Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V, paragraph 4 of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39, paragraph 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National monuments, at the session held from 25 to 31 January 2005 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The Architectural ensemble of the Old Bijela Stijena Fort in Stijena is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the ramparts of the “Old Fort” dating from the mediaeval period, within which there is a mosque with wooden minaret and a small harem, and the ramparts of the “New Fort” dating from the Ottoman period. The monument has not been examined archaeologically and is a potential site (archaeological reserve) of movable archaeological material.
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot nos. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 (new survey) corresponding to cadastral plot nos. 4 and 6/1 (old survey), land register entry no. 84; cadastral plot no. 2 (old survey), corresponding to cadastral plot no. land register entry no. 84; cadastral plot nos. 1, 3, 7/1 and 7/2 (old survey), land register entry no. 96; and cadastral plot no. 5 (old survey), land register entry no. 5, cadastral municipality Stijena, Cazin Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments established in accordance with Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (“Official Gazette of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina”, no. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04).
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve and present the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the resources for drafting and implementing the necessary technical documentation for the protection of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and displaying signboards with basic data about the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument the following measures are hereby stipulated:
Protection zone I consists of the area defined in Article I para. 2 of this Decision. The following protection measures shall apply in this zone:
- professional archaeological research only shall be permitted, provided that it is followed by the necessary conservation and restoration works;
- conservation and restoration works on the fortifications and the mosque, including works designed to display the monument, are permitted, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);
- the site of the National Monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes;
- the building alongside the east wall of the New Fort (a summer kitchen) shall be removed.
Protection Zone II consists of a protective strip to the west and south of the fort as far as the access road, and to the east and north 50 m from the rampartsof the fort.
The following protection measures shall apply in this zone:
- all building and works of any kind that could have the effect of altering the site or the townscape are prohibited;
- works of any kind to the infrastructure are prohibited unless with the approval of the relevant ministry and subject to the expert opinion of the heritage protection authority,
- the dumping of waste is prohibited
All the movable artifacts found during archaeological investigations shall be housed in the nearest museum or in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, processed, and suitably presented.
The removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina of any movable artifacts that may be found during archaeological investigations is prohibited. By way of exception, if the leader of the investigations determines that it is essential for an artifact to be processed abroad, he shall present proof to that effect to the Commission, which may permit the temporary removal of the artifact from the country subject to detailed conditions for its export, treatment while abroad and return to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Upon receipt of reports on the investigations conducted, the Commission shall determine which movable artifacts shall be subject to the protection measures to be stipulated by the Commission.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provision of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canton, City and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardise its preservation.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for culture, the heritage protection authority, and the municipal authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II-VI of this Decision, and the responsible municipal court shall be notified for the purpose of registration in the Land Registry.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this decision, which may be viewed by interested parties at the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba).
Pursuant to Article V, paragraph 4 of the Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
25 January 2005
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCATION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established in accordance with Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a National Monument is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as properties entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission makes a final decision on their status, as to which there in no time limit and regardless of whether a request for the property in question has been submitted.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a decision to add the National Monuments entitled the Mosque in the Stijena Fort under serial no. 168 and the Stijena Fort under serial no. 171 to the Provisional list of National Monuments of BiH.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of the cadastral plan and copy of the land registry entry),
- data on the current condition and use of the property, including its description and photographs, data on war damage if any, data on restoration or other works on the property if any, etc.,
- historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The fort is situated in the settlement of Stijena, to the left of the Cazin-Bosanska Krupa road, about 10 km from Cazin. It is located on the outskirts of the settlement at its highest point, which extends in part along the same plateau from south to north. The fort was built at the very end of the northern part of the plateau, which is bordered by a steep slope at the north, and by the bed of the river Horljava. The fort is easily accessible from the east and the south, where the gateways of the old and new parts of the fort are situated, with rural roads leading to them. The harems with old tombstones are located opposite the entrance to the fort. In the vicinity of the fort is the religious centre of Stijena with a newly built mosque.
Villa Stina is mentioned in the charter of King Carlo Roberto issued on 9 December 1330. It may be deduced from this that the Stina Fort did not yet exist at that time, and the settlement was uninhabited and was called Uninhabited Stina (impopulosa) (Truhelka, 1904, 58; Vego, 1957, 109). There is little historical data about this fort. It is often referred to in written works as Stina.
From 1483 to 1553, the proprietors of Stina were certainly the Knezs Babonić of Blagaj, since these are the years referred to in historical documents. They used to live in Ostrošac, while Stina was governed by castellans. Back in 1514, there used to be a Franciscan monastery in Stina (Lopašić, 1943, 22,102; Vego, 1957, 110).
Stina Fort had eight military guards in 1563, and twelve in 1572, who received royal salaries (Lopašić, 1943, 103; Truhelka, 1904, 58). At that time, somehow, Archduke Ernest ordered the destruction of Stina Fort, because there was easy access to the gateway, and the surrounding area overlooked it from all sides, so even the smallest troop could storm it (Truhelka, 1904, 58-59).
In 1575, the Ottomans easily conquered Stina, as the first fortification in the Cazin area, and within two years followed Bužim, Cazin and finally Ostrožac fell. From then on a dizdar (fortress commander) was based in Stina (Lopašić, 1943, Kreševljaković, 1953, 32; Vego, 1957, 110). The first mosque in the area was most likely built in Stina (Kreševljaković, 1934, 15).
About 1570, the Kamengrad kadiluk was founded within the Bosnian Sandžak for the nahijas in the area of the river Sana. The territories and forts conquered in the area of the river Una River and those across the Una over the following decades, until the conquest of Bihać in 1592, were annexed by the Ottoman authorities to this kadiluk, which subsequently acquired Stina Fort as well (Šabanović, 1982, 175,181). By founding the Bihać Sandžak, which was always predominated by krajina – kapetanija administration, the Bihac kadiluk was founded as well. During the 17th century, all the towns in the Una valley were annexed to it. In the 18th century, the Bihać kadiluk was reduced to the area around Bihać, while all other towns across the Una, i.e. north of the left bank, belonged to the Kamengrad kadiluk (Šabanović, 228, 230). In the 19th century, Stina Fort was a part of the Bosnian pashaluk, the kajmakamluk (district) of Bihać, and the mudirluk (administrative district) of Cazin or Ostrožac (Šabanović, 1982, 233).
According to the agreement on borders between the Ottoman holdings in Krajina (the border region) and neighbouring Croatia in 1625, military garrisons were kept in all the forts held by the Ottomans in Krajina, amongst which was Stina (Lopašić, 1943, 31). In the course of 1626, the fort was repaired.
In a bujrudlija (decree issued by a vizier or vali) of the Bosnian vizier Abaz Mehmed-pasha dated 3 March 1629, Stina was mentioned as the headquarters of a captain (kapetan), which means that before that year a Kapetanija was established in this area, based in Stina (Kreševljaković, 1991, 109).
Under the terms of the peace treaty between the Porte and Austria in 1635, Bila Stina Fort remained in the possession of the Porte (Truhelka, 1904, 58).
In 1641 there was one Muharem known as harambaša (brigand chief) in Stina (Kreševljaković, 1953, 32).
Bordersmen from Croatia, patrolling through this area, burnt down the forts of Stina and Jezerski in 1687 (Truhelka, 1904, 58).
In the course of 1685 and 1687, the military from Karlovac attacked and laid waste this part of the Krajina several times, and Stina and Cazin in particular came under attack (Lopašić, 1943, 104).
In 1694, the forts of Stina and Krupa were governed by Ramadanaga Badanjković or Badnjevića (Badan-zade) from the family of captains and dizdars from Krupa. At that time Stina was a part of the Krupa kapetanija, while from the 18th century to 1835 it formed part of the Ostrozac kapetanija, which was founded in the second half of the 17th century.
In 1756, the garrison consisted of azaps (members of a special branch of the Ottoman army, serving as infantrymen) headed by aga Šaban (Kreševljaković, 1953, 32; idem 1991, 97).
The new fort, built in 1771, was the strongest of the fort built by the Ottomans in Bosnia (Kreševljaković, 1953, 32).
When an inventory of military equipment was conducted in 1833, there were 7 cannon and various tools in Stina. The inventory taker noted that the door to the magazine had been forced open by the people, who had taken away the ammunition (Kreševljaković, 1952, 177).
At the end of the 19th century (1890), Lopašić wrote that the for was “badly damaged” (Lopašić, 1943, 102).
2. Description of the property
The ensemble is composed of two forts: the mediaeval and the Ottoman. They interconnect into a single ensemble via an entrance in the partition wall between them, with the much smaller artillery fort of the New Fort linked to the older part of the fort. The fortifications as a whole cover an area of about 6086 m2, of which the Old Fort accounts for about 4522 m2, and the New Fort 1564 m2. The Old Fort was built above the bed of the Horljava brook, while the New Fort was built to the east of it in 1771.
The Old Fort, which was built in the pre-Ottoman period, forms an irregular hexagon in shape. The north wall is about 113 m long, the west about 100 m, the south about 70 m, and the east about 30 m. At the south west corner of the town is a bastion with an irregular quadrilateral ground plan, while the northwest corner has the shape of a bastion. Judging from the ground-plan of the fort and the zigzag lines of the ramparts, it was built rather late, like some other towns in the Krajina. There is a reference to it in documents dating from the end of the 15th century. The ramparts of the old fort, according to Truhelka, were neither solid nor high (Truhelka, 1904, 59), but still quite thin, at 1.5 m thick. The edges of the tower located in the southwest corner of the fort are vertical and well finished. Partition walls can be seen in the upper part, where there is also a pentagonal opening framed by thin slabs. There is the same kind of opening on the inner side of the bastion in the southwest corner of the New Fort, which means that the tower in the old part of the fort underwent later changes in the 18th century.
In the south rampart east of the tower, the entrance is arched. The base of the frame surrounding the gateway was built of larger, finely dressed stone blocks. There is an image of a bird carved into one of the blocks. Stones brought from other earlier buildings were used in several places in the rampart around the southeast tower and the tower itself. Bešlagić believed these were the remains of standing tomb-stones (stećaks) (Bešlagić, 1971, 72).
At the end of the 19th century, there was a mosque inside the Old Fort, alongside the south wall of the ruins of the building with two partition walls, while along the north wall were the remains of three smaller buildings beside each other. In the first half of the 20th century, the mosque, a mekteb, and a school opened in 1929 were found in the fortifications (Kreševljaković, 1934, 14).
During a visit to the fortifications in December 2004, two buildings were found in the Old Fort – an abandoned mosque and a building alongside the north wall, while in the New Fort, rubble from the demolished school could be made out.
It is not known when the first mosque was built in the Old Fort. According to tradition, the oldest mosque in Krajina was that built in the Old Fort (Kreševljaković, 1934, 15; Bećirbegović, 1990, 131). The current building was built in the mid 19th century. Alternations were carried out in 1956 (Bećirbegović, 1990, 131). The mosque measures 11.4x 9.8 m, and lies northwest/southeast. It was built of cut stone blocks with irregular surfaces. The walls are 0.8 m thick, with the exception of the entrance wall and the corners where it meets the adjacent walls, which are 0.5 m thick. The mosque was plastered and painted white. The wooden roof cladding was on the hipped roof was replaced with tiles in 1956. The longer sides have two rows of three windows, and the shorter ones two rows of two. The window edges are of good workmanship, faced with carefully dressed stone. Above the windows, on the stone façade, semi-circular arches may be made out. Beams were set above the upper window edges. The double doors of the mosque are to the right of the minaret in the northwest wall. The doors were formerly made of carved wood, but have now been replaced by an ordinary metal door.
Originally the mosque had a minaret built of wood which emerged from the roof. In 1956, it was replaced by a new minaret built onto the external stone pedestal. The minaret is to the northwest, near the northwest corner of the building, left of the entrance. The minaret has a pedestal measuring 2 x 2 m, made of finely dressed stone and has a slender wooden shaft of the same shape as a stone minaret, constructed of vertically set boards. The minaret has an open gallery with an exit to the southeast. The top of the minaret is cone-shaped, and clad in sheet metal. A stone plaque with a tarih, which has remained unpublished, was built in on the north wall of the stone pedestal.
The interior of the mosque is 5.5 m high, 10.3 m long, and 8.20 m wide. It has two levels. At ground-floor level, there is a porch (8.2 x 3 m) and a well-lit prayer space (6 x 3 m) with mihrab and wooden minber.
The mahfil construction along two walls also extends above the porch. The front mahfil covers about half of the prayer space, but since it also extends above the porch, its depth of 7 m is greater than that of the ground floor. The area of the mahfil is 64 m2, and of the ground floor 51 m2. This new enlargement of the prayer space gave rise to a new quality of space, as well as providing this medium size mosque with the quite considerable prayer space of 120m2 (Bećirbegović, 1990, 62, 131. 179). There are stairs leading from the porch up to the mahfil, from which there is also access to the minaret.
The mosque is surrounded with a thin stone wall inside which there was a harem.
Along with the north wall of the fort there is a building made of stone, with rectangular basis with dimensions of approx. 9 x 8 m. This house was most likely built at the same time as the mosque. The style of masonry is the same, as is treatment of the the windows. Since it was built on a gentle slope, its northern part was dug back into the ground. The front part, with two windows on the upper half of the façade, faces south. The entrance to the house is from the west. Along with the entrance, a “porch” or another kind of room was later built onto it, made of dressed stone blocks and concrete, which projected beyond the original dimensions of the house. It has a hipped roof clad with tiles. The wooden roof construction is rotten in places, and some parts lack tiles. West of the house is a concrete tank (cistern). All the parts made of concrete, as well as the roof, were repaired in the second half of the 20th century.
The New Fort was connected to the Old Fort by the west wall with entrance and bastions. The New For has the shape of an irregular square with the sides 25, 30, 30 and 24 m in length. The area inside the rampart amounts to 1564 m2. There were tabijas (bastions) at the four corners, two octagonal to the east, a pentagonal one to the southwest, and a hexagonal one to the northwest, with arched tufa vaults. The ramparts were built of finely dressed stone, and were 3m thick. The top of the ramparts is level, and walls with loop-holes were erected on the outer side. The entrance to the fort is an ordinary arched gateway in the rampart. The gateway was surrounded by a rectangular frame made of regularly dressed stones. Above the gateway were machicolations, which no longer exist. Above the entrance is a stone plaque, size 30x50 cm, with an inscription written in Turkish, in simple Naskh script: “From our hearts and souls, let us eternally give thanks to the pure Creator. And then bring salawah (benedictions) to the messenger of the faith (Muhammad), if you love him, so he will not forget you on the Day of Judgment. With the help of the True One, may Mustafa Padishah’s (1) name ever gain in repute and may his government always be supported. Composed in 1185” (1771) “by Mustafa. That which Allah wishes happens.” (Mujezinović, 1982, 78-79). On the inside of the ramparts, the gateway is also framed by an arch, this time made of the dressed stones used to build the ramparts. At the top of the ramparts, above the gateway on both the inside and the outside, the supports of the demolished machicolations can be seen. At the bottom of the north ramparts, alongside the northeast bastion, there used to be an opening, rather covered, for the garrison to escape down the slope from that side of the fort in case of danger.
The best preserved bastion is the southeast tabija. The entrance to it was from inside the fort, at a height of several meters. Nowadays, that part is covered by layers of debris and earth, so it is not known what was the access to this entrance was like. The vault inside the tabija is dome shaped and built of tufa. On the courtyard side of the bastion, facing in such a way as to defend the entrance from inside the fort, there was a pentagonal cannon emplacement. There are other partitions as well on the internal walls of the tabija. Other tabijas are partially covered with earth, so access to them is difficult. They have also survived up to a height above the vaults.
3. Legal status to date
During the procedure prior to the adoption of the final decision on designation, the following acts on the protection of the property were consulted, and the following was ascertained:
By Ruling of the National Institute to Preserve Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of NRBiH, no. 1096 dated 28 December 1951, the architectural ensemble of the Old Bijela Stijena Fort in Stijena was placed under state protection. By Ruling no. 02-845-3 dated 18 April 1962 it was entered in the Registry of immovable cultural monuments under serial no. 131.
It is on the [Provisional? Trans.] List of National Monuments under the name Mediaeval Town and Fortress of Vranduk.
In the Regional Place, Stage B, Valorization, of 1980-2002, the mediaeval and Ottoman fort of Stina is listed as a Category II monument.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
Research and conservation and restoration works have not been carried out.
5. Current condition of the property
The condition of the property is in general very bad. In some places, the ramparts can be made out only at the base. The facing of dressed or cut stone has fallen away or been removed from most of the ramparts still standing. It was observed that older houses in the fort and the town were built of this stone. On the south rampart of the Old Fort the outer facing has more or less survived over a length of some 30 m, measured from the tower to the south-west corner. The remaining 15 metres to the ramparts of the New Fort has been stripped. The inner core of the ramparts is visible, and only the lower half survives over a length of about 10 m. The ramparts of the New Fort are somewhat better preserved on the south, access side than elsewhere. The wall facing has fallen away from parts of the tabijas. The abandoned mosque and house are not maintained.
III - CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on designating a property as a national monument (“Official Gazette of BiH”, no.33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited in the enacting clause. The decision is based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historic value
Association with a significant historic personality or event
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. iii. Proportions
C. iv. Composition
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.i. material evidence of a lesser known historical era
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E. iii. Traditional value
E. v. Significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/Landscape value
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.iv. Tradition and techniques
G.v. Location and setting
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- copy of cadastral plan,
- photo documentation,
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of BiH, the following works were consulted:
1904. Truhelka, Ćiro, Naši gradovi, opis najljepših sredovječnih gradova Bosne i Hercegovine (Our Towns, Description of the Most Beautiful Old Towns of Bosnia and Herzegovina). Sarajevo, Naklada Knjižare J. Studnička and others. 1904.
1934. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Cazin i okolina (Cazin and its Surroundings). Sarajevo, 1934.
1943. Lopašić, Radoslav, Bihać i bihaćka krajina (Bihać and the Bihać Border Area). II edition, Zagreb, 1943.
1952. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom upravom. Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju i istoriju jugoslovenskih naroda pod turskom vladavinom (Contributions to the History of Bosnian Towns under Turkish Administration, Contributions for Oriental Philology and the History of the South Slavs under Turkish Governance), II/1951, Institute for Oriental Studies in Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1952,119-184.
1953. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Stari bosanski gradovi (Old Bosnian Towns). Naše starine I (Our Antiques I), Sarajevo, 1953, 7-45.
1957. Vego, Marko, Naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Settlements of the Mediaeval Bosnian State). 1957.
1971. Bešlagić, Šefik, Stećci, kataloško-topografski pregled (Tombstones, acatalogue-topographic overview). IRO Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1971.
1982. Mujezinović, Mehmed, Islamska epigrafika BiH. Knjiga III (Islamic Epigraphics of BiH, Volume III), IRO “Veselin Masleša”Sarajevo, 1982
1982. Šabanović, Hazim, Bosanski pašaluk (The Bosnian Pashaluk). Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1982,
1990. Bećirbegović, Madžida, Džamije sa drvenom munarom (Mosques with Wooden Minarets). IRO Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1990.
1991. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Kapetanije u Bosni i Hercegovini. In: Izabrana djela I (Captaincies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Selected Works I), IRO Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1991.
1995. Popović, Marko, Srednjovekovne tvrđave u Bosni i Hercegovini (Mediaeval Forts in Bosnia and Herzegovina). Zbornik za istoriju Bosne i Hercegovine 1 (History of Bosnia and Herzegovina Collected Papers 1), Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Committee for History of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Beograd, 1995, 33-55.
(1) Sultan Mustafa III, 1757 - 1774