Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 14 to 20 March 2006 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic building of the Catholic church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the church dedicated to the Assumption of Mary, movable heritage consisting of paintings of Our Lady of Good Counsel, the Blessed Virgin Mary Help of Christians, the Heart of Jesus, the Heart of Mary, and a monstrance, chalice and a book of Gospels, and the tomb of an Austrian soldier.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 148/1, cadastral municipality Stup, corresponding to c.p. no. 1903/5,c.m. Donji Butmir (per Land Register), Ilidža Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The parish house, dating from 1891 and extended in the final decades of the 20th century, erected on c.p. no. 1903/4, c.m. Donji Butmir (per Land Register), is not protected as a national monument by the provisions of this Decision, and the protection measures prescribed by this Decision do not apply to it, but does form part of the architectural ensemble.
The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, restore and display the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument on the site defined in Clause 1 para. 3 of this Decision, the following protection zones are hereby stipulated.
- all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
- all protection works, regardless of their type and extent, must be subject to the prior approval of the relevant ministry,
- the façade shall be renovated in line with the original design by Josip Vancaš.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
The removal of the movable heritage items referred to in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision (hereinafter: the movable heritage) from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.
By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable heritage for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Permission for temporary removal under the conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt that it will not jeopardize the National Monument or the movable heritage in any way.
In granting permission for the temporary removal of the items, the Commission shall stipulate all the conditions under which the movable heritage may be removed from Bosnia and Herzegovina, the date by which the items shall be returned to the country, and the responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the relevant security service, the customs authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general public accordingly.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federal Ministry responsible for culture, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VI of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
15 March 2006
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 15 January 2003 the Commission received a petition from the Stup Ward, Ilidža Municipality, Sarajevo Canton.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- An inspection of the current condition of the property
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The settlement of Stup is in the western part of Sarajevo, in the most fertile(1) area of the spacious(2) Sarajevo plain, at an altitude of approx. 500 m. above sea level.
“The settlement of Stup constitutes the central part of the Sarajevo plain, which extends between the rivers Dobrinja and Miljacka. The toponym Stup belongs to mediaeval agrarian toponomastics/toponymy(3) and denotes part of the landed nobility’s lands (arable land) cultivated by serfs to the accompaniment of payment as corvée or deduction. The toponym also denotes a meeting place for tribal gatherings by a tall oak post onto which the tribal elder would climb, blowing a horn to call a meeting to proclaim his decisions(4).” (5)
After World War II, the formerly agricultural area of the fertile Sarajevo plain was rapidly industrialized, and Stup was surrounded to the east, north and west by industrial and business zones, while to the south it is affected by the busy urban main road.
The plot on which the church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup was built emerges on its south-western boundary onto the local Stup-Bojnik road, whence there is access to the church plot through an entrance gate. The zone immediately surrounding the church is mainly built up with residential buildings consisting of ground and one upper floor or ground floor, first floor and attic storey.
The Catholic cemetery in Stup (below the Stup road hub) and its chapel(6) date from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and are associated with the erection of the church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup, as well as with the end of burials in the old Catholic cemetery in Doglodi, which was left under layers of river deposits as the result of a flood(7).
The many archaeological finds discovered on the wider area of the Sarajevo plain («...in Blažuj, Osijek near Blažuj, Hrasnica, Naklo near Vojkovići, Švrakino selo, along the Jošanica brook and by the sulphur springs in Gornja Vogošća, in Stup, Gdadac near Hadžići, in Mihaljevići,...») are evidence of the wealth of economic and building activity dating from the Roman period(8). Among the most important of these finds, housed in the National Museum in Sarajevo, are the remains of a building from an agricultural property, a villa rustica, 1st-3rd century CE, finds of coins from the 1st-3rd century, blacksmith's tools, and craftsmen's requisites(9).
«In the mediaeval period this region was part of the župa [county] (10), first under the rule of the Bosnian king, and then of the head of the princely family Pavlović – Radin Jablanović and Pavle Radenović, and the feudals who were his vassals, the names of some of whom have survived in toponyms such as Mihaljević (Mihajlović), Dobrošević, Latice (Gornji Stup was known as Latice until 1878)(11).»(12)
In the Census of the vilayet of Hodidjed dating from 1455, there is reference to timar(13) holdings («part of Kotorac, Hrasnica, Glavogodina, Vrutci, Lužani, Otes, Stup, Kobiljdol/Kasindol») of the garrison of the Hodidjed fort, which served as military remuneration for the Hodidjed garrison(14). This 1455 census also provides information on the number of houses in each settlement, according to which there were 40 houses in Hrasnica, 19 in Glavodina, 16 in Butmir, 15 each in Lužani and Otes, 18 in Stup, and 13 in Osijek... (15).
The same census refers to the villages of Gornji and Donji (Upper and Lower) Stup, which then belonged to the timar of Eflak Hamza, a hizmećar (servant) of Isabeg's, with a total of 18 houses. «In 1488/89 the timars of the kapidžija [gatekeeper] Ilijasa were registered, of the tahvil [settlement of debt] of Mustafa-beg, brother of Ali pasha, with a total of 25 Christian houses and three hereditaments and four Muslim houses with two bachelors. In the inventory of a vakuf [deed of perpetual endowment] dating from 1540, the village of Stup, along with the Doglodi mahala, was listed as a timar of an official of the Imperial mosque in Sarajevo. By the early 17th century the number of inhabitants of this village had risen considerably; by then, in Donji Stup wtih Doglodi alone there were 51 Muslim houses with hereditaments and 36 houses of a kindžijas [assault cavalrymen] and soldiers.» (16)
During the Ottoman period, pastoral case for the Catholic population of the Sarajevo plain(17) was provided by the Franciscans(18) of the Kreševo custodiate. Along with the establishment of Austro-Hungarian administration in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878), following agreement between the Common Government and the Holy See in the Vatican(19), an episcopal ecclesiastical administration was set up in BiH, and Pope Leo XIII's bull «Ex hac augusta» of 5 July 1881(20) established the Vrhbosnian metropolitanate with the Archbishopric of Vrhbosnia, based in Sarajevo, and the bishoprics of Mostar-Duvno, based in Mostar, Trebinje, and Banja Luka.
In August 1890 the Ordinariat of the Archbishopric of Vrhbosnia issued a decree to religious officials under the terms of which it was required to seek permission from the senior ecclesiastical authorities before building a new church or extending or repairing an existing one; the application for a permit was to provide details of the site where it was to be built, with a description of the site, the area and location of the plot, and the planned dimensions of the future church, the number in the congregation, and the projected costs, materials and building method (which was to be drawn up by qualified persons), and the financial feasibility of the project, i.e. how it was to be funded. Under the provisions of this decree, blueprints of future churches were to be submitted to the Ordinariate of Vrhbosnia in order to obtain approval, after which they would be forwarded, along with estimates of the works, to the Provincial Government for approval. By 1905(21), 153 churches and 169 parish houses had been built, and 124 churchs and 19 parish houses had been repaired. (22)
In 1890, recognizing the needs of the Catholic population in the villages of the Sarajevo plain, the Archbishop of Vrhbosnia, Josip Stadler(23), with approval from the Provincial Government, founded a new parish of Mary Help of Christians(24) in the Sarajevo plain, based in Stup: “...and by agreement with the high Provincial Government, founded a new parish in the Sarajevo plain with the following villages: Azići, Bare, Blažuj, Briješće, Butmir, Crnotina, Doglodi, Dvor, Ilidže, Lužani, Otes, Rajlovac, Stup, Svrakino selo and Zabrđe. The administration of the parish was entrusted to the current catechist(25) at the Daughters of Divine Love(26) and Ivan Venhuda.” (27)
The site on which the church was built in Stup was purchased by the Archbishopric of Vrhbosnia from Dr. Karl Bauer for 600 florins.(28)
In 1890 the parish house was built and the old wooden chapel(29) moved from the Stup cemeteryto the site of the future church in Stup; this chapel, with some repairs, was used for religious services until the new church was built in 1891-1892(30). In August 1981, civil engineer Františeka Vymlatila of Kromeraž completed the construction of the parish house to a design by Vancaš’s assistant. This house was renovated in the final decade of the 20th century, with central heating installed and a new extension intended as the parish hall(31).
Great credit goes to Archbishop Josip Stadler (1843-1918), who commissioned and initiated the construction of the church in Stup, the parish priest Venhuda, and the architect Josip Vancaš (1859-1937)(32), as designer, for the erection of this church.
Once Vancaš’s design for the church in Stup, dated 14 June 1891, was approved, building work began. The foundation stone was blessed by Dr. Antun Bonaventura Jeglić, canon of Vrhbosnia, with the celebration of mass, on 18 October 1891(33).
First all the stone was extracted from the nearby quarry in Blažuj, following which the foundations of the church were laid; in the meantime, the woodwork was also made. The quarry stone was dressed, sand was taken from the Miljacka, and quenched lime from Igman was processed in the Kreševo limekiln. In 1892, when winter was over, works continued, the church was completed, and on 18 August 1892, it was blessed with the celebration of mass by the canon of Vrhbosnia, Dr. Antun Bonaventura Jeglič. The interior was fitted out by the nuns of the Daughters of Divine Love, who sang in the choir together with the boarders from St Joseph’s(34). The building works were carried out by the contractor Albert Wohlgemuth, for the sum of 5.600 florins(35).
On the day the church was consecrated, two bells also arrived, as a gift from Anton Cyril Stojano, Moravian parish priest in Dražovci. The present bell is from Italy, and is signed: Udinie-Gorizia, 1922(36).
Until the 1992-1995 war, the Catholic parish of Stup was the largest, and had the largest congregation, of the Archbishopric of Vrhbosnia(37), and the church itself was known among Catholic pilgrims as the shrine of Mary(38).
On the festival of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary – Velika Gospa, as it is known in BiH – the church in Stup attracts many pilgrims(39), not only from Sarajevo, but from surrounding places. A feature of this pilgrimage is that Catholics, Orthodox and Muslims alike used to gather in Stup on Assumption Day. There was a well-known "stupsko kolo" (Stup round dance) on Assumption Day, when young and old danced together, and no one was concerned who belonged to which faith.
On 14 May 1992, the Stup church was hit by incendiary shells fired from artillery weapons, set on fire, and badly damaged. The altar, statues, stained glass windows and church fittings were all destroyed. On 13 August 1992 the parish house, built on c.p. no. 1903/4 (c.m. Donji Butmir, as per Land Register), about 15-20 m to the south-west of the church, was hit by a shell fired from a 105 mm howitzer and badly damaged. The entire complex of the shrine in Stup continued to be ravaged by infantry and artillery weapons(40). Among the religious buildings laid waste by the ravages of war between 1992 and 1995, the church in Stup, together with the church of St Vincent de Paul, was among the most seriously damaged in the Sarajevo area(41).
In 1997-1998 the church was reconstructed. The reconstruction works were carried out by the firm Naping d.o.o. of Sarajevo.
2. Description of the property
The main entrance to the church is at the south-west end, and the altar is at the north-east end. The exterior dimensions of the church are approx. 27.05 m long x approx. 10.40 m wide.The church has a nave without aisles, and in layout consists of a narthex (approx. 2.50 m long), a nave (measuring approx. 7.00 m high x 9.00 m wide x 18.00 m long), and a rectangular sanctuary 5.00 m wide and 4.00 m deep, along with a choir gallery above the narthex. The choir gallery has a load-bearing structure of a wooden 18 x 24 cm beam, and has a solid wooden parapet approx. 1.25 m high on the frontal side. The left-hand side of the narthex contains the baptistery (measuring 2.50 x 2.50 m), and the right-hand side a staircase leading to the gallery, the floor of which is at a level of approx, +3,20 m(42). To the left of the sanctuary, on the north-west side, is the sacristy (measuring 3.40 x 4.00 m). The side entrance to the church is in the south-west wall of the sacristy. The entrance façade is accentuated by a tower with an overall height of 27.30 m(43). In terms of layout, the tower (with a ground plan of approx. 4 x 4 m) is superimposed over the central entrance section of the narthex. The tower has two platforms composed of wooden beams laid with wooden boards: the first platform is at a level of approx. +7.10 m, and the second at a level of approx. +10.50 m.
The walls of the church, which are approx. 70 cm thick, are brick-built, and plastered inside and out. The façades are painted yellow, and all the decorative mouldings are picked out in white. The socle of the façade walls, approx. 50 cm in height, is of stone.The inside walls are painted white. The side walls of the church each have three structural reinforcements in the form of pilasters (lateral cross-section approx. 30 x 87 cm) running the full height of the walls and set approx. 3.72 m apart. There is a flat ceiling above the nave, sanctuary and sacristy, with wooden 14x 16 cm joists set 80-90 cm apart. The floors of the sanctuary and nave are of polished stone slabs, the sacristy has a floor of terazzo tiles, and the gallery floor is of wooden boards.
The nave of the church is lit from each side by four round-arched windows (parapet(44) /width of window/height of window(45): approx. 265x120x300 cm). There is a cordon string course below the church windows at a level of approx. +2.65 m, running around the entire church(46).
At the south-west end of the church, the main entrance is accentuated by a slightly projecting(47) portal terminating in a tympanum (measuring 270 cm wide x 470 cm high). To the left and right of the portal is a tall, narrow, rectangular window (measuring 40 cm wide x 275 cm high). The single-storey bell tower has biforas on all sides (measuring 90 cm wide x 290 cm high) terminating in tympanums (approx.180 cm high).
The roof of the tower is a simple four-sided pyramidal roof (height approx. 9.20 m from the cornice of the tower to the cross; overall height of the cross approx. 3.25 m; side of the base of the pyramidal roof approx. 4.35 m) widening at the base.
This bell tower most closely resembles stylistically Vancaš’ bell tower of the church of St Antony in Sarajevo (by 1914), or his treatment of the front of the church of the Holy Trinity in Sarajevo (dating from 1904)(48).
The roof is clad with plain tiles with a single overlap(49), all the flashings on the roofare of sheet copper, as are the guttering and downpipes, snow screens and lightning conductor. The treatment of the roof belongs to the type known as a “complex roof frame,” with a wooden roof frame consisting of a combination of queen trusses (roof panes of the nave and sanctuary), single posts and half-trusses (roof panes above the side areas of the transept), and a polygonal roof (over the tower). Since the wooden boarding is laid over the queen trusses above the nave and sanctuary, the wooden beams of the trusses are exposed in the interior: eight of them in the nave, and two in the sanctuary. The visible surfaces of the trusses are planed.
The parish church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup belongs to historicism in its stylistic features, with neo-Romanesque traits, and served as a type design for many smaller parish churches in Bosnia and Herzegovina(50), such as, for instance, “the Travnik church, the demolished church in Kakanj, the church in Novo Selo near Bosanski Brod, and in Bosanski Brod, ...” (51)
About 15 m to the south of the church, in the churchyard, is an outdoor altar to Our Lady of Lourdes(52), and about 15 m to the south-west is the parish house.
Right beside the boundary fence on the south side of the plot on which the National Monument stands are two tombstones dedicated to fallen Austrian soldiers.
The top section of a tombstone made of the Sarajevo stone known as Hreša, erected in 1900, bears an incised cross with an inscription in German below it:
Kellner von Kollenstein
die am 21 September
hier den Heldentod
The lower part of the tombstone bears an inscription in German reading:
widmet vom Officiers Corps
des k. u k. Infanterie Regiments
Erzherzog Eugen Nº 41
Errichtet im Jahre 1900(54)
The other tombstone, made of black marble, was erected in 2004, and is dedicated to Austrian soldiers killed in World War I and World War II, as well as to Austrian soldiers killed in the peace mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1996.
The interior decoration of the church began during the office of the second parish priest of Stup, the Reverend Monsignor Matija Pajića (Krstić, 1941, 66). During the 1992-1995 war, the stained glass windows, installed in the church in the early 20th century, were destroyed. The stained glass windows had made in Eduard Kratzman's Vienna workshop between 1910 and 1911.
On the north-west wall, from south-west to north-east, the stained glass windows featured St. Aloysius, St. Anthony, St. Anne and St. Joseph. The donor's inscription was at the base of the window featuring St Anne: GIFTED BY E. KRATZMAN GLASMALER, WIEN, St. Joseph. The south-east wall, from south-west to north-east, had stained glass windows with the following saints: St. Catherine, St. Agnes, St. Isidore and St. Matthew. The stained glass compositions were set in arched window openings. These were divided by the metal holding the stained glass in place into three sections. The central section contained the figures of the saints in a circular medallion.The edges of the medallion were decorated with turquoise-blue bands and yellow circles, and a floral border was painted on the outer edges of the stained glass windows.The lower section contained the name of the saint and the donor's inscriptions.
Before the church was so badly damaged, the nave was decorated with sculptures of the following saints:
- St Joseph holding the Infant Jesus
- St Anthony holding the Infant Jesus
- Angel with child
- The heart of Jesus
- The heart of Mary
The last two sculptures, which were 156 cm high, were presumably mass produced in workshops in the Tyrol. Such sculptures usually decorated the interior of 19th century churches (Mutapčić, 1999, 87).
1. OUR LADY OF GOOD COUNSEL
Artist: Mediterranean workshop(55)
Date: late 18th or early 19th century
Technique: oil on canvas
Size: 48x37 cm
This painting is among the oldest items in the church. It was formerly in the chapel, to the north-west of the entrance to the church, which was divided from the nave by an oak-wood partition with perforated motifs of a cross (part of the communion railing from the Travnik church). The chapel contained a stylistic wooden altar with painted and gilded relief motifs of floral and foliar origin, which formed part of the altar complex in the seminary church in Travnik.
The painting features the half-figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary, wearing a dark red robe with a gold collar and a blue cloak studded with gold bordering. The figure of Jesus is to her left, clasping his mother's shoulder, with his left hand on her bosom. He is wearing a red robe studded with gold bordering, over which is a blue cloak. Both figures have golden haloes, edged with a black outline. The «Eye of God» features in the background, red on the underside and whitish-blue on the upper. The painted ground colour is brown.
The picture has a red plush mount with a gilded wooden frame, 12 cm wide, to which a protective frame 3.5 cm has been added, and is glazed.
The painting was framed during restoration in the Croatian Institute of Restoration in Zagreb in 1985, when a new canvas was laid to reinforce the old one, and the painted layer was completely restored (Mutapčić, 1999, 88).
While the interior was being fitted out, a letter came to the parish office from Graz asking whether they would like an altar for the church, to which they responded that they would. An altar of a larger size than was required soon arrived, so that only the lower part was used with the mensa.The gilded tabernacle, composed of sections for the ciborium and a section for the monstrance, above which was a place for the altar painting, was removed from the upper part of the altar. Princess Gabriella Windisch of Graz(56) was asked to paint an altar painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary Help of Christians. Those commissioning the work asked her to show a group of Bosniacs, and to that end sent to Graz a group of parishioners from the Sarajevo plain in folk costume. A number of photographs of parishioners in various poses, with a list of colours, materials and embroidery used for making and adorning folk costumes, were also sent with them.
2. BLESSED VIRGIN MARY HELP OF CHRISTIANS
Artist: Gabriella Windisch-Gratz
Technique: oil on canvas
Size: 145x70,5 cm
Signatura: lower right, corner, red Latin lettering and the family coat of arms, 1982, Gabrielle Schonburg Windisch Graetz
The picture came from Graz as a gift from the artist and was mounted on the main altar on 13 March 1893. It is in a wooden frame, 14 cm wide, on the upper part of which altar sections are applied, with two side sections within which is an oval medallion with the letter M in black. The applied parts are gilded.
The painting has particular documentary value for its figures wearing folk costume.
Towards the bottom of the foreground, the painting shows the congregation kneeling in prayer, on a brown background. One of the figures featuring here is probably the priest Franjo Venhuda. Behind him are nuns, and in the right-hand corner Franciscans, kneeling. The background of the painting features Mary seated on greyish-white clouds. She is holding a sceptre in her right hand and the Infant Jesus in her left, seated on her left knee. He is giving a blessing with his right hand and holding a globe with a cross on top in his left. To each side of them are three angels hovering on clouds.
The superimposition of two painted planes, in a perspective of shortening the lower parts of the body because the painting is viewed in its position on the altar, the competent modelling of the figures is noticeable, with rather hard modelling of the hands. The female and heavenly figures have pinkish skin-tones, compared with the darker skins of the men. The figures are modelled using ochre shadowing, white highlights and brown contours. The successful draping of the costumes and meticulous treatment of details, together with a realistic colour palette, distinguish the directness of the painter's experience of the scene. The greenish-blue horizon of the hilly landscape takes on the characteristic colours and golden glow of diffuse light that shines from the sky and betrays the secessionist link between the tender graphism of the figures and the scene itself, where a romantic understanding of symbolism and nazarener art, already present in 19th century (ecclesiastical) art, are intertwined (Mutapčić, 1999, 88)
On 14 August 1983, celebrating the 90th anniversary of this painting, the Archbishop of Vrhbosnia, Marko Jozinović, Cardinal Franjo Kuharić, numerous priests and members of the congregation were present at the crowning of the picture on the renovated altar.
The parish house in Stup also has a record of two of Gabriella's pictures donated by the artist to the Travnik seminary church, whence they were transferred to the church in Stup. Here they occupied the places of the sculptures of the Heart of Jesus and Heart of Mary, to the left and right in front of the main altar.
3. HEART OF JESUS
Artist: Gabriella Windisch-Gratz
Date: 1883. godine
Technique: oil on canvas
Size: 114x67 cm
Signatura: lower left corner. Red Latin lettering, Gabrielle Schonburg Windisch-Graetz. Piense 1883
The gilded wooden frame (11 cm wide) is decorated in red.
The painting features the standing figure of Jesus wearing a white robe and greenish-blue cloak. His left hand is pointing to his heart, wound around with the crown of thorns, and his right lies along his hip. The stigma of the Crucifixion are prominent on his hands.
4. HEART OF MARY
Artist: Gabriella Windisch-Gratz
Date: 1883. godine
Technique: oil on canvas
Size: 114x67,5 cm
Signatura: lower left corner. Red Latin lettering, Gabrielle Schonburg Windisch-Graetz. Piense 1883 Bittelt in ein Weniate.
The standing figure of Mary is shown in a long white dress and white cloak studded with gold bordering and with a lily-flower clasp. She is holding a lily in her left hand, and offering in her right a heart wound around with a crown of thorns and pierced by a sword. Her halo consists of gold rays in three clusters. The gilded frame is of the same size as that of the previous painting.
Both painting reflect the hand typical of the artist Gabriella, with its soft modelling of the faces and bodies and gradation of tonal values, formal draping of the clothing and calm pose of idealistically interpreted standing figures, with a romantic rather than an academic tendency to monumentality.
By comparing the Stup paintings with another two of Gabriella's paintings in the church of the Holy Spirit in Fojnica and the parish church of the Name of Mary in Gromiljak, one can see that Gabriella Windisch-Gratz was to some extent influenced by the nazareners (Mutapčić, 1999, 89).
5. WAY OF THE CROSS
The Way of the Cross of the Stup church consists of 14 paintings in oil on canvas, 57 x 47 cm, without signature, in double frames 7 cm wide gilded on the inside and of the natural colour of the brown wood on the outside. According to the inventory book of the parish of Stup, the sum of 0.19 florins was paid for the transportation of the Way of the Cross on the same day, 5 May 1893, as Gabriella's painting Mary Help of Christians arrived from Graz, for the transportation of which 3.47 florins was paid.
Judging from this, the Way of the Cross originates from Graz, and on account of certain stylistic features it could belong to Gabriella's opus (Mutapčić, 1999, 91).
Material: gilded copper
Date: not known, but certainly prior to priest Venhuda's departure for Moravska.
The gilded base of cast metal (probably gilded copper) has a simple ornament on the front. The upper part of the monstrance is almond-shaped, with a circular ostensoria and decorative radiating sun's rays. There is a small cross on top. The monstrance is in the stylized Renaissance-Baroque form usual for this type of religious art. It was possibly a gift from Fr. Fučik, parish priest from Mežovici in Moravia, on the occasion of Venhuda's visit there to collect items for the Stup church (Mutapčić, 1999, 92)
Material: gilded copper and silver-gilt
Technique: casting, embossing, filigree
Date: in Snježana Mutapčić's opinion, the chalice was made in a local workshop in imitation of 17th century Venetian work (Mutapčić, 1999, 92-93)
The six-lobed base of the foot has filigree panels separated by a protuberant band, and at the base of each panel a circular rosette decorated with a square stone in violet and green, above which are relief stars.The base of the foot terminates in a perforated ornament in the centre of which is a band with an illegible text. At the top of the foot is a ring-like decoration of stylized motifs identical to those at the base.The chalice has a globe-like knop decorated with filigree and green-violet semi-precious stones at the centre of each of six circles. The bowl of the chalice is set in a hemispherical basket decorated with filigree and green-violet semi-precious stones and an edging of spiral filigree motifs. The chalice is probably the work of a local craftsman, modelled on Venetian work, c. 1640(57) (Mutapčić, 1999, 92-93).
8. BLACK CHASUBLE
Material: velvet, cotton, haberdashery trimmings
Used for funeral corteges and processions. Made of black velvet with a light blue lining. The letters IHS in silver figure on the front and back, together with decorations of vertical silver haberdashery trimmings, of the same type as on the hems of the chasuble. The inside has the donor's text in Latin lettering:
Pro animo, Janos comiti Esterhazy 1864-1905
Sarajevo commorati 1895-1896 el pio Uxoreejus Elisabeth
Selemnitibuse Tarnowski et liberis egresm
Aloysia Janos Marya (Mutapčić, 1999, 93)
9. VIOLET CLOAK
Material: velvet, cotton, haberdashery trimmings
Date: not known
Used for funeral corteges and processions. Silver motifs of vines with fruits and flowers are woven into the violet silk, with a broad silver haberdashery trimming sewn around the hems. Damaged at the back (Mutapčić, 1999, 93).
10. BOOK OF GOSPELS
Book with excerpts from the Gospels, arranged for the readings of the various days of the church year. The book was printed in Venice on 19 April 1773. The publisher was Petar Knežević, Knin. It is written in the dialect known as poljički from the Split region, and the text is decorated with printed vignettes. It has a total of 272 numbered pages and leather covers on board. Here and there, later additions in ink can be observed (Mutapčić, 1999, 93).
During renovation of the church in 1997-1998, a new five-part altar made of marquetry installed in the sanctuary. Marquetry features only rarely in modern religious art, and in this case the artist has dedicated himself to it meticulously and skilfully, to create a representative work of great value (Mutapčić, 1999, 144). The altar is the work of the Austrian artist Christian Werner.
There is a scene of the Pietà at the base of the altar.
Above this part of the altar, on the predella, are arched panels with paintings, running north-west/south-east, feature ????, the evangelist Matthew, the evangelist Mark, the evangelist John, the evangelist Luke, and bishop ????. The figures are separated by spiral columns. The tabernacle, closed by double doors, is between the figures of the evangelists Mark and John. The doors bear the letters A and Ω.
The retable of the altar consists of three sections. The side niches are arched. The altar niche on the north-west side features a model of a church with two bell towers. At the base ist the inscription MAGNA MUTER AUSTRIAC. Below this is a squarish panel with a coat of arms, below which is the inscription CHRISTUS FAX NOSTRA. The central panel of the retable is occupied by a scene of the Crucifixion. This scene is on double doors. Inside the door on the north-west side is a scene of St George killing the dragon, and that on the south-east side features the Prophet Elijah. When the doors of the central niche are open, the arched panel reveals a scene of the Resurrection of Jesus. In the corners of the central niche of the retable, by the arch, are circles containing, to the north-west hands folded in prayer, and to the south-east hands with a rosary. Between them is a stylized relief of a dove, or of wings, as the Holy Spirit. A sphere with a cross is attached to the top of the central panel of the retable.
The niche on the south-east side of the altar features the Blessed Virgin Mary on a cloud, with a sceptre in her left hand and the Infant Jesus on her right arm. Jesus is giving a blessing with his right hand. Beside them, to left and right, an angel is hovering. The lower part of the picture features a group of worshippers.
The mensa is in front of the main altar. It is made of wood, and has a marquetry representation of the Heart of Jesus in a circle on the front.
There is a side altar to the north-west side of the church, also the work of Christian Werner, and also in marquetry.
The base of the altar has a scene of the Gifts of the Wise Men. Many scenes and miracles from Jesus’ life feature in an arched niche above this scene. At the top is a metal plaque engraved with an inscription: SRCE ISUSOVO SPASENJE NAŠE (Heart of Jesus our salvation). There is a sculpture of the Heart of Jesus on the tabernacle.
The pulpit, also the work of Christian Werner, stands beside this altar. This too is in marquetry work. The front is divided into four panels. The upper part features the attributes of the evangelists Matthew (an angel) and John (an eagle), and the lower part the attributes of Mark (a winged lion) and Luke (a winged bull).
There is another side altar to the south-east of the church, also the work of Christian Werner, and again in marquetry work.
The base of the altar features a scene of the Annunciation. The picture of the Blessed Virgin Mary Help of Christians dating from 1892, the work of Gabriella Schonburg Windisch, is mounted on the upper part, behind a single glazed door. At the top is a metal plaque engraved with an inscription: GOSPO STUPSKA MOLI ZA NAS (Our Lady of Stup, pray for us).
There is a marble font beside this altar, with an octagonal wooden cover and a cross on the top. Each of the eight faces of the cover is decorated in marquetry work with one or another Christian symbol. The cover is also the work of Christian Werner.
The gallery railing of the church is decorated with scenes from the life of Christ, the work of the same artist, also in marquetry work. From the south-east to the north-west, the scenes are as follows:
2. Transfiguration (???)
3. Christ's entry into Jerusalem
4. Last Supper
5. Jesus appears to Magdalene (????)
7. Touch of Thomas
The walls of the church are decorated with the Way of the Cross (14 scenes), also the work of Christian Werner. In marquetry work, the size of each picture of the Way of the Cross is approx. 55 x 85 cm.
The vault of the church has a marquetry cross in a circle on a dark blue circle. The upper part, between two arms of the cross, has an inscription in white capital letters:HODIE CHRISTUS, and the lower part, below two arms, has the inscription: SEMPER HERI. There is also an inscription outside the circle, in Latin capital lettering: JUBILAEUM A.D. 2000.
3. Legal status to date
The Catholic church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup is recorded in the Cantonal Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Naatural Heritage of Sarajevo on the list of preliminary protected properties as a Category II property.
The Commission received a petition from the Stup Local Ward, Ilidža Municipality, Sarajevo Canton, on 15 January 2003, and proceeded to follow the procedure to designate the property as a national monument.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
In 1997, Siniša Zec, a final-year student at the Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, surveyed the then condition of the church in Stup and drew up a proposal for repairs to thet church, as the subject of her graduate’s disseration(58).
In 1997-1998 the church was reconstructed. The building works on the reconstruction of the church were carried out by the firm Naping d.o.o. of Sarajevo, and the cost of the works as shown on the Statement of Account was approx. 115.525 KM. The parish office of the Stup church in Sarajevo has at its disposal some of the documentation relating to the repair works undertaken in 1997-1998. This documentation did not include the Repairs Project. Based on the information from the Statement of Account from Naping d.o.o. of Sarajevo, dated 31 July 1997, which was available, the following conclusions may be reached: the crown of the walls of the church was dismantled to a layer of approx. 50 in height, and the walls of the tower were partly dismantled; the front of the burned beams was removed; the destroyed or damaged sheet metal roof cladding of the tower was stripped off; the walls of the church and of the tower were rebuilt using brick in lime cement mortar in the proportions 1:3:9; new floor and ceiling joists were laid; a new roof structure was made for the church and tower, with a new cladding of plain tiles, a new cladding for the church tower of sheet copper 0.60 mm thick, and artisanal works were carried out.
It can be deduced from the description of the works in the statement that there have been certain departures, in the reconstructed church, from the condition of the church before it was damaged in 1992-1995. Before 1992, the ceiling was plastered and laid on a substructure of reeds attached to a board base; the floor of the nave was of terazzo tiles; the roof cladding was of eternite; and the roof cladding of the tower was of galvanized sheet metal.
It was fortunate that the parish office had at its disposal copies of Vancaš’s drawings, so that during the reconstruction works all the sizes and characteristic details documented in Vancaš’s blueprints were retained.
The paintingn of Our Lady of Good Counsel was framed during restoration in the Croatian Institute of Restoration in Zagreb in 1985, when new canvas was laid to reinforce the old, and the painted layer was completely restored (Mutapčić, 1999, 88).
5. Current condition of the property
An inspection of the condition of the property during an on site visit in Febreuary 2006 revealed that the building is in good condition, is kept well maintained, and is in use.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. v. value of details
D.iii. work of a major artist or builder
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
D. v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
E.ii. religious value
E.iii. traditional value
E.iv. relation to rituals or ceremonies
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
G.iii. use and function
G.v. location and setting
G.vi. spirit and feeling
G.vii. other internal and external factors
H. Rarity and representativity
H.iii. work of a prominent artist, architect or craftsman
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- copy of cadastral plan: document issued by the Municipal Geodetic Dept. of Ilidža, 21 May 2003; c.p. 148/1, c.m. Stup, title sheet no. 838, plan no. L.D. Sarajevo – 200; (c..p. no. 1903/5, c.m. Donji Butmir, as per Land Register), Ilidža Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
o 21 photographs of the condition of the church in 1997, provided by architect Siniša Zec
o 91 photographs of the condition of the church on 9 February 2006, taken by architect Emir Softić, using digital camera Canon PowerShot G3
o photocopy of blueprints of the church by architect Josip Vancaš (dated 14 June 1891)
§ ground plan of foundations
§ ground plan of ground floor
§ north-east facade
§ south-east facade
§ cross-section (view towards bell tower)
§ entrance facade (drawing from Dimitrijević, Branka: Arhitekt Karl Pařik, doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb, Sarajevo, 1989, illus. XXXIVc.
o Zec, Siniša: Repairs to the Parish church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup, graduate dissertation at the Faculty of Architecture in Sarajevo, 1997 (drawings photographed using digital Canon PowerShot G3, resolution: 2272 x 1704 pixels):
§ plan of roof frame, scale 1.50
§ cross-section of roof frame 1-1, scale 1.50
§ cross-section of roof frame 2-2, scale 1.50
§ cross-section of roof frame 3-3, scale 1.50
§ cross-section of roof frame 4-4, scale 1.50
§ isometry of the church/with state of building following 1992-1995 damage)
§ isometry of the church/with state of reconstructed building
§ vertical cross-section through church B-B, scale 1.100
§ vertical cross-section through church C-C, scale 1.100
During the procedure to designate the Catholic church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1914 Charles G. Herbermann, et al, ed.: The Catholic Encyclopedia - Classic 1914 Edition. New York, Appleton; available on http://www.newadvent.org/cathen
1941 Spomenica 50-godišujice RKT župe Stup 1890-1940 (Commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the RCT of Stup parish), ed. Augustin Kristić, publ. RCT Parish office Stup, drawings S.S. – Sister Silva, K.B.LJ, Sarajevo, 1941
1987. Krzović, Ibrahim, Arhitektura BiH 1878 – 1918 (Architecture of BiH 1878-1918), catalogue, Exhibition design and selection of works, Art Gallery of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1989 Đuro Basler: Katedrala u Sarajevu (Cathedral in Sarajevo), Vrhbosnian Archbishop’s Ordinariat, Sarajevo 1989.
1989 Dimitrijević, Branka, Arhitekt Karlo Pařik (Architect Karlo Pařik), dissertation, Faculty of Architecture of the University of Zagreb, 1989
1989 Božić, Jela, Arhitekt Josip pl. Vancaš, Značaj i doprinos arhitekturi Sarajeva u periodu Austrougarske uprave (Architect Josip Vancaš, Importance and contribution to the architecture of Sarajevo in the Austro-Hungarian period), doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Architecture of the University of Sarajevo, 1989
1994 Mutapčić, Snježana: Katolička crkva Marijina Uznesenja na Stupu (Catholic church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup), Stećak, periodical for culture and social issues, Yr. I, no. 8, Sarajevo, 1994, pp. 38-39
1998 Snježana Mutapčić: Uništena katolička crkva “Uznesenja Marijina” na Stupu (Destruction of the Catholic church of the Assumption of Mary in Stup), Croatian National Annual 1999, publ. Croatian Cultural Society Napredak, Sarajevo, December 1998, pp. 79-93
1999 Snježana Mutapčić, Sarajevske crkve kroz povijest umjetnosti (Sarajevo’s churches through the history of art). Hrvatska misao 11-12. Matica Hrvatska, Sarajevo, 1999, pp 135-151.
2000 Anić, Vladimir: Rječnih hrvatskog jezika (Dictionary of the Croatian Language); 3rd enlarged ed, Zagreb, 2000
2000 Spahić, Muris: Priroda i geografija (Nature and geography) Ilidža, monograph, publ.Ilidža Municipality, pp.41-50
2000 Ćeman, Mirza Hasan, RES PUBLICA AQUARUM S.: Ilidža, monograph, publ. Ilidža Municipality, 2000, pp.123-170
2000 Ćeman, Mirza Hasan: Ishod na Ilidžu (Outing to Ilidža) Ilidža, monograph, published by Ilidža Municipality, 2000, pp.203-294
2000 Zlatar, Behija: Ilidža, Ilidža, monograph, published by Ilidža Municipality, 2000, 191-202
2000 Fekeža, Lidija, and Gavrilović, Margita, Od dolaska Slavena do pada bosanskog kraljevstva. (From the arrival of the Slavs to the fall of the Bosnian kingdom), Sarajevo 2000, 171-190.
(1) “The names of the settlements of Otes, Stup and Dvor (in Donji Stup by the right bank of the Dobrinja) referto early parts of feudal estates. These names are to be found in the most fertile areas of the Sarajevo plain” Fekeža, Lidija – Gavrilović, Margita: Od dolaska Slavena do pada Bosanskog kraljevstva, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, 2000, 187)
(2) The Sarajevo plain has an area of 31,2 km2 (Spahić, Muris: Priroda i geografija, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, p.41)
(3) Vesna Mušeta-Ašćerić MA, Ostaci srednjevjekovne toponomastike na području župe Vrhbosne (Vestiges of mediaeval toponymy in the Vrhbosnia county), Jnl. of the Nat.Museum, Archaeology, N. s. vol. 40/41, 1985/1986; toponomastika, the study of geographical names, the names of places (toponyms); (Anić, Vladimir: Rječnih hrvatskog jezika, Zagreb, 2000, p. 1203). [Shorter OED: toponymy: the place-names of a country or district as a subject of study. Trans.]
(4) Spomenica 50-godišujice RKT, župe Stup, Sarajevo, 1941. S. 62.
(5) Snježana Mutapčić: Uništena katolička crkva “Uznesenja Marijina” na Stupu”, Hrvatski narodni Godišnjak 1999, publ. Hrvatsko kulturno društvo Napredak, Sarajevo, Dec. 1998, p. 81
(6) The funerary chapel in the Stup Catholic cemetery, built in 1931 to a design by Karlo Pařik dating from 1930. The chapel has a single nave and altar apse, with a gabled roof with the gable articulated stepwise, above which is a bell tower "na preslicu" (Snježana Mutapčić, Sarajevske crkve kroz povijest umjetnost,. Hrvatska misao 11-12. Matica Hrvatska, Sarajevo, 1999, p. 138).
(7) Ćeman, Mirza Hasan: Ishod na Ilidžu, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, 2000, p. 285
(8) Ćeman, Mirza Hasan: RES PUBLICA AQUARUM S, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, 2000, p.123
(9) Ćeman, Mirza Hasan: RES PUBLICA AQUARUM S, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, 2000, p.158-159
(10)Vesna Mušeta-Ašćerić: Srednjevjekovna župa Vrhbosna problem granica i vlasti (The mediaeval county of Vrhbosnia, problems of borders and rule) Contributions, Institute of History, Sarajevo, 1985, p. 257-268
(11) Vesna Mušeta-Ašćerić MA, Ostaci srednjevjekovne toponomastike na području župe Vrhbosne, Jnl. of the Nat.Museum, Arheologija, N. s. sv. 40/41, 1985/1986; Sarajevo, 1986, p. 213-214
(12) Snježana Mutapčić: 1998, p. 82
(13) Lands bestowed by the Sultan “to individual feudal lords and spahis to hold by way of remuneration for the performance of certain offices and duties, usually military service. . . The timar was thus a feudal estate providing income. . .” (Mustafa Imamović, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Evolution of its Political and Legal Institutions, trans. S. Risaluddin, Sarajevo, 2006, p. XX) [Trans.]
(14) Fekeža, Lidija – Gavrilović, Margita: Od dolaska Slavena do pada Bosanskog kraljevstva, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, 2000, 178
(15) Fekeža, Lidija – Gavrilović, Margita: 2000, 188
(16) Zlatar, Behija: Ilidža, Ilidža, monograph, publ.: Ilidža Municipality, 2000, 198-199
(17) “A parish was first founded in 1710 under the name of Sarajevo plain, …” (Mutapčić, Snježana: Katolička crkva Marijina Uznesenja na Stupu, Stećak, list za kulturu i društvena pitanja, Yr I, no. 8, Sarajevo, 1994, p. 38)
(18) Those who stood out in particular for their work in the Sarajevo parish were Fr Ivan Musić (1836-1846), Fr. Grgo Martić (1851-1854 amd 1863-1879) and Fr. Andija Buzuk (Spomenica 50-godišujice RKT župe Stup, Sarajevo, 1941, p. 58).
(19) Dimitrijević, Branka: Arhitekt Karl Pařik, doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb, Sarajevo, 1989,p.269
(20) Spomenica 50-godišujice RKT župe Stup, Sarajevo, 1941, p. 59
(21) Branka Dimitrijević refers to her source as: Izvještaj o upravi Bosne i Hercegovine (Report on the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina), 1906, 120
(22) Dimitrijević, Branka: 1989.,p.269-270
(23)Born in Slavonski Brod on 24 January 1843. Educated in his native town, and then in the Archbishop’s orphanage in Požega and in Zagreb, where he graduated from grammar school, and in Rome, where he became the first doctor of philosophy, and then of theology, at the Papal Gregorian University. He was ordained as a priest in 1868 in Rome, after which he returned to Zagreb, where he became a grammar school teacher in Sjemeništo, and later a university professor at the Catholic Theological Faculty. In 1881 Pope Leo XIII appointed him as first Archbishop of Vrhbosnia of the restored bishopric in Sarajevo. He built the Cathedral of Vrhbosnia, the seminary with the church of SS Cyril and Methodius, the Capitolium and the Archbishop’s Court in Sarajevo. He also built a seminary and grammar school in Travnik. He founded the Sosicety of the Sisters Servants of the Infant Jesus. He was prominent for his charitable work, as part of which he founded the Betlehem and Egipat orphanages in Sarajevo for children and almshouses for elderly women. He died in Sarajevo at the age of 75, and is buried in the cathedral in Sarajevo.
(24) Also referred to in various works as the “Parish of Our Lady Help of Christians” (Mutapčić, Snježana: 1994, p. 38).
(25) Cr. Kateheta,RC religious teacher (Anić, Vladimir: Rječnih hrvatskog jezika; Zagreb, 2000, p. 398
(26) In 1868, on the feast day of the apparition of Mary, 21 November, Franziska Lechner founded the Society of the Daughters of Divine Love in Vienna, Austria. On 28 April 1882, at the invitation of the Archbishop of Sarajevo Dr Josip Stadler, sisters of the Daughters of Divine Love, headed by Franzisk Lechner herself, came to Sarajevo (Naše redovničke zajednice, Zagreb, 2000.).
(27) Spomenica 50-godišujice RKT župe Stup, Sarajevo, 1941, p. 60; from the periodical Vrhbosnensia (Vrhbosna), no 20, of 15 October 1890, p. 340
(28) Spomenica 50-godišujice RKT župe Stup, Sarajevo, 1941, p. 66
(29) Božić, Jela: Arhitekt Josip pl. Vancaš, Značaj i doprinos arhitekturi Sarajeva u periodu austrougarske uprave, doctoral dissertation, Sarajevo, 1989, p. 164 (referring to the source: Archives of the Vrhbosnian Archbishopric, documents ANV 489 and 643/1890)
(30) Venhuda, Franjo: Uspomene sarajevsko-poljskog župnika, Sarajevo (In memory of the parish priest of Sarajevo Plain), 1988 Uspomene sarajevsko-poljskog župnika / Franjo Venhuda ; [trans. Bogdan Kotiza]. - [Sarajevo] - Ilidža : Stup Parish Office, 1988
(31) Snježana Mutapčić: 1998, p. 85-86
(32) Vancaš came to Sarajevo as a young but very well trained and naturally talented architect. His teacher, Friedrich von Schmidt (1825-1891), brought the skill of neo-Gothic to an enviable level, and Vancaš is said to have been one of his finest pupils. After graduating from Technical High School in Vienna in 1881, Vancaš worked for a while for Heinrich Ferstel, the famous architect of the Votive church in Ring, as a draughtsman producing plans for major buildings in the neo-Gothic style. At about the same time he worked in the studio of the entrepreneurs Fellner and Helmer as a draughtsman on the designs for some threatres, including the Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb. It was in this studio that Vancaš turned to the neo Renaissance style, which would be particularly valuable to him later in Sarajevo, but his heart remained with mediaeval architecture, at least during his time inVienna, when he perfected his studies in Schmidt’s and Ferstel’s schools. In October 1882, awaiting proper employment, Vancaš enrolled in the Architectural Department of the Academy of Fine Arts, where he dedicated himself to studying the Gothic style under Friedrich Schmidt (source: Basler, Đuro, Katedrala u Sarajevu, Ordinariat of the Vrhbosnian Archbishopric, Sarajevo 1989.).
“Josip pl. VANCAŠ, architect (born 22 March 1859 in Šopronj, Hungary, died 15 December 1932 in Zagreb, Croatia). Graduated from Technical High School, department of architecture in Vienna in 1881, and from 1882 to 1884 studied architecture with Prof. Schmidt at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
Initially worked in the Fellmer and Schmidt studio. Came to Sarajevo for the first time in 1893, and settled there in 1894. From 1890 on he worked as a civil architect. He was very active in Sarajevo, building in historical styles and later in secessionist style. From 1908 he began his quest for the Bosnian style. During his long career as an architect he designed 70 churches and town halls, ten institutes and schools, six cafés and hotels, ten banks, 102 rental and private houses, six factories and seven altars and interiors, ten extensions and conversions, and a total of some 240 blueprints, most of which were carried out. His works were shown at exhibitions in Paris, Vienna and Budapest, for which he received honours. He lived in Sarajevo until 1922. Perceiving the value of the country’s architecture as a whole, and backed by a number of architects and civil engineers, in 1911 he put to the Bosnian Assembly a Resolution on the protection, recording, surveying and preservation of cultural monuments and concessions for building in the Bosnian style.
Source: Archives of the Technical High School and Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna.
Bibl: Vancaš Josip, Ueber bosnische Bauweise. Ein Epilog zum Vortrag des Professors I. Strygowsky. Der Morgen, Zagreb, 11/1924, no. 355, p. 11; Josip Vancaš, Bosansko narodno graditeljstvo (Bosnian vernacular architecture), Tehnički list, Zagreb, X, 24, 31. XII 1928,353-356' Josip pl. Vancaš, 0 kazalištima u državi Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca (Theatres in the State of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes), Novosti, Zagreb, 8, 1929, 25-31; Vancaš Josip, Kako sam kao arhitekta došao u Bosnu (How I came to Bosnia as an architect), Večernja pošta, Zagreb, X, 2724, 1930, 9;
Lit: Ljetopis JAZU (Chronicle of Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and the Arts), vol. II, Zagreb 1930, p. 80-85; Alfred Makanec, Josip Pl. Vavcaš Požeški. Katolički tjednik, Sarajevo, VIII-X, 1932, 52; R. Horvat, Arhitekt Josip Vancaš, Hrvatska revija, Zagreb 1933; Dž. (emal) Č(elić) R. ELU 4. Zagreb 1966, 489; Alija Bejtić, Ulice i trgovi Sarajeva (Streets and squares of Sarajevo), Museum of the City of Sarajevo, Sarajevo 1973, 330.” (Arhitektura Bosne i Hercegovine 1878-1918 (catalogue), Exhibition design and selection of works by Ibrahim Krzović, Art Gallery of BiH, p. 253)
The architect Josip Vancaš began his extensive and productive design activities in Sarajevo for the Archbishopric of Vrhbosnia, acting for 40 years as its official architect and adviser, and as the only designer of Catholic churches in Sarajevo. Until he moved from Sarajevo to Zagreb, he worked for the Archbishopric, and after that his advisory work for building matters for the Archbishopric of Vrhbosnia was taken over by the architect Karl Pařik, who would continue in this capacity until 1937 (Snježana Mutapčić, Sarajevske crkve kroz povijest umjetnost,. Hrvatska misao 11-12. Matica Hrvatska, Sarajevo, 1999, p. 137).
(33) Snježana Mutapčić: 1998, p. 85, fn no.. 21 (referring to source: "Vrhbosna". Sarajevo, 1.11.1891. no. 21. pp. 348-351)
(34) Snježana Mutapčić: 1998, p. 86
(35) Božić, Jela: Arhitekt Josip pl. Vancaš, Značaj i doprinos arhitekturi Sarajeva u periodu austrougarske uprave, doctoral dissertation, Sarajevo, 1989, p. 164
(36) Snježana Mutapčić: 1998, p. 86
(37) Mutapčić, Snježana: 1994, p. 38-39
(38) There are a number of important sites of Catholic pilgrimage in Bosnia and Herzegovina: the church of St John in Podmilačje, the church of Our Lady in Olovo, the monastery in Rama, the monastery in Gradovrh. Later, other places of pilgrimage evolved, to the churches of St. Anthony in Sarajevo, in Busovača, in Humac near Ljubuški.
Major sites of Orthodox pilgrimage are the old Orthodox church of the Archangels in Sarajevo, the church of the Mother of God in Čajniče and St Basil of Ostrog.
Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina make pilgrimage (ziyara) to the tombs and turbes (mausolea) of righteous people, and to places associated with legends about such people. Among the best-known Muslim places of pilgrimage are dovište or places of prayer (from the Arabic du’a, prayers other than the five mandatory ritual prayers) associated with mountain peaks, caves and other natural features, a direct continuation of mediaeval Bosnian practices. One such place in the countryside is Ajvaz dedo’s rock near Prusac, which Muslims call the “mala Ćaba” (lesser Ka’ba) in recognition of its importance to them. No mosques were built at Muslim places of pilgrimage, but tekkes were sometimes associated with them.
Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina made pilgrimage to the tomb of Rabbi Moše Danon in Krajšina in Stolac
(39) As many as 25,000 people would come on “Velika Gospa” (festival of the Assumption of Mary), 15 August, to celebrate Assumption Day (Šimić, Angelina: Molitva života, proslavljen blagdan Velike Gospe na Stupu, (Prayer of life, celebration of Assumption Day in Stup), Oslobođenje, Sarajevo, 16.08.1992)
(40) Mutapčić, Snježana: 1994, p. 38
(41) Snježana Mutapčić, Sarajevske crkve kroz povijest umjetnost. Hrvatska misao 11-12. Matica Hrvatska, Sarajevo, 1999, p. 142
(42) the level of the church in the nave is taken as the reference level +/- 0,00
(43) measured from ground level to top of cross
(44) the level of the church in the nave is taken as the reference level +/- 0,00
(45) these measurements for the width and height of the windows are the exterior masonry measurements
(46) more precisely, the cordon string course is broken, ending at the entrance portal
(47) the portal projects outwards from the entrance face by approx. 30 cm (measured from the blueprints of Vancaš’s design)
(48) Snježana Mutapčić:Uništena katolička crkva“Uznesenja Marijina” na Stupu, Hrvatski narodni Godišnjak 1999, publ. Hrvatsko kulturno društvo Napredak, Sarajevo, Dec. 1998, p. 86
(49) The oldest continental type of tile is in fact the plain or biber tile, the name of which derives from the German word meaning “beaver,” from the similarity in appearance of these tiles to the rounded tip of a beaver’s tail. It was also always the most expensive tile, being flat with no groove, so it requires the largest number per square metre. In addition, it is a heavy tile requiring a more robust wooden substructure. In the case of the church in Stup, the tiles were laid in a single close-packed cladding with approx. 40 tiles /m2 (op. E. Softić).
(50) Dimitrijević, Branka: Arhitekt Karl Pařik, doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb, Sarajevo, 1989, p.270-271
(51) Snježana Mutapčić: 1998, p. 86
(52) Notre-Dame de Lourdes (Département des Hautes Pyrenées, France) (11 February) – “The pilgrimage of Lourdes is founded on the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to a poor, fourteen-year-old girl, Bernadette Soubiroux. The first apparition occurred 11 February, 1858. There were eighteen in all; the last took place 16 July, of the same year.” Ten years after the apparitions, in 1868, Bernadette entered the Society of Charitable and Educational Sisters of Neverse. “In 1907 Pius X extended the observance of this feast to the entire Church; it is now observed on 11 February.” Since 1969 it has been a non-binding remembrance day. The apparitions of Lourdes prompt the entire Church to purity, modesty, readiness for self-sacrifice, and prayers and love for the sick and the poor. It is also celebrated as Day of the Sick (Charles G. Herbermann, et al, ed. : The Catholic Encyclopedia - Classic 1914 Edition. New York, Appleton; available on http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/)
(53) “In memory of a brave fellow combatant of the Infantry Regiment of Colonel Friedriech Freiherr (a title bestowed on him by a king) Kellner von Kollenstein no. 41, who died a hero’s death here on 21 September 1898.”
(54) “Dedicated by the officer corps of the k.k. infantry regiment Feldmarschall Lieutenant Erzherzog Eugen no. 41. Erected in 1900.”
(55) Since the painting closely resembles the Madonna and Christ in from the monastery at Petričevac in Banja Luka both iconographically and stylistically, an attempt was made to identify the artist and date by analogy. The Petričevac painting dates from the 18th century, and is the work of a Venetian master. Based on this, the hypothesis is that Our Lady in Stup dates from the late 18th or early 19th century in one of the artists' workshops in the Mediterranean. (Mutapčić, 1999, 88)
(56) there is no information concerning where the artist trained, but according to the Biographical Lexicon of the Austrian Monarchy, published in Vienna in 1889, which provides information on the lives of prominent public figures who were born or lived in Austria from 1750 on, the Princess Gabriella Mariana Karolina Windish-Graetz is known to have been born on 23.07.1824. to Eleonora Maria Princess von Lobkovitz and Werian Alojz (who became prince in 1882). She was their only daughter, and had four brothers. She married Count Alexander Grafen von Schonburg-Glauchan, born on 22.05. 1823. They had no children. After her husband's death, she lived mainly with her father's family on their holdings in Kraine and Southern Styria (now Slovenia) (Mutapčić, 1998, 88).
(57) Based on a comparison with three chalices from the Fojnica monastery, made in Fojnica, Kreševo, Sarajevo and Foča to the model of Venetian goldsmiths' work.
(58) A number of drawings from this graduate’s dissertation are to be found in the collection of project designs of the library of the Cantonal Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Sarajevo, and one copy of the dissertation is held in the Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo.