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Old mosque with harem in Špionica, the architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the Official Gazette of BiH, no. 29/08.

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 6 to 12 March 2007 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

           

The architectural ensemble of the old mosque with harem in Špionica, Municipality Srebrenik, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The architectural ensemble consists of the mosque and harem. 

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 353, Land Register entry no. 53,cadastral municipality Špionica Donja, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation of the National Monument.

The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the resources needed to draw up and implement the necessary technical documentation for the protection of the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated, which shall apply to the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision.

-          all works are prohibited other than research and conservation and restoration works, including those designed to display the monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);

-          during restoration and conservation works the original appearance of the building shall be preserved;

-          during restoration and conservation works, original materials and workmanship and original building methods shall be used wherever possible.

 

The following urgent protection measures are hereby prescribed:

-          examine and carry out a structural analysis of the structural components of the building;

-          carry out the structural consolidation of the property and repair the structural components, using traditional materials and the same techniques wherever possible.

 

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.

 

VI

 

The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

No: 07.2-2-296/03-3

7 March 2007

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Ljiljana Ševo

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION  

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

On 23 February 2007 Mehmed Bajraktarević, advisor to the Mayor of Srebrenik Municipality, and Edin Mutapčić, 75353 Sladna - Ahmići 78, submitted a proposal to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to designate the old mosque in Špionica as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On the basis of this proposal, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

-          Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land register entry);

-          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.

 

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

The architectural ensemble of the old mosque in Špionica is in the centre of the village, on cadastral plot no. 353, cadastral municipality Špionica Donja, plot no. 157, Land Register entry no. 53, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historical information

The village of Špionica is a very old one(1). It has probably been inhabited ever since prehistoric times(2).

There is an archaeological site in the village of Špionica itself, a few hundred metres from the old road leading from the Tinja valley to Majevica, at a place called Luke-polje by the Hurem brook. Here pottery shards and large quantities of brick have been found in the surface layers of soil. These are Roman bricks or tiles – figulae – on which a small stamp can be observed, probably of the brickfield that produced these tiles.

Older people recall that some forty years ago there was still an old wall right beside this road, which was demolished when the road was widened, and used as fill. Neither its origins nor its purpose are known. The old road that ran alongside this site since antiquity linked the Sava valley area and Trebava with Majevica, and also ran alongside the harem of the mosque. Here Greek drachmas have been found(3).

As well as these archaeological remains, the age of the village is attested to by the first defter census of the population(4). It should be noted that as a result of the demographic stagnation in this area during the time of the Srebrenik banate (1474-1520), this village was one of the largest in the area covered by the banate.

Fifteen years later, in 1548, Špionica was in the possession of the sanjakbey Mehmed-han Skenderpašić, with revenues of more than 27,500 akča. This was a considerable sum at the time for a rural settlement, and was due mainly to the many houses in the village (as many as 147)(5).

In 1604 Špionica and Sladna were by far the largest villages in the nahija of Srebrenik and among the largest in the entire Zvornik sanjak(6).

Evidence that this major settlement continued in importance can be found in the number of 329 households and the population of Špionica in the district office of Srebrenik in 1895(7).

The old mosque is the oldest religious building in Špionica. There is no information on the time when it was built, but according to the file on the property compiled by the Centre for Islamic Architecture in Sarajevo, it was built in or around 1870. According to local residents, the mosque was built between 1820 and 1827. The appearance of the building and the use of building materials (in this case, brick) suggest that it dates from the end of the Ottoman period in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A list of vakufs dating from 1913 refers to the Vakuf of the Špionica mosque (Špionica Turska, district Gradačac)(8).

During World War II the mosque was damaged by shrapnel from an artillery shell that landed nearby.

 

2. Description of the property

In terms of layout, the mosque belongs to the type of mosque with open portico, hipped roof and wooden minaret. The entrance portico and central prayer area form a single entity under the same steeply-pitched hipped roof. The building measures approx. 10.60 x 8.80 metres on the outside.

The portico with sofas is on the north-west side of the building, and is 2.80 m wide. The central passageway between the sofas is about 2 metres wide. Since the land slopes slightly the sofas at the northern corner of the mosque are raised by 20 cm and those at the western corner by 50 cm. In the case of this mosque, the portico with sofas does not reach a height of two storeys. Much as in the case of the Handanija mosque in Prusac, the area above the sofas (at first floor level) was walled in to provide an additional room. It is very likely that this part of the building is of rather later date, in view of the thickness of the north-west wall of the central prayer area and the window openings that are in situ(9). The structure of the walls of this part of the building (a skeleton system) rests on a transverse wooden beam supported by eight wooden pillars.

The appearance of these pillars (round in section, gradually tapering from the middle towards the top and the bottom, square capitals) and the form and different sizes of the headtrees (the use of double volutes) attest to the inventiveness of the builder. Each pillar is of a different size, and rests not on a base but on a wooden floor joist. The railing and floor of the sofas are made of wood.

The central feature of the entrance façade is the mosque portal, which is 1.60 m wide and about 2.20 m high, terminating in a round arch. The door jambs are stone, and have no decoration other than a shallow line echoing the shape of the portal. The doorjambs have stone capitals on which the arch rests. The mosque is entered through a double wooden door with geometric decorations composed of a combination of wooden slats and a vertical twisted wooden strip between the two wings of the doors.

There is no tarih (chronogram) or other inscription on the mosque that might indicate the time it was built or who built it.

The interior prayer space measures 6.50 m (south-west/north-east) x 6.30 m (south-east/north-west). It has a flat wooden ceiling with šiše of deal boards meeting at an angle of 45 degrees. In the middle of the ceiling is a square decoration from which a light fitting is suspended.

The usable height of the interior from floor to ceiling is about 4.5 m. The entire interior of the mosque is plastered with lime plaster. The floor is of wooden boards, 40-50 mm thick.

There is a wooden mahvil by the north-west wall of the mosque, reached from the outside by a wooden staircase in the north corner of the portico. The staircase is about 90 cm wide, and the mahvil is about 2.50 m wide. The load-bearing structure of the mahvil rests on the outside walls. Roughly midway along the mahvil is a wooden cantilevered platform for the muezzin. A low wooden balustrade runs along the entire length. There are no wooden pillars in the upper mahvil space. The entrance to the minaret is by the western corner of the mosque, from the mahvil.

The inside of the mihrab is plastered with lime mortar, over which several coats of oil paint have been applied, so that it is impossible to tell what the mihrab is made of. The part of the niche with stalactite decoration is made of pieces of brick set at varying angles into the wall.

The mihrab is about 1.20 m wide, and projects outwards from the wall face by about 5 cm. The semicircular mihrab niche is 78 cm wide, and has a radius of about 50 cm.

The mimber is richly decorated, partly on the triangular sides and the panel about the ogee arch (depicting Solomon’s seal). It is now painted with a thick coat of grey oil paint. The decoration consists of floral and geometric motifs. The top of the mimber is finished with a decorative slat.

Like the mimber, the ćurs is entirely made of wood. Its very simple structure consists of five square posts joined by horizontal beams. The vertical panels so created are set with hand-turned wooden spindles set vertically. To the right (facing the mihrab), a semicircular shelf has been added to hold a book. Each pillar of the ćurs is decorated with a miniature decoration resembling a turban.

The mosque walls are about 0.90 m thick. The lower reaches of the walls are of quarry limestone, and the upper reaches of unbaked (adobe) brick. On the outside façades, the wooden tie beams and layers of brick at the transition from the ground to the first floor can be seen below the thick rendering, where the mortar has been damaged.

The façades of the mosque are rendered and painted white, and the woodwork is painted with green oil paint.

There are two rows of window openings. The north-east, north-west and south-east walls each have two rectangular window openings measuring approx. 0.80 x 1.20 m at ground floor level, with iron bars. The south-west wall has only one window.

The upper windows echo those of the lower, except that the south-west, north-east and north-west walls each have three window openings. The top of the upper windows is triangular in shape.

The minaret of the mosque is wooden, and stands on a stone plinth the same height as the masonry part of the mosque. The minaret is currently clad with sheet metal. The minaret is about 12 m in height

The mosque has a steeply pitched hipped roof clad with plain tiles.

Harem

The harem contains about a hundred nišan tombstones: about thirty older tombstones, the oldest of which dates from 1730, and newer ones, some of which clash in colour and appearance with the character of a Muslim burial ground.

1. Man’s nišan with rounded turban, square in section 20 x 20 cm with a height of 95 cm, without epitaph. On the left-hand side of the nišan is a carved sword, on the right-hand side a purse, and at the top a carved hajji’s band.

2. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, square in section 20 x 20 cm with a height of 655 cm. On the left-hand side of the nišan is a carved sword, on the right-hand side a purse. The nišan je sunken into the ground leaving only the beginning of the epitaph visible.

محرم الحرام الثالث من اليوم......

Third day of the holy month of muharram ........

3. Man’s nišan with turban, rectangular in section 15 x 17 cm with a height of 118 cm, without epitaph. At the top of the nišan is a carved hajji’s band. According to a local resident, Bešlaga Bajraktarević, this is the grave of his ancestor Abdurašid Bajraktarević, who died in 1914 and who built the mosque along with his brother.

4. Woman’s nišan with hajji’s band, without epitaph, rectangular in section 17 x 13 cm with a height of 75 cm. According to a local resident, Bešlaga Bajraktarević, this is the grave of his ancestor Hatidža Bajraktarević, wife of Abdurašid, née Slanjankić.

5. Man’s nišan with pleated turban square in section 15 x 15 cm with a height of 65 cm, without epitaph. On the right-hand side of the nišan is a carved sword, on the left-hand side a purse.

6. Woman’s nišan, sunken into the ground, without epitaph, square in section 14 x 14 cm with a height of 40 cm.

7. Woman’s nišan with hajji’s band, without epitaph, rectangular in section 17 x 15 cm with a height of 79 cm. According to a local resident, Bešlaga Bajraktarević, this is the grave of Duda Bajraktarević, Bešlaga's grandmother, née Bajrić, who died in 1920.

8. Man’s nišan with turban, rectangular in section 17 x 15 cm with a height of 79 cm, with an inscription in Bosnian written in the arebica (modified Arabic) script.

اووو يخ محمد بايراقتارويج 1313

This is Mehmed Bajraktarević 1313 (1895/96).

9. Man’s nišan with turban, square in section 14 x 14 cm with a height of 44 cm, sunken into the ground, without epitaph.

10. Man’s nišan with turban, rectangular in section 14 x 15 cm with a height of 55 cm, with incised epitaph on the left-hand side of the nišan.

و فات صالح سنة 1142 ماه 15 رجب

Salih died on 15 Rajab 1142 (4 February 1730)

11. Man’s nišan with turban with cross band, rectangular in section 20 x 15 cm with a height of 93 cm, carved with a hajji’s band and an epitaph in bold thuluth script on three sides of the nišan.

هو الخلاق الباقي ...سليم بن ابراهيم ياحيج روحيجون الفاتحة 46

He is the Eternal Creator. ....Selim, son of Ibrahim Jahić. [Recite] Fatiha for his soul. (13)46  (1927).

According to Bešlaga Bajraktarević this was the imam of the mosque, who died while leading Eid prayers in the mosque. Eid ul adha (the Eid ending the hajj) was on 31 December 1927 that year.

12. Woman’s nišan with hajji’s band, without epitaph, rectangular in section 17 x 13 cm with a height of 80 cm. According to Bešlaga Bajraktarević this is the grave of the wife of Selim of whom he remembers only the surname, Habibović.

13. Man’s nišan with turban with cross band, rectangular in section 17 x 15 cm with a height of 85 cm, without epitaph, with a purse carved on the nišan.

14. Woman’s nišan, rectangular in section 18 x 14 cm with a height of 100 cm with incised epitaph in Bosnian in arebica script.

مرحوما بايراقتارويج فاطما 1369

Merhuma [deceased] Bajraktarević Fatima. 1369 (1949/50)

15. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 19 x 15 cm with a height of 120 cm, carved with a hajji’s band and the following epitaph:

مرحوم خليل بن عثمان بايراقتارويج روحيجون الفاتحة 1368

Halil, rest his soul, son of Osman Bajraktarević. [Recite] Fatiha for his soul. 1368 (1948/49).

16. Nišan in the form of a stele, without epitaph, measuring 22 x 15 cm in section with a height of 48 cm.

17. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 21 x 18 cm with a height of 164 cm, with a purse incised on the left-hand side and a sword on the right-hand side. The front of the nišan bears an epitaph in Ottoman Turkish.

هو الباقي مرقد مرحوم و مغفور له ........ عثمان بن عثمان زاده بايراقتارويج روحيجون الفاتحة 1325

He is Eternal. Deceased and forgiven ....Osman, son of Osman Bajraktarević. [Recite] Fatiha for his soul. 1325 (1907).

According to Bešlaga Bajraktarević this is the grave of the builder of the mosque..

18. Woman’s nišan with incised epitaph in Bosnian in arebica script, rectangular in section 16 x 13 cm with a height of 84 cm.

حاتيجا بايراقتارويج ومرلا 1362

Hatidža Bajraktarević, died 1362 (1943/44).

19. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 18 x 16 cm with a height of 80 cm with incised epitaph.

مرحوم بايراقتارويج اومرو 1943

Bajraktarević, rest his soul, died 1943.

20. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 18 x 15 cm with a height of 100 cm, with a carved sword and the year 1234 (1818/19) above it.

21. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 19 x 16 cm with a height of 56 cm, sunken into the ground.

22. Woman’s nišan, without epitaph, rectangular in section 17 x 13 cm with a height of 70 cm carved with a hajji’s band.

23. Woman’s nišan, with epitaph, rectangular in section 15 x 12 cm with a height of 80 cm, carved with a hajji’s band.

مرحومه رشيده ده ديج 1368

Merhuma Rešida Dedić. 1368 (1948/49).

24. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 13 x 16 cm with a height of 60 cm, sunken into the ground leaving only part of the epitaph visible.

وووو يه صالح سالحويج زيويو ....

This is Salih Salihović, he lived ....

25. Man’s nišan with pleated turban,  16 x 16 cm in section with a height of 55 cm, sunken into the ground, without epitaph.

26. Woman’s nišan, with epitaph, rectangular in section 17 x 13 cm with a height of 90 cm, the epitaph is in Bosnian in arebica script.

مرحوم شه حيدا مويجيج ومرلا 15.3.1368

Merhuma Šehida Mujčić, died 16.3.1368 (17 January 1949).

27. Damaged man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 14 x 15 cm with a height of 65 cm, without epitaph. 

28. Man’s nišan with fez, rectangular in section 20 x 17 cm with a height of 117 cm, with an epitaph in a combination of Arabic and Ottoman.

المرحوم عثمان بن عثمان بايراقتارويج روحيجمن الفاتحة 1353

Osman, rest his soul, son of Osman Bajraktarević. [Recite] Fatiha for his soul 1353 (1934/35)

29. Man’s nišan with pleated turban, rectangular in section 16 x 17 cm with a height of 65 cm, with epitaph in Bosnian in Arabic script.

مرحوم وسمان سين عاحمه تا بايراقتارويج ومرو 1362

Osman, rest his soul, son of Ahmet Bajraktarević, died 1362(1943/44).

 

3. Legal status to date

The property has not been subject to legal protection.

 

4. Research and conservation and restoration works

No conservation and restoration works have been carried out on the property. Most of the works carried out have been on the initiative of the residents of the village.

 

5. Current condition of the property

The following are the findings from an on-site inspection:

-          the property is overgrown with weeds,

-          the roof cladding of tiles is damaged in places,

-          diagonal cracks can be observed on the walls,

-          there is rising damp in places in the interior,

-          the woodwork of the doors and windows is in poor condition after many years without maintenance, with a tendency to further deterioration,

-          the plaster has fallen away in places because of damp,

-          the roof frame is undamaged,

-          the ceiling in the mosque is in good condition,

-          the exterior rendering is in very poor condition in places.

 

6. Specific risks

Long-term lack of maintenance and failure to take emergency protection measures, leaving damp penetration into the structure untreated, has resulted in serious damage to the property.

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.         Time frame

B.         Historical value

C.         Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iv.      composition

E.         Symbolic value

E.ii.      religious value

E.iii.      traditional value

E.v.       significance for the identity of a group of people

G.         Authenticity

G.v.      location and setting

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Copy of cadastral plan;

-          Copy of land register entry and proof of title;

-          Photodocumentation – photographs of the building supplied by Srebrenik Municipality;

-          Ground plan, ground floor – drawn by Mirzah Fočo;

-          Plan at mahvil level – drawn by Mirzah Fočo;

-          Photodocumentation of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of BiH.

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted: 

 

1895.    Hauptresultate der Volkszahlung in Bosnien und der Hercegovina vom 22. april 1895. (Main Results of the Population Census in BiH of 22 April 1895). Sarajevo: 1896, 328-329.

 

1913.    Samostalni vakufi (Independent Pious Endowments). Sarajevo: Naroda Press, 1913, 122.

 

1975.    Pašalić, Dr. Esad. Sabrana djela (Collected Works). Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1975.

 

2005.    “Opširni defter Zvorničkog sandžaka iz 1604. godine” (General defter of the Zvornik sanjak for 1604) (trans. Amina Kupusović), Biljeg Srebrnika, no. 3. Srebrenik: 2005.

 

2006.    Butler, Thomas. “O posjeti Špionici i Čekanićima selima između Srebrenika i Gračanice” (Visits to Špionica and Čekanići villages between Srebrenik and Gračanica), Biljeg Srebrnika, no. 4. Srebrenik: 2006.

 

2007.    Mutapčić, E. “Prethistorijske gradine i ostali arheološki lokaliteti na području općine Srebrenik” (Prehistoric Hill Forts and Other Archaeological Sites in Srebrenik Municipality), in: Srebrenik – historijsko etnografske skice (Srebrenik – historical and ethnographic sketches). Srebrenik: 2007.

 

2007.    Fočo, Mirzah. Report

 

(1) In the opinion of retired professor Thomas Butler of Harvard University, the name Špionica derives from the word “spil,” an old Indo-European roof meaning cave (Thomas Butler, “O posjeti Špionici i Čekanićima selima između Srebrenika i Gračanice,” Biljeg Srebrnika, no 4, Srebrenik: 2006.) Butler has a doctorate in southern Slav languages and has been engaged in the study of the linguistics, literary history and folk traditions of the southern Slav lands of the Balkans.

(2) For more on the prehistoric remains in Srebrenik see: E. Mutapčić, “Prethistorijske gradine i ostali arheološki lokaliteti na području općine Srebrenik,” in: Srebrenik – historijsko etnografske skice, Srebrenik: 2007.

(3) Dr. Esad Pašalić, Sabrano djelo (Collected Works), Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1975, 129.

(4) In the first census, of 1533, Špionica belonged to the nahija of Srebrenik and had 35 Muslim households and 8 Muslim bachelors, 40 Christian households and 12 Christian bachelors, two hereditaments, and one  primićur (village or caravan leader). The revenue from the village was 5,070 akča.

(5) Of which 96 were Muslim (4 hereditaments), 50 non-Muslim (13 hereditaments) and one of primićur Dragiša, son of Milunko. The principal crops in the settlement were wheat (revenues of 8,160), grape vines (7,560) and millet (1,980 akča). That year, 12 mills were registered in the settlement (“Opširni defter Zvorničkog sandžaka iz 1548. godine” (trans.: Medžida Selmanović), Biljeg Srebrnika, no 2, Srebrenik: 2004, 74-77.

(6) It then had a total of 177 households, of which 132 were Muslim and 43 non-Muslim, with a significant number of hereditaments (37), mainly in Muslim hands. The annual revenue of the village had fallen somewhat, to 17,000 akča, mainly from cultivating wheat (3,000), grape vines, rye and millet. The number of mills had risen from 12 to 15. “Nahija Srebrenik u Livi Zvornik,” “Opširni defter Zvorničkog sandžaka iz 1604. godine” (trans. Amina Kupusović), Biljeg Srebrnika, no. 3, Srebrenik: 2005, 38-42.

(7) Hauptresultate der Volkszahlung in Bosnien und der Hercegovina vom 22. april 1895. (Main results of population census in BiH of 22 April 1895), Sarajevo: 1896, 328-329.

(8) The mutevelija of this vakuf in this census was Ahmet Slanjankić. The vakuf had the following revenues:

-          rent for the garden held by Husejn Čustić in the sum of 10 crowns;

-          rent for the Zagon arable land held by Bajraktarević with a revenue of  8 crowns;

-          murabeha on capital with an income of 111 crowns (murabaha is a form of return on capital that conforms to the Islamic principle of not charging interest: resale with specified gain. Trans.)

The vakuf also had the following outgoings:

-          imam's wages of 115 crowns

-          lighting 6 crowns

-          flat-rate 5 crowns

The total revenues of the vakuf amounted to 129 crowns

The surplus revenue amounted to 3 crowns. Samostalni vakufi, Sarajevo: Naroda Press, 1913, 122.

(9) Further investigations would be required for a fuller assessment.



Old mosque in ŠpionicaMosque in ŠpionicaPorchWindow
MimberMahfil (gallery) MihrabPortico
PulpitCeilingTombstones 


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