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60th session - Decisions

Čaršija (Junuz-Čauš) mosque, the architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 14 to 20 March 2006 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The architectural ensemble of the Čaršija (Junuz-Čauš) mosque in Konjic is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 562,  Land Register entry no. 596, cadastral municipality Konjic II, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of  BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect and display the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

           

To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following protection zone is hereby stipulated.

Protection Zone I consists of the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision.  The following protection measures shall apply in this zone:

  • all further works are prohibited (m1) with the exception of conservation and restoration works, pursuant to approval from the Federation ministry responsible for regional planning and with the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
  • all elements that are significantly detrimental to the authenticity of the building and that have not been carried out in line with the principles of conservation and restoration shall be removed (removal of concrete beams on the lower window frames and concrete beams supporting the mahvil structure).

IV

 

All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

V

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.

 

VI

 

            The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

            This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

No.: 07.2-02-02-602/03-12

15 March 2006                                                            

Konjic                                                                                    

 

Chair of the Commission

Dubravko Lovrenović

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

 

Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

On 17 March 2003 the Commission received a petition from the Centre for Islamic Architecture, Sarajevo. Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

 

In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

  • Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
  • Inspection of the current condition of the property
  • Copy of cadastral plan
  • Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location

            The town of Konjic is in the Herzegovina-Neretva canton, on the road leading from Sarajevo to Mostar and beyond, to the Adriatic Sea.   The municipality has an area of more than a thousand square metres, with a population of more than forty thousand (data from the municipality’s official portal, http://www.konjic.ba).

            The mosque is in the old Konjic čaršija very close to the old bridge. The National Monument stands on c.p. no. 562, Land Register entry no. 596, c.m. Konjic II, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Historical information

The Konjic area has been inhabited since Neolithic times.  There is reference to it in the 4th century BCE. The remains of a shrine to Mithras have been found close to the town, below Repovica hill, opposite the railway station.  During Roman times there was a major crossroads here.  Traces of settlements dating from Roman times have been found on both banks of the Neretva in the present-day urban area of Konjic (Mujezinović, 1998, p. 422; Mulić, 2003, p. 24).

During the 15th century there was a marked revival of the caravan waystations on the road leading from Dubrovnik via the Neretva valley to central Bosnia, as a result of the economic rise of Visoko and more intensive exploitation of the central Bosnian mining basin.  One of these waystations developed in Konjic, where a customs house had already been established during the reign of King Tvrtko (1353-1394).  This customs house remained in existing throughout the first half of the 15th century.  The lively commercial traffic led to crown houses or hostels being built in Konjic, where travellers could rest and lay out their goods.  These public hostels were owned by “Patarenes” and the Bosnian kings.  There was a royal court in Konjic as early as 1358 (Anđelić, 1975, pp. 128, 312).

The first written record of the settlement of Konjic, with no indication of its extent, relates to a citation by Mavro Orbini from 1366-1369 concerning dynastic batles in Hum land and Neretva župa (county).  The earliest official data on Konjic as a settlement on the right bank of the Neretva bears the date 16 June 1382, in an agreement between Dubrovnik and the Vlachs to transport lead in their caravans from Podvisoko and Konjic to Dubrovnik.

During the campaign by Sultan Mehmed el Fatih, lasting from early May to mid June 1463, the entire Konjic region was conquered (Anđelić, 1975, pp. 129, 313).  In their first census, conducted in 1468/69, the Ottomans listed both Biograd and Konjic as markets, indicating that they were already well developed during the mediaeval period (Kovačević-Kojić, 1978, pp. 71,112).

During the Ottoman period, Konjic was a traffic hub and wayside station on the road from the Istanbul road via the Neretva valley to the sea, which also dictated the erection of a bridge over the Neretva.

Between 1550 and 1574 Konjic market acquired the status of a kasaba or town, with a new name – Neretva – but the name Konjic remained in use until the beginning of the 18th century.  

In 1574 Konjic had three mahalas (residential quarters), one of which was a Muslim quarter (the mahala of Ahmed Tabandža’s mosque or Tabanica) and two were non-Muslim (the former village of Trešanica and Gornja Konjica or upper Konjic mahala). 

Between 1537 and 1586, the Ottomans began to erect a new settlement on the left bank of the Neretva, which they accorded the status of kasaba and the name of Belgraddžik.  In 1585 the kasaba had three Muslim mahalas and one non-Muslim. 

In the late 16th and early 17th century the kasaba acquired a fourth Muslim mahala (Mulić, 2003, p. 27).  In 1633 there is reference to an independent kadiluk of Belgraddžik (Mali Biograd-small Biograd), with its headquarters in Konjic, which also began from then on to be known as Belgraddžik (Mujezinović, 1998, p. 422). 

Evliya Çelebi says that Konjic had six mahalas (on both banks of the Neretva), eight mosques (mihrabs), two madrassas, two Sufi tekkes (hanikah/haniqah), three maktabs, a small bathhouse and two hostelries (hans/khans), one of which was in the čaršija or commercial centre.  Çelebi also notes that the opposite bank of the river was reached via a substantial wooden bridge (Çelebi, 1996, p. 477)(1).  

The earliest censuses of the wider Konjic area list 18 mosques, of which five were in the town itself. (2)

The Čaršija or Junuz-Čauš mosque is probably the oldest and, on account of its location in the urban fabric, the most important mosque in Konjic.  Tradition ascribes the construction of the building to one Junuz-čauš, and is dated to the 16th century, well before 1579, when the vakufnama (deed of perpetual endowment) was drawn up, and prior to the first census of the Herzegovina sandžak in 1585. (3)   

The 1585 census of the Herzegovina sandžak provides some details of the mosque, listing it as located in the mahala of the Muslim congregation.  At that time it employed an imam and hatib (preacher), and a muezzin (Mulić, p. 173).

There is a tarih (chronogram) above the entrance portal, recounting that it was built or rebuilt by one Ibrahim(4)  in 1033 AH (1623/24).  The original tarih that could indicate when the mosque was first built has not been found.

Valuable information on vakufs (perpetual endowments) and vakifs (legators) and their deputies, and on the officials in places of worship, muallims (teachers) and their assistants in the sibjan mekteb, and muderris (teachers) in the medresas are to be found in the ruznamče defters(5). Details of the vakufs and vakifs of the mosques of Konjic are of particular importance.  The defter has a total of five records of the Čaršija mosque, of which one relates to the appointment of a muallim in the mosque’s sibjan mekteb, one to the appointment of a vaiz (preacher, predicator), two to the appointment of a muallim and imam, and one to the appointment of an imam:

  • The post of muallim (teacher) in the mosque mekteb was left vacant.  At the request of Ali ef. Kadja, an imperial berat (decree) was issued in 1123 AH (1711/12) to Ibrahim, son of Muhammed;
  • The post of vaiz was held by Mustafa, but there is no imperial berat for this post.  At the request of naib (deputy) Ahmed, his employment was confirmed by imperial berat of 1183 AH (1769/70);
  • The post of imam and muallim (teacher) in the mekteb had been held by Abdullah, but he was dismissed and the post was left vacant.  At the request of the naib to the kadi (judge) Ali ef., his son Ibrahim was appointed to the post by imperial berat of 1183 AH (1769/70);
  • The post of imam and muallim (teacher) in the mekteb had been held by Osman halifa, who died, and the post was left vacant. At the request of the naib to the kadi (judge) Ali ef., At the request of the naib to the kadi (judge) Ali ef.,Mehmed halifa was appointed to the post by imperial berat of 1186 AH (1772/73);
  • The post of imam and muallim (teacher) in the mekteb had been held by Mehmed halifa, who had resigned from the post, which was thus left vacant. At the request of the naib to the kadi (judge) Ali ef., Husein halifa was appointed to the post by imperial berat of 1187 AH (1773/74);

The vakuf of the Čaršija mosque consisted of the following real property: two barbers' shops, two bakeries, two shops and one eating-house,  all rented out.  The income thus realized was used to pay the wages of the imam of the mosque, the muderris and the muallim and as remuneration for the recitation of hatmas (readings of the entire Qur'an) and mevluds (songs in praise of the prophet Muhammad), and other minor expenditure.  The budget for 1913 gives this as the vakuf of Husein beg Hadžihuseinović, but the list of real property remained the same.

In 1917 the Austro-Hungarian authorities stripped the lead from the mosque roof and coated the vault  with tar.  The mosque was extensively renovated in 1992, when the stone floor was replaced by a wooden one and the roof again clad with sheet metal.

The last time the mosque was renovated before the war was in 1898.  During the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina the mosque suffered several hits from artillery shells.  The roof structure, interior and walls of the building were damaged, and the minaret took several direct hits.

 

2. Description of the property

The Čaršija mosque in Konjic belongs to the type of single-space mosque with hipped roof, interior wooden dome(6) and stone minaret abutting onto the building.  It stands on a plot surrounded by a low stone wall.  The entrances to the harem of the mosque are to the north-east and north-west sides of the plot.

The exterior dimensions of the mosque are 10.50 x 14.90 m.  It consists of a square single-space prayer area measuring 8.50 x 8.50, a portico to the north-west and a stone minaret to the south-west.  Inside, the mosque has an octagonal wooden dome, while on the exterior it has a pitched hipped roof.

To the north-west of the building is a portico with sofas (raised areas) measuring 10.65 x 4.35 m, and a central passageway 2.27 m in width.  The sofas are raised an averfage of 68 cm above ground level.   The three-sided roof of the portico is supported by a total of ten wooden pillars, eight of which are octagonal in cross-section and two, abutting onto the north-west wall of the mosque, are six-sided.  The pillars range from 23 x 23 cm to 25 x 25 cm in section, with each side on average 10 cm in width.  A particular feature is that the various pillars of the portico have different bases – some have square plinths, some octagonal, and some no plinth at all.  The pillars are joined by a wooden beam.  Between the pillars are pointed (ogee) arches, with an infill of diagonal wooden slats resembling wooden mušebak (window lattice).  The central part of the sofa area is dominated by a moulded stone portal projecting outwards from the wall face of the mosque by 30 cm.  The entrance to the mosque is 1.23 m in width.  The stone door jambs are 25 cm wide and 16 cm thick, and are joined by a lintel composed of five stone blocks, regular voussoirs, with the keystone 34 cm in height and 30 cm wide at the top, narrowing to 20 cm at the base.  The stone doorstep of the mosque is 15 cm in height.

Above the entrance to the mosque is an inscription in Arabic verse, incised on a stone plaque measuring 70 x 40 cm.  The text of the inscription, which is partly vocalized, is set in six elliptical panels and is in naskh script.

The inscription reads:

„In the name of Allah, Ibrahim

Spent his wealth and renovated the mosque,

Foremost among others in what he spent,

So may the Creator of the worlds grant him a long and happy life.

To mark the renovation [of the mosque], I wrote this chronogram for it:

This is the aim of good men and the home of those who prostrate themselves.”

(1033 AH=1623/24)

            The year of the chronogram is not expressed in figures, but only in abjad in the last line of the inscription.

The central prayer space is a cuboid measuring 8.50 x 8.50 m, with the height of the walls to the roof cornice approx. 5.90  m.

The mahfil, reached via the minaret staircase, extends along the entire north-west wall.  The mahfil measures 8.50 x 2.64 m, and consists of two rectangular sections by the north and west corner of the mosque.  Each section measures 3.37 x 2.64 m.  The two sections are linked by a footway measuring 2.00 x 0.86 m.  The total area of the mahfil is 20.0 m².   The wooden structure of the mahfil is supported by a crossbeam resting on the north-west wall and on a structure consisting of stone beams 15 cm thick supported by six octagonal stone pillars 2 m in height.  The pillars terminate in simple capitals with a height of 14 cm.  The mahfil balustrade, with a height of 67 cm, is also of stone, and is 7 cm thick.  The top of the balustrade has a simple moulding.  The mahfil has wooden floorboards.  Seen from below, the mahfil structure was clad with wooden boards, decorated with a geometric design composed of wooden slats.  The edging slats were painted with floral designs.  This decoration can  be dated, by the style of drawing and type of design, to the time the mosque was built.  The part of the mahfil alongside the north corner of the mosque was made of concrete (pillars, beams and balustrade) at some earlier date.

The mihrab is 2.00 m wide and approx. 3.20 m high.  It projects outwards from the wall face by 15 cm.  The moulded frame is 56 cm wide, and the six-sided mihrab niche is 88 cm wide.

The stone mimber measures 2.90 x 0.77 m, with a height of approx. 4.50 m (to the top of the canopy).  It consists of three sections:

  • the portal with stairway and stone railing
  • the upper section, supported by four pillars linked by ogee arches, and
  • the triangular side sections.

The portal is 1.92 m in height.  The stone railing is moulded, as are parts of the triangular side surfaces.  The railing is 90 cm in height.  There is one large and two smaller niches terminating in shallow ogee arches at the base of the side sections.  The larger niche, which is 50 cm wide and 1.60 m high, is a passageway beneath the mimber.  Until 2004 this passageway was closed off by a wooden lattice.  The mimber was painted, as were the other parts of the mosque made of stone.

Below the hipped roof of the mosque is a substructure in the shape of an octagonal dome, composed by diagonal beams; centring rises from each corner of the octagonal base so formed, and is fitted into the crown ring at the top of the structure.  This forms an angled dome the underside of which is clad with boards. The transition from the flat ceiling to the dome is further accentuated by a decoration in the form of rešma (decorated facing boards).

The windows of the mosque are arranged in two rows, other than on the north-west (entrance) side, where the upper windows have been walled up at some point, though their positions can still be seen. The first horizontal row on each of the mosque facades consists of two rectangular window openings measuring 90 cm wide x 146 cm high. The windows on the south-east, mihrab wall differ from the others; above the lintel they have an opening measuring 110 x 60 cm, above which again is a stone pointed arch.  There are no signs of transennas.  In the case of the other windows, until 2004 the area above the windows was walled up and accentuated by a pointed arch executed in plaster.  During works conducted  by the congregation, the area above these windows was pierced, in line with the windoews of the mihrab wall, and a kind of pointed arch executed.  These new windows measuring 112 x 62 cm.

Inside the mosque, the  window frames are of sandstone, with elaborate, complex moulding. The sockets for fitting bars can be seen on the frames.  It may be deduced from this that these elements were at some point transferred to the interior of the building (perhaps when it was first renovated/rebuilt), or that they come from some other mosque.  The windows on the sofas are more richly decorated than the other windows.  The stone frames are 20-22 cm thick.  They have wrought iron bars on the ouside, and wooden shutters on the inside.  The windows of the second horizontal row measure 88 x 178 cm (height to the apex of the arch), and are set directly above the lower windows.  They are also accentuated by pointed arches, which are set back from the wall face by an average of 5 cm on both sides.

The walls of the mosque are of limestone, with lime mortar as binder, and are 75 cm thick on average.  The walls are now plastered on the exterior with lime cement mortar.  The interior walls are also plastered and whitewashed. The mosque has a hipped roof clad with galvanized iron over wooden rafters.  The roof cladding was originally sheet lead.

The stone minaret is 30 m in height excluding the alem (finial) (Mulić, p. 178). The minaret was built of stone and consists of the base, polygonal (twelve-sided) main shaft, šerefe (balcony), barrel and terminal steeple with metal finial.  The šerefe is undecorated.  There are stone steps inside the minaret.  Some of the blocks are tufa.  The entrance to the minaret is at the western corner of the mosque.

Harem

Mujezinović found about twenty nišan tombstones in the harem of the mosque, among them the tombstones of the tomb alleged to be that of Junuz-čauš, assumed to be the founder of the Konjic mosque.  There are no epitaphs on these tombstones, which are made of marble.  The headstone with folded turban is 1.25 m in height and 18 x 18 cm in cross-section. The footstone is in the form of a stele 1.18 m in height and 32 x 10 cm in cross-section.  There is a rosette incised on the footstone.  This is the oldest tombstone in the harem.

The following nišan tombstones bear epitaphs:

Nišan of Ferhat beg:

The headstone, in the shape of an ulema nišan, bears the following epitaph on two sides of the tombstone:

„1255 (1839/40). [O Lord] Who forgiveth sins and conceals human failings,

forgive me my sins and conceal my failings with Your mercy.

Deceased Ferhat-beg, rest his soul, son of Ahmed-beg.

[Recite] al Fatiha for his soul.

When the call reached him, “Return,” he responded to the judge of all slave [men].

He rendered up his soul …“

Nišan of Derviš-pasha (Dedaga) Čengić (7)

A massive, decorated sarcophagus with two nišan tombstones stands over the Čengić grave.  The headstone terminates in a low fez and tassel, and the footstone is decorated with a vine and bunches of grapes; the top of the footstone also bears a decorated protrusion.  The tomb is set within a separate iron railing.  Two sides of the headstone bear the following chronogram in Turkish verse, incised in ta’liq script:

„He [Allah].

A prominent figure, ashraf and hanedan of the county of Gacko,

His excellency, the hero, Čengić Dede Pasha,

Loved the descendants of the prophet Mustafa [Muhammad] and defended the faith.

This warrior for the faith in Herzegovina,

With utmost sincerity advocated the advancement of the faith.

To assist in the battle, he resolved to set off

For Nikšić, where he fell ill.

He failed to recover, and rendered up his soul,

And in his hour of death commended his two sons to patience,

This sincere, heroic warrior.

Read the second half of the chronogram on the other side:

Drugu polovinu kronograma čitaj na drugoj strani:

He [Allah].

Look upon my condition and draw the moral from it,

And do not rely on this world,

For it is entirely without permanence or mercy,

So let not life lead you astray, but use it on the path of truth,

The struggle was recommended by Allah’s prophet,

Children and friends, do not neglect the struggle,

For the struggle . . .

After thus commending them, he uttered the name Hu [Allah] and rendered up his soul to eternity,

..

..

May God allot Dedo pasha a place in jannah Mawa.

Year 1292.“ (1874)

Below this epitaph is the following text in Latin scripit:

„Derviš-pasha Čengić

Ottoman regional commander

Died 1874.“

 

The other dated nišan tombstones in the burial ground beside the Čaršija mosque reveal that the following were buried there:

  • Omer, son of Mula Mehmed, d. 1252 AH (1836/37);
  • Abdulah, son of hajji Mustafa Proho, 1278 AH (1861/62);
  • Almasa, daughter of Jusuf-aga, 1278 AH (1861/62);
  • Fatima, daughter of Avdaga Proho, wife of Kadić Nedžib-efendija, d. 1285 AH (1868/69);

Čelić and others mentioned a medresa and mekteb as buildings associated with this mosque.  The medresa was to the south of the mosque, outside the harem wall, on the site of the present-day Majlis building.

There is a new, stone-built public fountain in the harem of the mosque by the east courtyard wall of the mosque.  The fountain consists of a trough and main section with a polygonal roof.  The wall of the fountain bears a plaque incised with the date when it was erected (1987).

 

3. Legal status to date

The building has not enjoyed legal protection.

 

4. Research and conservation and restoration works

According to Mulić, the mosque was rebuilt in 1633. There is a record of its renovation in 1989, but without any account of the activities carried out.

During the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the mosque took several hits from artillery shells, damaging the roof structure and walls, while the minaret took several direct hits.  After this the upper part of the minaret and the šerefe were reconstructed, and the building was plastered, whitewashed and re-roofed.  The works were financed by IGASA, the World Islamic humanitarian organization of Saudi Arabia.

 

5. Current condition of the building

Between 2004 and 2006 the building underwent numerous interventions, some of which have been serious detrimental to its authenticity.  These relate primarily to works on the interior.  Since the last visit to the site and the building in 2004, the following works have been carried out:

  • the mahfil has been dismantled and the decorative elements removed; the mahfil was later replaced, but without its decorations;
  • the beam above the entrance to the building which supports the mahfil structure has been concreted over in the interior;
  • for reasons unknown, a concrete beam has been added to the lower stone window frame by the entrance to the minaret (south-west wall of the mosque);
  • the paint has been stripped from all the stone elements of the mihrab, which has been whitewashed over;
  • the paint has been stripped from all the stone elements of the mimber;
  • the paint has been stripped from all the stone elements of the mahfil (horizontal beam, pillars, capitals, bases, balustrade);
  • the area above the window lintels has been pierced and arch structures executed of different geometry from that of the 2004 arches;
  • all the woodwork has been replaced apart from the outer entrance door;
  • the interior of the mosque has been plastered and whitewashed.

6. Specific risks:

If any further works are carried out without the supervision of the heritage protection authority and a project of suitable quality, the building could be spoiled beyond recovery.

 

III – CONCLUSION

 

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.  Time frame

B.  Historical value

C.  Artistic and aesthetic value

C.iv. composition

E. Symbolic value

E.iii. traditional value

E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people

F. Townscape/ Landscape value

F.i.  Relation to other elements of the site

F.ii. meaning in the townscape

F.iii.  the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site

 

            The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-     Copy of cadastral plan

-     Proof of title;

-     Photodocumentation;

-     Drawings

-     Site plan, scale 1:100 – drawn by Mirzah Fočo, January 2006

-     Ground plan of building, scale 1:100 – Mirzah Fočo, January 2006

-     Facades of building, scale 1:100 – Mirzah Fočo, January 2006

-     Photographs, Konjic Municipality

-     Photographs, Commission to Preserve National Monuments of BiH, 2004 and 2006, taken by Mirzah Fočo

 

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:

 

1975.  Anđelić, Pavao, Historijski spomenici Konjica i okoline I (Historic monuments of Konjic and environs), Konjic Municipal Assembly, Konjic, 1975

 

1978.  Kovačević-Kojić, Desanka, Gradska naselja srednjevjekovne bosanske države (Urban settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state), Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1978

 

1982.   Vego, Marko, Postanak srednjevjekovne bosanske države (Origin of the mediaeval  Bosnian state), Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1982

 

1996.   Çelebi, Evliya, Putopis (Bosnian translation of his Seyahatnamesi or Travelogue), Sarajevo Publishing, Sarajevo, 1996

 

1998.   Mujezinović, Mehmed, Islamska epigrafika Bosne i Hercegovina III (Islamic epigraphics of BiH III), Sarajevo Publishing, Sarajevo, 1998

 

1999.   Bajić, Esad, Vjerski objekti i drugi spomenici islamske kulture na području medžlisa Islamske zajednice Konjic sa kratkim osvrtom na istoriju pojedinih mjesta (Religious buildings and other monuments of Islamic culture in the area of the Majlis [Council] of the Islamic Community of Konjic with brief survey of the history of certain sites) Council of the Islamic Community Konjic

 

2001.   Mulić, Jusuf, Konjic i njegova okolina u vrijeme osmanske vladavine (1464-1878) (Konjic and environs in the Ottoman period [1464-1878]), Konjic Municipality, Konjic, 2001

                       

           Čelić, Džemal, Urbana struktura i arhitektura Konjica (Urban structure and architecture of Konjic) – article

 

Documentation of Konjic Municipality

 

(1) Çelebi writes: ”This kasaba is in the Herzegovina sandžak.  It is a holding (hass, Ar. khas) of its pasha, and is run by the pasha’s military governor.  It is a prominent kadiluk with the rank of a fifty- akča kadiluk.  It has a spahi’s čehaja, a janissary serdar (commander), ayans (members of the upper class), leading citizens, a mayor, a harač (tax) commissioner, a market supervisor and a baždar (customs officer)...  It has six mahalas, and six hundred houses with tiled roofs.  They are not large houses, but they have many vineyards. It has eight mosques, two medresas, three primary schools, two Sufi tekkes, a public baths, and two hostels (hans).  There are seventy-five workshops there.  These are mainly smithies; the iron that is processed here is famous and strong.  Furthermore, there is a special sabre known as the Konjic sabre.  It is of such a kind that it bends when one strikes with it, and then straightens out again.  They make curved swords, butchers’ knives, various kinds of weapons and tools, for there is an iron mine in their mountains, and large quantities of charcoal in the hills. Since the climate is subalpine, figs, grapes, olives and pomegranates are not hardy here as they are in Mostar.  The inhabitants are very hospitable to strangers, and are mainly craftsmen and merchants.

(2) The Majlis of the Islamic Community of Konjic consists of the entire area of Konjic Municipality, andis composed of the following džemat (jamaat, congregational) communities: Bjelimići, Glavatičevo, Glavičine Čuhovići, Džepi, Podorašac, Šunji, Repovci, Tuhobić, Grabovci, Lisičići, Nevizdraci, Seonica, Buturović Polje, Parsovići, Džanići, Jasenik, Kruščica, Gorani, Ribići, Idbar, Čelebići, Orahovica, Lukomir, Homolje. The congregations in the town itself are those of the Repovac, Čaršija, Tekke, Vardač and Prkanj mosques.

(3) Tradition ascribes a nišan tombstone with no epitaph, in the harem of the mosque, to Junuz-čauš.

(4) Ibrahim – son of hajji Abdija and cousin of the hair sahibija (founder, benefactor) of the Tekke mosque Mehmed-beg, the imperial čauš (officer).

(5) This information is held in the Archives of the General Vakuf Directorate in Ankara (Vakuflar Umum Müdürlügü Arşivi – VUMA) The defters were photographed for the Oriental Collection of the Academy of Sciences and Art of BiH by Adem Handžić.  Some time ago the Academy handed them over to the Oriental Institute of Sarajevo, where they are inventoried under no. 46 (with a total of 62 sheets).

(6) These mosques constitute a distinct type, to which the Šarić, Roznamedžija and Tabačica mosques in Mostar belong. The finest mosque in this group is the Roznamedžija mosque in Mostar, with its outstandingly fine minaret (Pašić, 1989, p. 32).

(7) Derviš-paša known as dedaga Čengić, Turkish district commander, died in Konjic on the way from Gacko to Sarajevo in 1272 AH (1874). Was seriously wounded in battle with the Montenegrins.

 



Čaršija (Junuz-Čauš) mosqueČaršija mosquePorticoInterior of the mosque - part of the dome and the mahfil
MimberNišan tombstones  


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