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović

Hivzija Hasandedić states that members of the Ljubović and Pašić families are buried in the harem of the mosque, and that it once contained several handsomely decorated nišan tombstones with epitaphs, which have disappeared over the years.

Only a few nišan tombstones can now be seen in the burial ground, most of them broken or badly damaged. The remains of tombstones lie scattered about the site.

 

3. Legal status to date

There is no information concerning any legal protection of the property.

 

4. Research and conservation and restoration works

No research or conservation and restoration works have ever been carried out on the property under the supervision of the heritage protection authority.

The mosque is known to have been renovated after being damaged by insurgents in 1876, and between 1970 and 1973, following the damage suffered during World War II. During the latter renovations, the walls were restored, a concrete ring beam was installed in the upper part of the walls, some of the stone window frames were replaced with concrete, a the building was given a new roof frame and tile cladding, and the šerefe of the mosque was restored.

 

5. Current condition of the property

The mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović was badly damaged during the 1991-1995 war by dynamite and by being set on fire.  During an on site visit in February 2007 the following observations were made:

  • the roof truss has been completely destroyed
  • the minaret has been destroyed down to the base
  • the south-east mihrab wall has been completely destroyed, along with parts of the south-west wall of the mosque
  • the south-east courtyard wall has been completely destroyed
  • the side walls of the portico and entrance wall of the mosque have survived up to the roof cornice, and the remaining walls to a height of about 2.20 m
  • minor remains of the mihrab can be seen
  • there are no remains of the mimber or mahfil
  • all the fragments of the mosque are  on the site
  • in early September 2006, representatives of the Islamic Community and residents of the village of Odžak cleared the site of rubbish and sorted some of the fragments of the mosque.

A renovation project for the mosque is being drawn up. The project is being financed by the Islamic Community, with architect Mustafa Štukan as the chief designer.

 

6. Specific risks

There are no specific risks to the site and remains of the architectural ensemble

 

III – CONCLUSION

 

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A. Time frame

B. Historical value

C. Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iii.     proportions

C.iv.      composition

            D. Clarity

            D. iv.     evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

E. Symbolic value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iii.     traditional value

E.v.      significance for the identity of a group of people

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

o        Copy of cadastral plan no. 7, title deed no. 278 and land register entry no. 10

o        Photodocumentation (photographs of the condition of the property at the time of adoption of a final decision by the Commission, February 2007);

o        Drawings (drawings of the mekteb and imam's house dating from the Austro-Hungarian period and from 1935; sketch of the property made during a visit to the site in February 2007).

 

Bibliography:

During the procedure to designate the site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović mosque in Odžak near Nevesinje as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:

 

1990.   Hasandedić, Hivzija, Muslimanska baština u istočnoj Hercegovini (Muslim heritage in eastern Herzegovina), Mešihat of the Islamic Community, El-Kalem, Sarajevo, 1990.

 

1996.    Çelebi, Evliya, Putopis (Travelogue), Sarajevo Publishing, Sarajevo, 1996

           

Account and documentation from Hasan Eminović, last imam of the mosque

 

(1) Ibn Sina Scientific Research Institute, November 2006: Znakovi vremena, periodical for philosophy, no. 26-27, text published on internet website

http://ibn-sina.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=53&Itemid=41 accessed 2 March 2007

(2) The presence of wooden posts is confirmed by the visible remains of the places where they once stood and the account by the last imam of the mosque, Hasan Eminović.

(3) The description of the minaret and its decoration is based on old photographs of the building and framents on the site. The šerefe parapet, like the roof and upper parts of the minaret, was restored in 1973, and there is no documentation from which it could be ascertained whether the restoration was carried out in accordance with the authentic appearance.

(4)The exterior stone window frames of the windows on the north-west and north-east facade were replaced by concrete frames during the 1970-1973 renovation of the building.

(5) The floor level and that of the exterior sofas were probably altered by raising the exterior sofas when the mosque was restored from 1970 to 1973.

(6) The description of the mosque interior and those of the mahfil and mimber are based on information obtained during a discussion with the last imam of the mosque, Hasan Eminović.

 



Mosque of hajji Hana hanuma Ljubović Remains of the porch Site and remains of architectural ensembleRemains of the mosque
Stone fragments    


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