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Fortress in Jajce, the architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

 Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 21 to 27 January 2003 the Commission adopted a



           The architectural ensemble of the Fortress in Jajce is hereby designated as the National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

           The monument is situated on cadastral plot 538, cadastral municipality Jajce I; Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of  BiH nos. 2/02 and 27/02) shall apply to the National Monument specified in the preceding paragraph.


The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument specified in Clause I of this Decision.

The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be responsible for providing the financial and technical resources for drawing up a plan for and implementing a Programme for the permanent protection of the national monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.


The following measures shall apply to the site of the national monument:

·          Only such works shall be permitted on the national monument as are carried out for the purpose of its conservation and display;

Protection Zone I:

·          The fortress with its surrounding ramparts and steep northern and western slopes constitute Protection Zone I, situated on cadastral plot 538, cadastral municipality Jajce I, and require a detailed archaeological survey;

·          The existing buildings beneath the ramparts are discordant with the city walls and their legality should be investigated.  No construction or earth-moving in the immediate environs is permitted without the prior consent of the relevant administrative authorities issued on the basis of the terms stipulated by the relevant heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the relevant protection authority).

The physical preservation of the monument shall be carried out in two stages:

Stage I comprises measures to protect the fortress ensemble from further deterioration, clearing self-sown weeds, and the repair and structural consolidation of the ramparts;

Stage II consists of drawing up and implementing a project to revitalize the monument for the purpose of transforming it into a multimedia and cultural centre.

Protection Zone II:

·          Protection Zone II will be defined by a later comprehensive town plan for the town of Jajce.  In this zone no construction, including alterations to the landscape, are permitted other than the restoration and rehabilitation of buildings forming an integral part of the wider protected ensemble, with the use of materials and building methods that are part of the recognizable landscape (pyramidal roofs with a pitch greater than 45 deg., with dark roof covering, unpainted wooden window and door frames, plastered and whitewashed façades).

In Protection Zone II no building dating from before 1945 may be demolished.


            All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are to be revoked.


Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument specified in Clause I of this Decision or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.


            The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federal Ministry responsible for town planning, the relevant heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II, III and IV of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.


            The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.anek8komisija.com.ba) 


Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.


This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH and the Official Gazette of The Federation of BiH.

            This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović,  Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

                    Chairman of the Commission

                                                                            Dubravko Lovrenović

No: 06-6-504/03-1

21 January 2003


E l u c i d a t i o n


                        Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter referred to as the Commission) to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter referred to as Annex 8) and as property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

At a session held on 11 March 1998, the Commission issued a Decision to add the Fortress in Jajce to the Provisional List of National Monuments, as no. 274.

Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.


In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

·          Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (cadastral plot 538, cadastral municipality Jajce I, see copy of cadastral plan dated November 2002 and copy of land registry entry no. 536, cadastral municipality Jajce, attached)

·          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage if any, data on restoration or other works on the property if any, etc.

·          The current condition of the property;

·          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:

1.      Information on the Locality


            The fortress forms part of the mediaeval town of Jajce. The entire complex, with the fortress, ramparts and towers, stands on a massive stone pyramid, on its south slope. On the south-west it is enclosed by the river Pliva, and on the south-east and east by the river Vrbas. The perimeter of the mediaeval town of Jajce is approx. 1300 m, enclosing an area of 112,000 sq.m.. The fortress stands on the north-west corner of the urban area on the top of the hill, at an altitude of 470 m.

Historical Information

            There are numerous historical strata in the area of present-day Jajce municipality.    

Traces of a prehistoric, neolithic settlement have been found in the area of Varošice, at a depth of approx. 10 m. Other parts of the old town abound in Bronze Age pottery. There are traces of Roman settlements to the west, north-east and north-west of the fortress (Bare, Klimenta, Katina and Volujak), and in the late antique period, probably in the fourth Century, the temple to Mithras was built in the area of Bare.

            The fortress, which is also often called the “Castle” or “Citadel”, existed before the first reference to the name of Jajce in written sources (M. Ančić, 1998, 99). The first reference to Jajce in written sources dates from 1396, when Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić was titled “conte di Jajcze”. In his day, when the great Duke and Herzog Spljetski was a periodical resident in the town and issued charters there, in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, the town underwent remarkable political and cultural development, and later, in the last years of the Bosnian state, it became the permanent seat of the last kings of Bosnia. In Hrvoje’s times, an intramural district was built on the east side of the fortress, and gradually, during the fifteenth and the early decades of the sixteenth century, the entire defence system was constructed, surviving to this day almost unaltered, despite various repairs and additions. Jajce was also the residence of the last Bosnian King Stjepan Tomašević, who was executed in 1463 near city of Ključ, in the presence of Sultan Mehmed II el Fatih. The Ottoman army set siege to the town, but held it for only six months before it was seized by the Magyars in 1464, who established the banovina of Jajce.  The town became a prominent strategic stronghold until the end of 1527 when, following the battle of Mohács, it finally fell to Ottoman rule and lost its strategic importance as a forward stronghold.  The battle zone moved further to the north, and from then on a military garrison headed by a dizdar was based in Jajce.  In the second half of the seventeenth century there is reference to the kapetan of the Jajce kapetanija.  E. Çelebı notes that there were a dizdar, a janissary commander and 300 soldiers in the town.  A fire in 1658 badly damaged both the fortress and the town.  That year the citizens complained to the valija (district administrator) that the city was in such a ruinous state that it was dangerous to go through the town gates and alongside the ramparts.   In the eighteenth century a spy wrote that the town had not been repaired since its occupation in 1526 and that it had a small garrison with little artillery.  The last kapetan of Jajce was  Sulejman-Beg Kulenović until 1832, a follower of Husein-kapetan Gradaščević. The Bosnian vizier Mahmut Hamdi-Paša brought in new “nizams” and “Arnauts” who lived here from 1832 to 1833, when, due to their negligence, the Sulejmanija mosque (the chhurch of St. Mary with St Luke’s tower) was damaged. There were twelve cannon and four mortars.  There was fighting around the town between Krajina (frontier) rebels and Omer-Paša Latas in 1851, as well as when Bosnia was annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1878.

Legal status to date

In the procedure prior to the adoption of a final decision, documentation on the legal status of the site to date was inspected, from which the following was ascertained:

·          The Jajce Fortress is on the Provisional List of National Monuments, as no. 274.

·          In the Region Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2002, the monument was registered as a category 1 monument and as a part of the urban ensemble of Jajce, which was rated as category 0, of international importance.

·          In the draft Town Plan for Jajce Municipality (drawn up in 1988 by the Town Planning Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina) the monument was registered on a list of 74 individual monuments and minor ensembles to which prior protection applied.

·          In the draft Regulation Plan, which provided for the revitalisation of the historic nucleus of Jajce, drawn up on the basis of a survey by the architect Radivoje Jadrić, the historic monument of the Jajce Fortress was also covered.

2. Description of the monument


Jajce has an outstanding position among the towns of mediaeval Bosnia, as the only fortified urban settlement with all the features of a fifteenth century urban centre.

Its architectural monuments are a persuasive illustration of the mediaeval art and diverse political situations in Jajce.  In the era of Hrvoje Vukčić, the town was dominated by local builders and their stonemasons’ yard, while at the time of the last Bosnian kings, master craftsmen from Dalmatia were at work in Jajce (the late Gothic of the littoral towns and hints of the early Renaissance).  Matthias Corvinus brought master craftsman from the Magyar and Croatian late Gothic to the banovina.

The complex of the fortress and defence walls of the town was constructed in several stages.

Stage I includes the fortress, which stands on the very summit of the hill, above the confluence of the Pliva and the Vrbas.  Although there is no available evidence of its original date, it is clear that the fortress, now the central element of a more recent defensive system, existed as early as the thirteenth century.  It appears originally to have had three four-sided towers: two on the south wall and one in the north-western corner, suggesting that the fortress was built prior to the fourteenth century (Đ. Mazalić 1952, 65).

Stage II belongs to the period of Hrvoje’s rule, at the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth century.  It was probably then that the corner towers were altered, the walls raised in height, and an intramural district built east of the fortress (on the plan, running from the southern corner of the citadel to tower II; from tower II to bastion IV; from the north-eastern corner of the citadel to bastion IV).  Jajce was still a minor fortress at this time.  The Church of St Mary and St Luke’s belltower, and the catacombs that were hollowed out at the same time as the intramural district was built, were still outside the town walls at this time (Đ. Mazalić, 1952, pp. 65-66; M. Ančić, 1999, p. 98).

Stage III began with the death of Hrvoje Vukčić in 1416 and the transfer of the royal residence to Jajce, roughly from the mid fifteenth century to 1463.   The walls now ran down to the natural barrier of the limestone cliffs and river banks. Within the ramparts there was a Franciscan monastery, and a new church of St Catherine was built.  The defence system of the mediaeval town took in an area of almost two hectares.  The transfer of the court to Jajce, as an established urban centre surrounded by ramparts, meant adapting to the contemporary European model, when advanced urban centres were gaining in importance.  It was then that the Medvjed tower was built, and the line of the northern ramparts around the Papaz gate (tower III) to bastion V, the Samića bastion.   The church of St Catherine was probably close to the main town square (around the hammam and the Sultana Esma mosque).  (M. Ančić,  1999, p. 99).

Stage IV belongs to the period of Magyar rule, during the time when the Jajce banovina was in existence, from 1464 to 1526.  At this time the entire defences of the town were repaired and added to.[1]

            Stage V, the period of the Ottoman Empire (1528-1878), was when the city acquired its final appearance. Inside the fortress, the towers were turned into bastions and embankments were raised within the old mediaeval walls (Đ. Basler, 1959, p. 124); a powder magazine was also built.  Bastion III was built, along with the tower on Džikovac, and a mosque inside the fortress.  The church of St Mary was turned into the Suleyman II mosque.

            The fortress has the shape of an irregular square, the result of the configuration of the terrain.  At the north-western (Bastion I) and south-eastern corners (Bastion II) stand two strong four-sided towers, and there seems to have originally been another tower in the south-eastern corner.  The perimeter of the fortress is 260 m, and its surface area 4800 sq.m.  The outside walls of the fortress are from 1.75 to 2.05 m. thick.  The entrance was originally from the west, which was difficult of access, at a point where the walls are up to 3 m. thick.  The passage and entrance gate are barely 1 m. wide.  Within the walls there is a well, which is still in the same place (Đ. Mazalić, 1952, p. 72).

            The south wall of the fortress, 57 m. long and 8 to 13 m. high, is regarded as its most typical feature.  In the lower reaches, up to a level of 3m, and at the corners, mudstone was used as building material, with the remainder largely of dripstone.  Pieces of Roman brick are to be seen here and there.  The lower parts of the walls have a marked batter, while the upper parts are almost vertical.  At a height of around 8 m. the ramparts turn into parapets 2.20 tlo 2.40 m. wide and 1.25 high, at intervals of 0.80 m.  The walls of the parapet are from 0.82 to 0.90 m. thick, while at the gate level they are 2 m thick.  Every other parapet has a narrow aperture.  The crenulations of the western corner of the wall were removed and replaced by loopholes constructed in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century (Đ. Basler, 1959, p. 130).  The assumption is that in the mid fifteenth century the wall ended here in a small round tower or guard-house entered directly from the “King’s Gate”, which was still open at that time.  The King’s Gate (measuring 2.25 x 1.77 m.) gave access from the expanding settlement outside the walls. The origins of the portal may be dated broadly to a time between the reign of Tvrtko II to that of Stjepan Tomašević, who finally moved the court to Jajce (1421-1461)[2].   In view of the basic design of the portal, with the royal coat of arms in the late Gothic style, and on the basis of heraldic analysis, it is very similar to the portal in Bobovac.[3]   The workmanship of the relief above the portal is in the rustic Gothic style.  The craftsman was not very familiar with heraldry.  The coat of arms is back to front.  The fourfold twist of the inner edge of the main arch next to the coat of arms suggests late Gothic.  The threshold of the portal is 30 cm high.  There was a step in front of it, 33 cm wide and 14 cm high, and a small terrace of uneven slabs.  Traces of fire and soot, as well as the jumbling of the layers, suggest later repairs.

            The south-eastern tower (Bastion II) was probably 25 m. high excluding its roof (Đ. Basler, 1959, p. 123).  On this tower there also a biphora (width of the terrace 2.15 m, depth 117 m). The shape of the biphora is basically similar to that of Bobovac. At the level of biphora, on the inner side, several coats of plaster have been identified.  Each level of this tower had a usable space measuring 12 x 18 m.  Perhaps this was originally, at the turn of the thirteenth and fourteenth century, when the citadel was built, the place where the feudal lord lived (and perhaps Hrvoje himself, at a later date).

            Some of the architectural remains found inside the fortress or within the mediaeval ramparts suggest that a palace was built here in the mid fifteenth century (Dalmatian late Gothic school).  Evliya Çelebi writes in the second half of the seventeenth century about the impressive remains of a court palace within the fortress.[4]. It is only with more detailed archaeological excavation within the citadel walls that the location and size of the palace or royal court could be determined more accurately.

            Opinions differ as to the date when the fortress was built.  All agree that it was certainly built prior to Hrvoje’s rule.  Some say that it dates from the thirteenth century (Mazalić 1852, p. 100; Basler, 1959, p. 130, in part; Ančić, 1999, p.. 98) but some believe it was as late as the second half of the fourteenth (M. Popović 1997, pp. 22-23).

            After major damage and hasty repairs following the six month Ottoman siege, the Magyar garrison did some repairs within the town, as can be sen from the plan of the fortress.  Following these repairs there were no longer any parapets on the south wall of the fortress. 

The Magyards either repaired an existing building or built a new palace (Đ. Basler, 1959, 128).

Under Ottoman rule, buttresses were built to strengthen the walls of the fortress, and another gate was pierce east of the King’s Gate.  In the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century the King’s Gate was walled up, when bastions and loopholes were built in the fortress by filling in the towers and reinforcing the walls.[5] Inside the walls of the fortress, there were a mosque and powder magazine, basically square in shape, measuring 10 x 10 m.   At ground level, the walls are 2 m thick. This part is vaulted, and lit indirectly across the stairway, through a small aperture in the wall. The walls of the upper floor are 0.90 m thick, with the exception of the west wall which is disproportionably thicker, approx. 2.50 m. The upper floor is domed. Above the entrance of the powder magazine is a built-in moulded console.

            Under Austro-Hungarian rule, a water reservoir was built beside the powder magazine.

Construction stages of other mediaeval walls and towers in Jajce

Mazalić attributes to Hrvoje’s time not only the construction of the intramural district to the east of the fortress but also that of the tower (Bastion IV), as well as the ramparts connecting it with the eastern corner of the fortress. Whether it was then or at a later date that another tower was built  to safeguard the approach from the Banja Luka road, on the rock above the present date Banja Luka Gate, has yet to be determined.

At the time when the Bosnian kings began to accord greater importance to Jajce, possibly as early as the 1440s, the town was fortified on the western and northern sides.  To the west of the south-eastern corner of the fortress, and reaching to the (former) bank of the Pliva, the Medvjed tower was built; this belongs to the type of massive, round defensive tower that began to be built with the introduction of firewarms.  The walls range in thickness from 4.70 m. on the east to 6.0 m. on the west side of the tower.  The inside radius at ground floor level is 5.70 m., and on the upper floor 8.14 m.  Mortar consisting of a small proportion of lime mortar and a great deal of limestone was used in the construction.  The south wall is vertical on the exterior, while the north wall has a slight inclination towards the interior.  In addition to the entrance, located 8.50 m. above ground level, there were three openings on the first floor level of the two, two of which served as loopholes.  A wall extended from the King’s Gate to the Medvjed tower, which is misshapen at the level of tower II.  The assumption is that this is where it met the tower, which gave the town at that time a characteristic triangular outline with the castle on the heights.  This concept of fortification suggests the influence of neighbouring Dalmatia.  However, a detailed survey of the site determined that the same structure is to be seen in the north wall around the Banja Luka gate, in the substructure of the gate itself (Anđelić 1963/64, p. 51).

The Magyars further extended the mediaeval city of Jajce. A high massive wall (2.70 m thick) covered with shields connected Tower III with Bastion IV. From Tower III, they reinforced the wall of the Banja Luka Gate to a thickness of 5 m; they built Bastion V, reinforced the existing wall on the river and built a watchtower. They also constructed embankments here and there along the bank of the Vrbas river, which was a natural defence in itself. Where the tower now stands above Travnik Gate, they built a solid wall and reinforcements all the way to Medvjed kula. The Magyars gave the town the appearance of a western fortress.

Once it had fallen to the Ottomans, Jajce lost the strategic significance it had enjoyed for so long.  It was only after their defeat outside Vienna, and after that at Senta, during the Ottoman period, that a tall square tower was built with a small bastion alongside it (Travnik Gate, tower IV on Đ. Mazalić’s plan).  The tower had a stone vault over the ground floor and, to judge from its form, was built in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century (Đ. Mazalić, 1952, p. 76).

They also repaired and altered Tower II to meet their needs on several occasions. The assumption is that all that remains of the mediaeval structure is the door frames (Đ. Mazalić, 1952, p. 76, tower II on the plan of Jajce, illus. 3).


3.            Research and conservation and restoration works

In about 1890 Ćiro Truhelka conducted research and conservation work.  He found the remains of the royal palace, later used as the ban’s palace: two capitals, decorated with acanthus leaf, built into the southern ramparts at a height of 12 m, two fragments of a moulded window frame, the capital of a pillar used to decorate a soldier’s grave.  All these items can be seen in the National Museum.

1951-1953 – conservation works on the bastions were conducted.

1957 – conservation of the southern wall of the fortress. The King’s Gate was excavated, and in the wall and in the earthwork in front of the wall the following items were found: the steel tip of an arrow, a stone cannon ball with a diametre of 12 cm, half a stone cannon ball of the same size, a stone cannon ball of 50 cm diameter, two ribs of a Gothic vault and two steel balls from the cannons of Omer-Paša Latas.

1961-1962 – excavation and conservation works on the ruins of the Church of St. Mary and the fortress were conducted. The works were conducted by P. Anđelić, I. Bojanovski and Đ. Basler.

1963 – conservation works on the northern bastion, between the great bastion and the castle.

1964 – repairs to the western ramparts.

1965-1967 – continuation of works on the repair and reconstruction of the ramparts. The works were carried out by experts from the Institute for  the Protection of Cultural Monuments in RBiH.

1969-1971 – conservation of the old town ramparts, repairs to the western ramparts. All works on the ramparts from 1951 to 1971 were conducted by experts from the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments in RBiH, Sarajevo.

A few findings from the fortress, as well as from other mediaeval buildings in Jajce, can be found in the National Museum: two capital from columns or half columns, Inventory Number 6914, 6915, two capitals of mudstone, Inventory Number 6916 and 6917, one monolith pillar with base and capital, Inventory Number 6918[6], and part of the lunette from a portal, Inventory Number 6923 (all research by Ć. Truhelka), as well as a sculpture of a lion and two parts of a ciborium or altar. All these items are on display as part of the permanent exhibit “Mediaeval Bosnia and Herzegovina”. Other findings from the excavation conducted by P. Anđelić in the Church of St. Mary in 1961, as well as those items found during conservation works, were left in Jajce, mostly in the Franciscan Monastery or in the Museum of the Second AVNOJ Session. The whereabouts of smaller items (arrows, cannon balls, etc.) are not known, and part of the stone material excavated from the Church of St. Mary is in the Franciscan Monastery. Many of these items, which were in Jajce until 1992, has probably disappeared. An inventory of the remaining materials would have to be carried out when circumstances allow.

4.            Present condition of the site

An on-site inspection found as follows:

·          the area is at risk of rapid deterioration due to lack of maintenance and failure to implement even a minimum set of protection measures;

·          the area is at risk from the elements.



5.            Conclusion

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument, adopted at the fourth session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (3 to 9 September 2002), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A.  Time frame

B.      Historical value

C.      Artistic and aesthetic value

            C.iii. proportions

            C.iv. composition

            C.v. value of details

D.     Clarity (documentary, scientific, educational value)

D.ii. evidence of historical changes

D.v. evidence of a typical lifestyle of a given period

E.      Symbolic value

E. ii. Sacral value

E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people

F.      Townscape/landscape value

F.i. relation to other parts of the ensemble

F.ii. meaning in the townscape

F.ii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site.

G.     Authenticity

G.i. location and setting

H.     Rarity and representativity

H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style.

I.       Integrity (ensembles, sites, collections)

I.i. physical coherence

I.ii. homogeneity

I.ii. completeness

            The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-          Photodocumentation;

-          Drawings

The documentation annexed to the Decision is public and available for view by interested persons on written request to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina.



Ančić, M., Jajce. Portret srednjovjekovnog grada (Jajce, Portrait of a mediaeval town). Split, 1999.

Anđelić, P. Jedna faza izgradnje srednjovjekovnog Jajca (One stage of the construction of mediaeval Jajce). Collected papers of the regional museum II, Banja Luka, 1963/4., 50-52.

Anđelić, P., Doba srednjovjekovne bosanske države (The period of the mediaeval Bosnian state) in: Kulturna istorija Bosne i Hercegovine od najstarijih vremena do pada ovih zemalja pod osmansku vlast (Cultural History of Bosnia and Herzegovina from earliest times to the start of Ottoman rule) Sarajevo, 1984., 435-587.

Basler, Đ., Konzervacija južnog zida tvrđave u Jajcu (Conservation of the southern wall of the fortress in Jajce) Naše starine VI, Sarajevo, 1959., 121-134.

Basler,  Đ., Klesarski majstori i radionice u srednjovjekovnom Jajcu (Master stonemasons and masons' yards in mediaeval Jajce). Collected papers of the regional museum I, Banja Luka, 1962., 98-108.

Basler, Đ., Sjeverni dio gradskih utvda u Jajcu (Northern part of the fortified town in Jajce) Naše starine XI, Sarajevo, 1967., 51-57.

Bodenstein, G., Povijest naselja u Posavini 1718-1739 (History of settlements in Posavina 1718-1739). Journal of the Nationanl Museum XX, Sarajevo 1908., 95-112.

E. Çelebı. Putopis (Bosnian translation of his travelogue). Sarajevo, 1954.

Ćirković, S. Istorija srednjovjekovne bosanske države (History of the mediaeval  Bosnian state). Belgrade, 1964.

Kojić Kovačević, D. Gradska naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Urban settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state). Sarajevo, 1978.

Kreševljaković, H.  Stari bosanski gradovi (Old Bosnian towns). Naše Starine I. Sarajevo, 1953., 7-47

Mazalić, Đ., Stari grad Jajce (the old town of Jajce). Journal of the National Museum, n.s. sv. VII. Sarajevo, 1952., 59-100.

Popović, M., Zbornik za istoriju Bosne i Hercegovine 1 (Collected papers for the history of  Bosnia and Herzegovina). Belgrade, 1995., 33-55.

Popović, M. Vladarski i vlasteoski dvor u srednjovejoknoj Bosni (the ruling and land-owners court in mediaeval Bosnia). Collected Papers for the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2. Belgrade, 1997.,1-33.

Thallozy, L., Povijest Jajca (History of Jajce). Zagreb, 1916.

Truhelka, Ć., Kraljevski grad Jajce (The Royal town of Jajce). Sarajevo, 1904.



[1] Đ. Mazalić believes that the alterations inside the fortress walls by the addition of earthworks against the walls on the inner side, as well as the filling in of the towers to turn them into bastions, took place between 1464 and 1527 (Đ. Mazalić 1952, pp 72 and 71, illus. 5). In the light of the assumption that the Magyars resided in the fortress, and in the court of the Bosnian kings, as well as the fact that no archaeological research whatsoever has been conducted, Mazalić’s claim can be doubted. E. Çelebı, during his visit to Jajce in the 1670s, saw a “ruined” capital, which supports Đ. Basler’s hypothesis that the court was inside the city walls (E. Çelebı 1979, 209; Đ. Basler 1959, 122). 

[2] D. Kojić-Kovačević, 1978, p. 127. In the year 1457, during the reign of King Stjepan Tomaš, the court in Jajce was explicitly mentioned for the first time in historical sources. Four years later, King Stjepan Tomašević was crowned here (S. Cirković, 1964, p. 324).

[3] Basler 1962,pp. 98-108. Detailed description of the portal and coat of arms.

[4] E. Çelebıö 1979, p. 209.

[5] Mazalić, 1952, pp.70-72, believed that the Magyars built “the Great Bastion” on the west wall of the citadel, the earthworks on the inner side of the other walls, turned the towers into bastions, and built the buttresses on the exterior. In conservation works during the 1960s, these works were linked with the Ottomans.

[6] D. Basler 1959, 126.

Fortress in Jajce, old photos<br>East wall of the fortress<br>South wall of the fortressFortress in JajcePlan of the fortress (Mazalić)Bastion I and west wall of the fortress
Bastion IIBastion II, interiorBifore on BastionPowder magazine
Entrance to the fortressRoyal PorticoRoyal Portico, detail - coat of armsCapitals (Truhelka)

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