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Old Doboj fort, the architectural ensemble

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Status of monument -> National monument

Published in the „Official Gazette of BiH“ no. 53/08.

Pursuant to Article V Para. 4, Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39, Para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 30 August to 5 September 2005 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

The architectural ensemble of the Old Doboj Fort in Doboj is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

The National Monument consists of the ramparts and towers of the Old Doboj Fort and the movable heritage housed in the Doboj Museum.

The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 10/22, Land Register entry no. 654, cadastral municipality Doboj, Municipality Doboj, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02), shall apply to the National Monument.

                       

II

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve and display the National Monument.

The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the conditions and provide funds for preparing and setting up signboards with  basic details of the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

The following protection measures shall apply to the area defined in Clause I para. 3 of this Decision:

  • all works are prohibited other than research and conservation and restoration works, including those designed to present the monument, with the approval of the ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska,
  • the cladding of the ramparts shall be repaired,
  • the concrete slab laid during World War II in the building between the north wall, the bastion at the north-west corner of the upper part of the fort and the keep (main tower) shall be removed,
  • the cannon shall be removed to a suitable place,
  • the site of the monument shall be open and accessible to the public and may be used for educational and cultural purposes,
  • the dumping of waste is prohibited.

 

The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for drawing up and implementing a programme for the presentation of the National Monument.

           

IV

 

The removal of the movable heritage referred to in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision (hereinafter: the movable heritage) from Bosnia and Herzegovina is prohibited.

By way of exception to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the movable heritage for the purposes of display or conservation shall be permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Permission for temporary removal under the conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt that it will not jeopardize the movable heritage in any way. 

In granting permission for the temporary removal of the movable heritage from Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Commission shall stipulate all the conditions under which the removal may take place, the date by which the items shall be returned to the country, and the responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of Republika Srpska, the relevant security service, the customs authority of  Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general public accordingly.

 

V

 

All executive and regional development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.

 

VI

 

Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska, the city and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.

 

VII

 

The Government of Republika Srpska, the Ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska, the Ministry responsible for culture in Republika Srpska, the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska and the municipal bodies of authority in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VI of this Decision, and the authorised Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VIII

 

The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba).

 

IX

 

On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no. 193 and 194.

 

X

 

Pursuant to Article V, Para. 4, Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

XI

 

This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.

 

           This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

                                   

No: 05.2-2-203/05-6

31 August 2005

Sarajevo

 

Chair of the Commission

Ljiljana Ševo

 

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I – INTRODUCTION

Pursuant to the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Article 2, Para. 1 of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument, pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches the final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

The Commission adopted a Decision to add the architectural ensemble of the Old Town of Doboj and Doboj Fort to the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina under serial numbers 193 and 194:

  1. Doboj Fort
  2. Doboj Old Town.

Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching the final decision to designate the property as a national monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

In the procedure preceding the adoption of the final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

  • Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and land registry excerpt),
  • Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data on war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.,
  • Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property.

The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:

 

1. Details of the property

Location           

The Old Town of Doboj was built on a conically shaped rocky hill 214 m in altitude above the Bosna river valley, opposite the confluence of the river Spreča with the Bosna. The confluence of the river Usora with the Bosna lies somewhat to the south. Roads intersecting at this natural road junction lead along the valleys of the three rivers. The settlement of Doboj developed around a mediaeval fortress. Doboj lies on one of the main road intersections in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and formerly lay on a strategically important road from the north, via which incursions were made into central Bosnia.

History of the property

Doboj is known to have been settled without a break since Palaeolithic and Neolithic times and the Bronze and Iron Ages (Belić, 2003, 4). To date no material evidence of settlement in the area of the Doboj fort and its immediate environs, where the town of Doboj now lies, has been found. The Pannonian tribe of Breuci formerly inhabited this area. In Roman times the area around Doboj was in the frontier region between the provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia, and it is not certain which province this area belonged to. A Roman military camp to house a cohort and a canabae (a civilian settlement outside a legionary fort) were built at Gradina in Makljenovac, around 4 km south of Doboj. According to epigraphic monuments, cohorts were housed in this camp from the second half of the 1st and during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, while other finds date to as late as the 4th century. During the 2nd century the Romans built a road along the river Bosna valley (Bojanovski, 1988, 326-329, 341, 357; Belić, 2003, 4). Above the Roman complex on the hill of Crvenica there was a refugium, dating from the 4 to 5th century.

Historians maintain that during mediaeval times Doboj lay within the Usora district (Handžić, 1975, 22).  

The earliest reference to Doboj is in a letter from a Dubrovnik inhabitant to King Sigismund, dated 28 June 1415 (Jireček, 1951, 51). The letter was written at a time when King Sigismund was outside Doboj with the Hungarian army. Although it lay on a major road junction, Doboj shared the fate of other towns in the Bosna valley north of Vranduk, of which only occasional information has survived from pre-Ottoman times (Kovačević-Kojić, 1978, 82, 84). In 1449 Bosnia’s King Stjepan Tomaš entered into an agreement with Hungary in Doboj to join forces against the Ottomans.

The northern border of mediaeval Bosnia with Hungary was defined by a series of fortified towns south of the Sava, between the Bosna and Drina rivers, deployed on the northernmost mountain slopes of Mt. Majevica, i.e. towards the Posavina lowlands. Two parallel lines of fortifications have been identified. The northern line comprised Dobor, Gradačac and Koraj, and the southern included Doboj, Soko, Srebrnik and Teočak (Handžić, 1975, 24). After the conquest of part of Bosnia by the Ottomans in 1463, the Hungarians tried to retain their hold on the region of Usora and Soli, since that region was of strategic importance for Hungary. It included several important fortified towns: Doboj, Dobor, Gradačac, Soko, Srebrenik, Tuzla, Brčko, Novi, Teočak and Zvornik (Hadžić, 1975, 25). After their military successes in Bosnia in 1463, the Ottomans set up a puppet Bosnian Kingdom under Matija Radivojević (1465-1476). The fortresses in Maglaj, Doboj and Tešanj were probably the main strongholds of the Bosnian Kingdom (Handžić, 1975, 40). The territory where they were located formed a wedge between the Jajce and Srebrenik banates and was of great strategic importance for the Ottomans’ future military plans. This was why the colonization of the region by Vlachs, who were brought here as settlers even before 1476, especially around Maglaj, was so important to the Ottomans (Handžić, 1975, 96-98). After one of the puppet kings, Matija Vojsalić, entered into negotiations with the Hungarians, the Ottomans abolished the puppet Bosnian Kingdom in the summer of 1476. In doing so, they occupied six fortresses on its territory, including the fortress in Doboj.

According to a marginal note dating from 1477 in the 1468/69 defter (tax register), timars (fiefs assigned to military administrators) were allotted to two guards of the fortress in Doboj, duke Jovaniš and Stjepan, who turned it over to the Ottomans without a battle (Handžić, 1975, 39; Belić, 2003, 23). The conquered areas in the Bosna river basin were annexed to the Bosnian sanjak (military and territorial district of the Ottoman Empire, sub-division of a pashaluk). From then until 1835 a dizdar (fortress commander) was based in the fortress with his garrison. The names of only three dizdars are known, Mustafaga from 1502, Mustafa-aga around 1750 and in 1832 Omer-aga, who was in favour of reform and opposed to Gradaščević. The mustahfizi (soldiers of a garrison) of the town of Doboj were timariots (timar holders) (Kreševljaković, 1991, 157-158).

There is little information on the fortress in Doboj from the time between 1467 and the end of the 16th century. A muhasebe defter (accounts book) from 1490 contains information on the great repairs to this border fortress under the supervision of mimar (architect) Ibrahim (Handžić, 1975, 10). Under the terms of a Turkish-Hungarian accord of 1503, the fortress in Doboj remained in Ottoman hands (Kreševljaković, 1953, 20). During the 16th century Doboj probably belonged to the nahija (administrative unit) of Usora or Tešanj and to the kadiluk (administrative area ruled by a judge) of Brod (Šabanović, 1982, 150, 184). From 1584, when a kadiluk was formed with its headquarters in Tešanj, the previously founded nahija of Doboj became part of it, remaining so until the mid 19th century, when the new administrative division of the Bosnian pashaluk (jurisdiction of a pasha) was carried out (Šabanović, 1982, 150, 184).  

There was probably a ferry in Doboj in the 16th century (Handžić, 1975, 247).

In 1657 the garrison numbered only 30 guards and five agas (civil or military leaders), which means that some of the garrison had gone to the battlefield. At that time there was only one cannon and one mortar, five barrels of powder and some lead in Doboj (Kreševljaković, 1953, 20). In the late 17th century – 1697 – Austrian forces campaigning in Bosnia under Eugene of Savoy occupied the fortress for a short time. In 1718 Austrian forces occupied it for a second time, again only briefly. After the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Doboj captaincy was formed. Judging by its territory and number of soldiers, it was one of the smaller captaincies, comprising the town of Doboj and its immediate environs, with 171 men – commander and soldiers. The first known captain was Džafer-aga, of whom there is mention from 1730 to 1756. The name of captain Sinan appears in documents from January 1815. He was a loyal friend of captain Husein Gradaščević, with whom he deserted to Slavonia, but returned home from Osijek in September 1832. He was the last captain of Doboj, dying in Doboj in 1853 where he was buried in a turbe (domed burial site), which was burnt down during the great fire of 1906 (Kreševljaković, 1991, 29-30).

An Austrian espionage report dating from 1785 describes the fortress as being rather tough, but poorly supplied with artillery. In the mid 18th century rebels from Tuzla were brought to the fort in Doboj, which had a strongly-built stone dungeon (Kreševljaković, 1991, 59).

There is a sparsity of information dating from the first half of the 19th century relating to the number of garrison members and armaments (in 1800 there were ten guards, and in 1804, fifteen. In 1833 there were only 11 cannon, 57 rifles, some lead ingots and 386 various cannonballs for the cannon in the fortress) (Kreševljaković, 1953, 20; idem, 1952, 161). The town was deserted in 1851 (Kajmaković, 1964, 46).

 

2. Description of the property

The Old Doboj Fort consists of an upper and lower range of fortifications. The lie of the land dictated the shape of the fortifications, which form an irregular triangle in plan, with its longest side (around 100 m) facing north. This north-facing side is the most strongly fortified, since attacks were expected from that side, and from it troops could be prevented from passing. The ramparts, which are 70 to 80 metres long, run down the most prominent ridges of the hill. In the course of time the fort underwent various adaptations. It has a total area of 3600 m2. The plateau of the upper part of the stronghold, which was originally steep and rocky, was levelled during the Ottoman era, when it became necessary to build bastions and underpin the ramparts.

The entrance to the fort is at the north-western corner, through an arched gateway. A path running along the northern outer wall, built in the 18th century, leads to the entrance to the upper part of the fort at the north-eastern corner of the inner part of the fort – a simple arched passageway 6.5 m long, corresponding to the width of the earthworks and ramparts through which it passes. To the east of the entrance is a gatehouse (6), with sides 5 m long and metre-thick walls. Stairs lead to the entrance to the tower. The ground floor has two loopholes in the north wall.  Wooden stairs lead to the upper floor, with its overhanging timber structure. The steep pyramidal roof is also timber-built, and clad with shingles. Stone steps lead from this tower to the upper part of the fort, which was formerly entered by wooden steps or a movable ladder.

The upper part of the fortress, the original mediaeval fortifications, stands on a rocky knoll, and has an area of 1400 m2. It consists of a keep or main tower (1), a cistern (7), outbuildings (3) below the main tower, a south projecting tower (4) and a curtain wall. Of the original outer ramparts at the top of the fort, only the north-western corner, which was later turned into a bastion (2), and the northern part of the western rampart have survived (Kajmaković, 1964, 46). It is not known whether these fortifications date from the 13th or the first half of the 14th century. They correspond in design to fortifications built at a time when cold-steel weapons were still in use (Mazalić, 1958, 237; Belić, 2003, 9;).

Engravings dating from 1697 and 1808 attest to the existence of the keep (1), of which the foundations were rediscovered in 1962. An engraving by an anonymous artist, published in 1880(1),  also shows the high walls of the keep. It is not known when the tower fell into ruins. It was not seen by Truhelka, who indicated a tabija (2) (bastion) where the keep once stood (Truhelka 1904, 80). The keep stands on the most prominent part of the rocky knoll. A feature of the oldest part of the fortifications is the position of this tower within the enclosed area, not on the ramparts as in other forts.  The tower is square in plan, with sides measuring 7.20 m on the outside. The walls are 1.75 m thick.  It was built of finely-cut stone blocks laid in regular courses, unlike the other buildings in the fort. The entrance was to the west, where steps were excavated in 1962.  A small cistern of filter-well type was discovered in the basement. The outbuilding (3) was also almost completely earthed over. Truhelka and Mazalić assumed it to have been a cistern, since the eastern part of the building, in the shape of a semi-circle, could be made out on the surface (Truhelka, 1904, 80; Mazalić, 1958, plan). During the 1962 excavations of this building, which were not completed, the ground plan of the building was revealed. The northern wall of the building, with small windows and what was probably the entrance, is separated from the southern wall of the keep (1) and the main bastion (2) by a narrow corridor. To the west it abuts onto the outer rampart (Kajmaković, 1964, 52-53). 

A cistern (7) of filter-well type was excavated next to the east wall of the acropolis. The cistern has two concentric circular walls, as is the case in nearby Vranduk, Bobovac and Maglaj. The outer circle measures 5.70 in diameter and the inner 2.5 m. Between them are layers of blue and red clay and sand. The inner wall of the cistern was built of cut stone blocks laid in courses. The cistern was once entirely built of blocks of tufa, which were replaced over the course of time by local limestone of poorer workmanship. The tufa has survived only in the lower courses of the cistern. Inside, the cistern was rendered with hydraulic plaster, several coats of limewash, and layers of clay (Kajmaković, 1964).  

During archaeological investigations in the early 1970s the foundations of an earlier semicircular projecting tower with rounded corners were discovered under the hexagonal south tower (4). The older tower was built of cut stone with aligned joints (Vučković, 1972, 128).

Towers that are semicircular in plan are rarely found in the mediaeval forts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Such towers were built in all three forts, Dobor, Maglaj and Doboj, in the lower reaches of the Bosna, on a strategically important military road, which may indicate the influence of central Europe, specifically Hungary in this case (Vučković, 1972, 128-129; Popović, 1995, 48). The mediaeval ramparts of the original fortifications are around 1 m thick. All the original outer ramparts already underwent reinforcements in mediaeval times. The south tower was converted into a smaller bastion of hexagonal plan. Somewhat later a bailey was built to the east, becoming the front line of defence.

In the 18th century, a later addition of outer fortifications became the front line of defence, as in Maglaj and Doboj, when ramparts were built around the fortified mediaeval core. These ramparts are high on the outside, but only about a metre high on the inside (Popović, 1995, 37-39). The ramparts of the upper part of the fortress were also strengthened. A smaller tower (5) was built within them in the north-eastern corner, and a large bastion (9) was added parallel to it, on the outside of the rampart.  The north-western corner was also adapted into a large bastion (2). A smaller powder-magazine (8) with 1.5 m thick walls was built next to the keep. The north wall and bastions (2) and (9) had openings for cannon. A secret passage was built in the eastern wall.

According to the reference works, movable artefacts were found in the upper fort during the 1963 dig, consisting of:

  1. A fragment of a moulded stone string course and bracket
  2. Two fragments of a stone quern
  3. A fragment of a Roman cippus
  4. A few pottery shards dating from mediaeval and Ottoman times
  5. A stone cannonball.

All these were handed over to the Regional Museum in Doboj (Kajmaković, 1964, 43-61, n. 26). According to a letter ref. 02/125 of 13 July 2006 from the Museum in Doboj, this archaeological material is catalogued under nos. 2223-2259.

According to the reference works, the following finds were made during a dig conducted by P. Vučković in 1972-73:

  1. Various types of arrows
  2. Iron spikes
  3. Jewellery
  4. Part of a ribbed glass vessel (Vučković, 1972, 128-129).

According to the same letter from the Doboj Museum, these artefacts are catalogued under nos. 4677-4762.

 

3. Legal status to date

Pursuant to the provisions of the law, and by Ruling of the National Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of the National Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, no. 1279 of 9 October 1950, the Old Doboj Fort in Doboj, Doboj Municipality, was placed under the protection of the state. Pursuant to Ruling no. 02-719-3 of 18 April 1962 it was entered in the Register of immovable cultural monuments.

The property is listed as a Category II monument in the Regional Plan for BiH to the year 2000.

It is on the Provisional List under numbers 193 and 194.

 

4. Research and conservation and restoration works

  • The first repair works to be carried out after the fort was abandoned in 1851 were conducted by the Austro-Hungarian authorities in 1881. The south retaining wall of the main bastion stood out clearly from the areas that had not been restored.
  • In 1915 the curator of the National Museum, Vejsil Čurćić, headed conservation works on the Doboj fort. There is no written record of these works, but it is known that the gatehouse, which was probably built up in height, was provided with a roof, and that the old stone steps on the east wall of the upper fort (by the east tower wall (6)) were replaced by unsatisfactory new concrete steps. The last cannon, which Truhelka saw in 1904, was also removed from the Doboj fort at this time (Kreševljaković, 1953, 21; Kajmaković, 1964, 47-48).
  • During World War II the Doboj fort was adapted into modern wartime fortifications. The Germans converted the keep and the south tower, the main bastion and the plateau of the upper fortress into modern bunkers. The shed beneath the main bastion was covered with a concrete slab (Kajmaković, 1964, 48).
  • The Institute for the Protection of Monuments of the National Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina carried out minor emergency and conservation works on the fortress in 1950, 1952, 1953 and 1955. During these works the lower gate and the wall to its right were rebuilt; the gatehouse (6) was fitted with a steep wooden roof clad with shingles, and the crown of the ramparts of the lower fort was conserved. The southern section of the west wall by the south tower was rebuilt from the ground up (Kreševljaković, 1953, 21; Kajmaković, 1964, 48). 
  • Until the early 1960s, the bastions were overgrown and the ramparts and towers were collapsing. The north and west ramparts had not been conserved. All that remained standing was the gatehouse and the passageway into the fort next to it.
  • The 1962 works, which lasted for three months, were carried out under the professional leadership of Dr. Zdravko Kajmaković, with technical supervision by engineer Remzija Korkut.  The conservation project was drawn up by Professor of engineering Esad Kapetanović and engineer Nedeljko Rosić. The works on the upper fortress consisted of: excavating the main tower, cladding the east wall, replacing the concrete steps (by tower (6)) faced with stone. The wall beside the steps was adapted to provide access to bastion (9). Bastion (9) itself was raised in height and topped by a parapet with an opening for cannon. On the north rampart, the older outer wall cladding was replaced over a length of 10 m from bastion (9) westwards, while the newer inner cladding was adapted to form steps so the wall could be walked on, but the works were not completed. On the main bastion (bastion (2)), the south part of the west wall was restored and the bastion was dug out to a depth of 1.60 m, the excavated sections were conserved, and the top of the bastion was rebuilt in line with Miteser’s drawing, with seven artillery openings. The keep (1), which was completely buried, was investigated and excavated to a depth of about 0.5 m to identify its footings, and the ruinous east side was underpinned. Building (3), next to the main bastion, was partly excavated to a depth of 2 m.  These works too were left unfinished. The south tower (4) was excavated to a depth of 1.8 m, and the eastern part of the tower was built up to a height of one metre (Kajmaković, 1964, 48-50). The northern part of the west wall was repaired over a length of 18 m. The cistern (7) was uncovered, rebuilt and conserved. The path around the upper fortress was adapted. The gatehouse (5) was fitted with a shingled roof. The top storey of the tower was built of timber. The ceiling joists were fitted to project out beyond the face of the stone wall by about 90-100 cm, with each joist supported by a wooden strut resting against the stone wall, so creating a larger floor area for the top storey of the tower. The outside walls of the tower were built of half-timbering (beams top and bottom, with struts and short horizontal beams to brace the structure). The top beam of the half-timbered wall of the top storey of the tower also formed the eave purlin of the roof. A hipped wooden frame was used to roof the tower. Wooden rafters set about 90-100 cm apart were laid over the eave purlin, a central purlin and the ridge purlin. The roof trusses rested on four king posts via the central purlin. Each king post consisted of a wooden upright, two struts at an angle of approx. 25 deg., and a binding joist resting on the outer purlin of the roof. The horizontal binding joist of the king post was set at an angle of approx. 45 deg. to the outer walls of the tower, in order to reduce the structural span. The central purlins were supported by wooden struts (to reduce their structural span), with the struts tenoned into the uprights of the king posts. A cladding of inch boards was laid over the rafters, with wooden shingles laid over the boards.

On the lower fortress, conservation works were repeated on the south corner of the ramparts, which was rebuilt, and around the main entrance to the fort (10) (Kajmaković, 1964, 44, 48-51).

  • In 1972, archaeological investigations were conducted on parts of the fort; the south tower (4), the outbuilding (3) and the small cistern in the keep (1).

5. Current condition of the property

Since the 1962-1964 works, the Old Doboj Fort been well maintained. In some places, as for example on the outer side of the east wall, next to the entrance to the upper part of the fort, the rampart covering was damaged by artillery projectiles during the 1992-1995 war. The shingled roof on tower (5) is riddled with shrapnel. The two buildings altered in World War II have concrete slabs that should be removed.

           

6. Specific risks

Illicit building in the immediate vicinity of the ramparts.

 

III – CONCLUSION

Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.

The Decision was based on the following criteria:

A. Time frame

B. Historical value

C. Artistic and aesthetic value

C.i. composition

C.vi. value of construction

D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)

D. i.  material evidence of a lesser known historical period

D. ii. evidence of historical change

D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner

F. Townscape/Landscape value

F.ii. meaning in the townscape

G. Authenticity

G. i. form and design

G.v. Location and setting

I. Completeness (ensembles, sites, collections)

I.i. Physical coherence (compactness)

 

The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

  • Copy of cadastral plan,
  • Ruling by the Institute for the Protection of Culture of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina adding the Old Doboj Fort to the Register of Protected Cultural Monuments,
  • Photodocumentation
    • from article by Z. Kajmaković and H. Kreševljaković
    • photographs taken during on-site visit in May 2005.

Bibliography

During the procedure to designate the property as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:

 

1904.    Truhelka, Ćiro, Naši gradovi (Our Towns). Edition by J. Studnička et.al., Sarajevo, 1904.

 

1951.    Jireček, Josip, Trgovački drumovi i rudnici Srbije i Bosne u srednjem vijeku (Trade Routes and Mines of Serbia and Bosnia in Mediaeval Times), Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1951.

 

1952.    Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom vladavinom (Contributions to the History of Bosnian Towns Under Ottoman Rule), Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju i istoriju jugoslovenskih naroda pod turskom vladavinom II/1951 (Contributions to oriental philology and the history of the Yugoslav peoples under Ottoman rule), Sarajevo, 1952, 119-184.

 

1953.  Kreševljaković, Hamdija, „Stari bosanski gradovi“ (Old Bosnian Forts), Naše starine I (Our Antiquities I), Sarajevo, 1953, 7-45.

 

1957.    Kreševljaković, Hamdija and Kapidžić, Hamdija, „Podaci o tvrđavama u Derventi i Travniku iz početka XIX vijeka“ (Information on Fortresses in Derventa and Travnik in the Early 19th Century), Naše starine IV (Our Antiquities IV), Sarajevo, 1957, 205-212.

 

1957.    Vego, Marko, Naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Settlements of the Mediaeval Bosnian State), Sarajevo, 1957.

 

1958.    Mazalić, Đoko, „Vinac i Doboj“ (Vinac and Doboj), Journal of the National Museum in Sarajevo, Archaeology, new series, vol. XIII, Sarajevo, 1958, 233-240.

 

1964.    Kajmaković, Zdravko, „Stari grad Doboj“ (Old Doboj Fort), Naše starine IX (Our Antiquities IX), Sarajevo, 1964, 43-61

 

1965.    Bojanovski Ivo, „Istraživački i konzervatorski radovi na starom Maglaju 1962.-1963.g“ (Research and Conservation Works in Old Maglaj 1962-1963), Naše starine X (Our Antiquities X), Sarajevo, 1965, 61-99.

 

1975.    Handžić, Adem, Tuzla i njena okolina u XVI vijeku (Tuzla and its Surroundings in the 16th Century), Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1975.

 

1972.    Vučković, P., “Gradina” Doboj-srednjevekovno utvrđenje (Gradina Doboj – Mediaeval Fortification). Archaeological Survey 14), Union of Archaeological Associations of Yugoslavia, Belgrade 1972, 129.

 

1978.    Kovačević-Kojić, Desanka, Gradska naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Urban Settlements of the Mediaeval Bosnian State), IP Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1978.

 

1982.    Šabanović, Hazim, Bosanski pašaluk (The Bosnian Pashaluk), Svjetlost, Sarajevo 1982.

 

1988.    Bojanovski, Ivo, Bosna I Hercegovina u antičko doba (Bosnia and Herzegovina in Antiquity), Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Proceedings, vol. LXVI, Centre for Balcanological Research, vol. 6, Sarajevo, 1988.

 

1991.    Kreševljaković, Hamdija, „Kapetanije u Bosni i Hercegovini“ (Captaincies in Bosnia and Herzegovina), In Selected Works I, Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo 1991.

 

1995.    Popović, Marko, „Srednjovekovne tvrđave u Bosni i Hercegovini - prilog proučavanju fortifikacionih struktura“ (Mediaeval Forts in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Towards the Study of Fortification Structures), Collected Papers for the History of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade, 1991, 33-54.

 

1996.    Šunjić, Marko, Bosna i Venecija (odnosi u XIV. i XV. st.) (Bosnia and Venice (relations in the 14th and 15th C.), HKD Napredak, Sarajevo, 1996.

 

2002.    Mrgić-Radojčić, Jelena, Donji kraji, krajina srednjovekovne Bosne (Donji kraji, Frontier Region of Mediaeval Bosnia), Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade, Belgrade, 2002.

 

2003.    Belić, B. Branko, Stari grad Doboj u riječi i slici (The Old Doboj Fort in Words and Images), Published by the author, Doboj, 2003.

 


(1) The engraving was published in the Slovinac magazine for the years 1880-1881, page 133. (Kajmaković, 1964, 51).

 



Old Doboj fortPlan of the Old Doboj fortEntrance to the fortEntrance (10) into the Fort, view from the inside
Southern tower (4)Tower (5), view from the outsideCistern and towerTower (1) and powder mogazine (8)
Powder mogazine (8)Entrance into Upper Fort and tower  


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