Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V of the Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Article 36 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments Commission, at a session held from 25 to 31 January 2005 the Commission to Preserve National Monuments adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic building of the Cathedral (Cathedral Church of the Heart of Jesus) in Sarajevo is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (here-inafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on cadastral plot no. 1068, cadastral municipality Sarajevo I (new survey), corresponding to c.p. no. 27, Land Register entry no. XXXVI/65, ca-dastral municipality Sarajevo (old survey), Stari Grad Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions related to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implemen-tation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pur-suant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzego-vina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of BiH (hereinafter: the Government of the Fed-eration) shall be responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, rehabilitate, and display the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following protection measures are hereby stipulated.
Protection Zone I consists of the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision. The following protection measures shall apply in this zone:
- all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works on theNational Monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the relevant ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage pro-tection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority),
- all protection works, regardless of their nature and extent, shall be based upon prior ap-proval issued by the relevant ministry.
Protection Zone II consists of the square in front of the Cathedral and the adjacent streets around the Cathedral. In this zone, no new building, the extension of existing build-ings by the addition of extra storeys, or alterations to the façades of the buildings shall be permitted.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provi-sions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the relevant Ministry, the heritage protection au-thority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II -
V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Deci-sion, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba).
Pursuant to Article V Paragraph 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
On the date of adoption of this Decision, the National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02, Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no. 4/03), where it featured under serial no.504.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zey-nep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
25 January 2005
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Article 2, paragraph 1, a “National Monu-ment” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the Gen-eral Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments issued a Decision to add the historic monument of the Cathedral in Sarajevo to the Provisional List of National Monuments as No. 504.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II –PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photo-graphs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- Inspection of the current condition of the property
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The Cathedral stands right in the centre the city, on the cusp of the urban areas built in the Turkish and the Austro-Hungarian periods.
To the north is the very busy Mula Mustafa Bašeskija street. The area surrounding the cathedral is defined to the south by the square, to the south of which and forming an in-tegral part of it is the pedestrian zone of the valuable townscape ensemble of Strossmayer street. To the east and west of the Cathedral are fine buildings dating from the Austro-Hungarian period, while the complex of the Bosniac Institute is located within the contact zone, to the north of the Cathedral.
In the period immediately preceding the building of today’s Cathedral, Christian popu-lation increased sharply, as a result of which the erection of a Cathedral large and represen-tative enough became the prime main concern of Archbishop Dr. Josip Stadler.
In 1882 the construction of the Cathedral was offered to Heinrich Ferstel, who submit-ted a project proposal, and the construction of a Romanesque style church. However, the project was too ambitious and too expensive for Sarajevo at that time. Meanwhile, Ferstel’s proposed site for the building was taken over by the army to build a military casino(1), so that his proposal fell through.
A new site was sought, and Archbishop Stadler appealed to the Provincial Govern-ment and former Bosnian Minister Kállay for help in building the cathedral. Minister Kállay spoke to Friedrich v. Schmidt, Architectural Chief Advisor and professor at the Academy of Applied Arts in Vienna, where Josip pl. Vancaš was attending the Academy’s special school(2).Schmidt recommended(3) Vancaš to the Minister, with the promise of assistance in the design of so important a building as the Cathedral.
Minister Kállay found this acceptable and sent Vancaš to Sarajevo, to submit a pro-posal concerning the building site, and at the same time to inquire about the construction program for the Provincial Government Palace, which also needed to be designed. The site was selected in 1883, and that same year Vancaš, on his own, designed the project for the church, which was then reviewed and approved by Schmidt, with minor changes.
Archbishop Josip Stadler(4) (1843 – 1918), the commissioner and the initiator of the Cathedral, and Josip Vancaš (1859 – 1937), the architect, deserve the greatest credit for this the erection of the new(5) cathedral.
On his arrival in Sarajevo, Vancaš reviewed suitable and available sites to be consid-ered as possible sites for the erection of the cathedral. His first choice was a site on the cor-ner of the former Ferhadija and Ćemaluša streets, and with this proposal he returned to Vi-enna, but the site was rejected by the city authorities. As a result he returned to Sarajevo in September 1883, this time accompanied by Kállay himself, who finally resolved the issue: the selection made was of the square that was soon to be named Church Square, and is now Fra Grga Martić square. The site was originally intended to be the City Market. Vancaš made the original sketches himself, in line with the site and its surroundings, since the old professor was serious ill during the summer and early autumn.
That was how the blueprints were drawn up. They were later submitted to Schmidt for his views, who approved it, except for considerably reducing the height of the roofs on the towers. “He observed only that it is not appropriate for a cathedral church to look ‘gaudy,’ and advised me to build the entire church of crushed stone, since a church is meant for eternity,” as Vancaš recalled in an article he wrote for “Večernja Pošta.”
The original plan provided for the main portal to be set back between the towers, so that the vestible, along with the choir gallery, extended all the way to the middle of the first transept. The entrances to the baptistery and choir area were located in the aisles. There was to have been side entrance for the west tower, while the pulpit, which was much smaller than the present one, abutted against the third pillar. The sanctuary was shorter, and the sacristy narrower. The treasury was no wider than the aisle.
Stadler had to fight hard for the Provincial Government to approve the construction of the extension to the sanctuary, which he justified by need for greater space than in the origi-nal design for ritual ceremonies. Later, the construction of an archbishops’ crypt was another subject of negotiation with the Government Planning Office, for this was another detail Van-caš had not provided for in his design.
During the winter of 1883/84 all the working blueprints were made in Josip Vancaš’s newly-opened studio. Vancaš became an independent entrepreneur. The cathedral was de-signed with enough space for 1200 people, with a very simple exterior – “made of bare stone,” as Vancaš himself once said. A tender was published on the basis of the blueprints, in response to which the most competitive bid was that of the Austrian entrepreneur Karl Baron Schwartz.
The building site was handed over to the contractor on 19n August 1884, and the the formal ceremony(6) marking the start of the building works took place on 25 August, followed by the first ground works. A month later, on 23 September 1884, the commission found that the foundations were quite deep – 5.70 m at the east tower, 6.00 m at the west tower, 7.00 m at the aisles (due to the sloping site), and 3 metres deep for the pillars between the aisles. On 20 November 20, at 9 o’clock, a modest ceremony was held to lay the foundation stone, incised with the inscription: MDCCCLXXXIV 20. XI. Construction progressed so well in 1885 that the central nave and both aisles were roofed over in September 1886. In March 1887 the west tower was erected, and April saw the start of plastering the central nave.
Thatsame month the scaffolding around the sanctuary was taken down. The construction works were completed on 9 November 1887, as had been agreed with the entrepreneur Schwartz. The walls were only whitewashed on the inside, while the windows were glazed with ordinary glass. The major job of fitting out the building artistically still lay ahead, and took two years to complete.
The building was completed and consecrated in 1889.
2. Description of the property
The entrance to the church is at the south end, and the altar at the north end. The exterior length of the cathedral is 41.90 m, and the width is 21.25 m (24.80 m on the side where the sanctuary is). The interior length is 37.65 m, and the width is 18.10 m. The en-trance façade is accentuated by the two 43.20 m towers. Their roofs are shaped as simple steeply-pointed four-sided pyramids (height approx. 13 m from the tower cornice to the cross; the sides of the base of the pyramid are approx. 7.00 m wide), widening at the base. The roofs close off the aisles (length of aisle transepts approx. 3.00 m) to the south, while the central nave projects out toward the south façade over its full width. The high gable of the front of the cathedral is divided into five arcades at roof-frame level, four blind and one open, set in sandstone frames. Below them is a large blind arch, within which is an eight-lobed ro-sette composed of two rows of pseudo-Gothic elements. Below the rosette is the portal, ac-centuated by pillars in the moulded doorjambs, while the gable contains a relief of the Holy Trinity. At the top of the portal, in part below the rosette, is a statue of the Heart of Jesus, a gift from the contractor Schwarz, made in Vienna from margarita stone. The statue is the work of the Viennese sculptor A. Hausmann. The relief in the tympanum was made to a de-sign by A. M. Seitz, modelled by Dragan Morale, sculpture of the Zagreb cathedral, and made of stone by Ivan Novotny. The baptistery (interior floor plan 3.20 x 3.20 m) is at ground floor level in the west tower, while the east tower houses the stairway leadingto the organ gallery and the bells (the belfry platform is approx. 24.70 m above floor level of the church).
The roof is clad with plain tiles of beaver’s tail type(7). One side of each tile was dipped in tar, and then the tiles were arranged so as to compose rhomboid motifs on the towers and naves.
The width of the church, measured from the sacristy room to the treasury, is wider than the width of the aisles (by a total of 4.40 m – 2.20 m on each side), giving the entire building a cruciform ground plan which, however, does not translate to the interior volume. Both those annexes have two storeys, access to the upper storeys being via spiral staircases in separate, smaller towers. At the end of the north roofridge is a metal tower known as the “sanctus”, which is 33 m in height.
The entrance to the premises on the west side, the sacristy, has a decorated portal, smaller in size than the front one, but very richly moulded. Its tympanum contains a relief de-picting a Pietà with two angels. The sketches were made by A.M.Seitz, modelled by Morak, and carved in stone by Novotny.
The north end of the building is quinquelateral (each side is approx. 4.15 m long), with five tall windows. Each of the corners is reinforced by strong piers or buttresses.
The foundations are faced with hard white limestone up to inside floor level, the walls are made of red-streaked ochre limestone originating from the outskirts of Sarajevo (Hreša), while the string courses and cornices, pillars, quoins, window frames, and, of course, portals, are made of sandstone from the Visoko area.
The floor is covered with Wienerberg ceramic tiles of three warm colours: brown, red, and black, laid according to Vancaš’s design. During repair-works in 1987, when central heating pipes were laid in the floor, considerable effort was put into relaying the tiles to the same design. The vault in the central nave is 13.50 m high, and the side vaults 8.50 m.
According to some theoreticians, Vancaš’s inspiration for the design of the cathedral in Sarajevo were the churches of Notre Dame in Dijon, and Tynska Church in Prague(8). Both those models, Dijon for the building, and Prague for the towers, seem to be well harmonized in Sarajevo, even though they are far apart in both time and space. Notre Dame was com-pleted in 1240, while the towers of the Tynska Church were built between 1458 and 1463, when the Gothic style was already obsolete.
Stained glass windows
The church windows are decorated with stained-glass made after Vancaš’s designs by the Tiroler Glasmalerei Anstalt company in Innsbruck. There are two different types of stained-glass windows in the church:
a. stained-glass apse windows,
b. stained-glass windows on the side walls of the church.
Both types of windows are round-arched.
The five apse windows measure 5.75 m x 1.33 m. Compositionally, this group of stained-glass windows can be separated into three zones: lower, middle, and upper. The lower zone contains the information on the donors of the windows, their family coat of arms, and the figure of a saint. The middle zone depicts the central scene, while the upper one terminates in a rounded arch, and contains the image of a Gothic style church.
a. Main scenes on the stained-glass apse windows, from north to south:
1. The central zone of the window depicts the scene where Christ announces t6o Juliana of Luttich his wishes on observing the Holy Altar Sacrament. The lower field depicts St. Ladislav and St. Roman with the Sanguszko family coat of arms between them. The left and right corners contain details on the donor of the stained glass, the Polish Prince Roman Sanguszko.
2. The central zone of the window depicts the scene of the Last Supper, dominated by the figure of Christ. St. John is leaning on Christ’s left shoulder. Next to him stands St. Pe-ter, with St. James is on the opposite side. The lower field depicts St. Anne. The left and right corners contain details on the donor of the stained glass, Ivan and Albert Schmard.
3. The central zone of the window depicts the scene of Christ’s crucifixion, the mo-ment when Longin is preparing to pierce Christ with his lance. Mary Magdalene is kneeling to the right of the cross, and the Madonna is to the left, hands clasped. Next to her is St. John. The lower field depicts two women with crowns on their heads. The left and right corners contain details on the donor of the stained glass, Dr. Milan Amrus.
4. The central zone of the window depicts Christ sitting on the throne. A man in tradi-tional folk costume is kneeling in front of him. To the right of Christ is the Madonna, with her head raised toward him and her hands pointing to her heart. To the left of Christ is a kneeling angel. The centre of the lower zone shows a saint with a flower in his hand (St. Anthony?). The left and right corners contain details on the donor of the stained glass, Stadler.
5. The central zone of the window depicts St. Margaret Alacoque kneeling in front of Christ, with her arms outstretched towards him. There is an open book in front of her, and an angel holding a cross behind her. To the right of Christ, also kneeling, is an angel holding a chalice, which he is offering to Christ. The lower zone depicts the figures of Pope Leo and St. Paul. Between them is the coat of arms of the Sapieh family of Lavov, and details of the do-nor of the stained glass, the Polish Princes Leon and Pavao Sapieha.
b. The stained-glass windows on the side walls of the church measure 3.20 m x 1.04 m. They were made in the Vienna branch of the Innsbruck stained glass window factory. Each of the transepts contains two arched windows. The ornaments on the windows are simple; the edge is decorated with a red band, with tendrils interlinking leaves and the flow-ers. The upper part of the window contains a medallion with the portrait of a saint. The bot-tom of the window contains a band giving details of the donor of the stained glass. (Basler, 1989. 27-33)
Stained-glass windows on the south wall of the church, from east to west:
- St. Matthew and St. Bartholomew. A gift from the Sarajevo industrialist August Braun.
- St. Thomas and St. John. A gift from Dr. Berthold Kras’s family.
- St. Paul and St. Peter. A gift from the Vrhbosna chapter.
- St. John and St. Elijah. A gift from the Catholics of Sarajevo.
Stained-glass windows on the north wall of the church, from east to west:
- St. Simon and St. Thaddeus. A gift from Baron Sedelnitzky.
- St. Philip and St. James. A gift from the Brlić family of Slavonski Brod.
- St. Andrew and St. Simon. A gift from associates of the Archbishop Stadler.
- St. Francis of Assisi and St. George. A gift from the Catholics of Mostar.
There is a large stained glass rosette, with a diameter of almost 5 m, above the en-trance portal on the east wall. The stained glass follows the shape of the rosette, so that two separate entities can be observed. The first begins at the centre of the rosette, from which an eight-petalled flower emerges. This part is decorated with almost colourless glass, the motif featuring only around the centre in the form of stylized flower sprays. The second begins by forming a second zone ofpetals, which grow out of the middle of the first zone of petals. The stained glass in the second zone of petals terminates in trefoils. Rhythmicality is achieved by the use of alternating blue and red grounds for the petals, from which trefoil sprays emerge.
The stained-glass windows were repaired in 1988, by the Staklo workshop from Zagreb. At that time, additional windows were mounted on the outside, made of shatter-proof laminated glass set in aluminum frames. (Basler, 1989. 58-59)
Altar and stone carvings
There are three altars in the church, the main altar and two side altars. The altars were designed by Vancaš.
The main altar is dedicated to the Heart of Jesus and other saints. It is made of Grisignano marble. It was supplied in rough-finished form by the Trieste-based company Scalpelini. It is divided into seven niches.
The central niche is taller than the others and has no partition. It is reached via steps behind the sanctuary. Above the niche is a statue of the Heart of Jesus, on a tall pedestal. The statue is the work of Franz Erler from Vienna. It is made of light-coloured stone.
To the right of this niche is a statue of Saint Joseph, next to him is a statue of St. Francis of Assisi, and at the corner the statue of an angel.
To the left of the central niche is St. Michael, next to him St. John, and at the corner is the statue of an angel.
These statues were modelled by Dragan Morak in Zagreb, and the stonemason was Ivan Novotny.
The mensa of the altar is made of Santa-Croce marble. It stands on four small pillars made of reddish Tyrolean marble. The back of the base of the mensa is fitted with slabs of light red marble, all made in Vienna. The gilding was by Voltolini and Betizza. The altar was a donation, principally from the citizens of Zagreb, but also from many other of the faithful from Croatia.
The south aisle contains the altar of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, made of Grisignano stone. The mensa stands on two small pillars of purple serpentine, and was made in Vienna. The statue of the Madonna is the work of the sculptor Dragan Morak. The altar was a gift from the Emperor Franz Joseph I. The cornice at the top bears an in-cised inscription: FRANCISCUS JOSEPHUS I IMP. ET REX CATHOLICIS BOSNIAE MDCCCLXXXVI.
Parallel with this altar, in the north aisle of the church, an the altar dedicated to the brother SS Cyril and Methodius. It is made of Grisignano stone, and was modelled by Dra-gan Morak, and carved in stone by Ivan Novotny. The altar was a donation from the faithful from the Czech Republic, upon the initiative of their parish priest Franjo Venhuda.
The third transept toward south aisle of the church contains the pulpit, which was de-signed by Vancaš. It is reached from the south aisle via steps leading to the pedestal, from which a narrow passageway beneath a high stone baldachin leads to the rostrum. The small tower of the baldachin is decorated with Gothic carvings and reaches almost to the top of the arch between the central nave and the side aisle of the church. The pulpit is hexagonal, with an opening for the entrance on the sixth side. It stands on a massive, richly decorated pedes-tal. Each of the 5 slabs forming the balustrade bears a relief with a bust: the central slab fea-tures Christ, and on each side two evangelists; to the right of Christ is St. Mark, and then St. Matthew, and to His left St. Luke, and then St. John. The reliefs were modelled by the Vien-nese sculptor Franz Erler, and carved in stone, as was all the ornamentation, by Ivan Novotny.
In the second transept of the south aisle of the church, below the window, is a cross with Christ crucified. To the right of Christ is the Madonna, and to the left is St. John. The crucifix is made of white marble with the faintest of grey marbling. The plinth is in the shape of a prie-dieu. The crucifix probably dates from the late 19th century, and is the work of an unidentified artist. It was a gift from school friends of Archbishop Stadler.
The tombstone of Archbishop Stadler is on the east wall. It is made of white marble and is the work of Marin Studin (1895-1960). The Archbishop is portrayed en face, of the same size as in his portrait in the drawing room of the Archbishop’s Residence. He is clad in a cappa magna with an ermine humeral. His right hand is raised in blessing, and he is hold-ing a pectoral in his left. The simple, flat frame of the tombstone (230 x 100 cm) bears an in-cised epitaph: HONORI ET MEMORIAE Dris IOSEPHI STADLER ARCHIEPISCOPI ET METROPOLITAE VRHBOSNIENS PRIMI CUICUS NOMEN PERRENIUS QUAM MONU-MENTUM.
The plinth bears the words:
ILLE ERAT LECERNA ARDENS ET LUCENS, and the signature of the artist: M. STUDIN 1932.
The tomb of Archbishop Stadler (died in 1918) is in front of the memorial plaque, in the floor of the church. His successor, Archbishop Marko Alaupović, was also laid to rest in the same tomb.
The doorjamb on the east wall has a memorial plaque to commemorate the 50th anni-versary of the Vrhbosanska Archbishopric and the rebuilding of the Cathedral. The Cathedral features on the left-hand of two gilt reliefs, the work of the medallion-maker Ivo Kerdić (1881-1953). The right-hand relief features portraits of Stadler and Šarić. The inscription below the medallion is not dated, but as it refers to the 50th anniversary of the Archbishopric, it may as-sumed that the plaque was installed in 1932 (Basler, 1989, 33-34)
It was probably agreed in 1886 with Alexander Maximilian Seitz(9)(1811-1888) that the church walls should be painted. As a result, shortly afterwards he came to Sarajevo to famil-iarize himself with the space, light, and possible positions for paintings in the church. Upon his return to Rome, he informed Archbishop Stadler that he was ill, but despite that he worked on cartoons(10) – sketches for paintings – of the Sermon on the Mount and Moses Receiving the Ten Commandments. These paintings were in the so-called Nazarener style(11). Returning to Rome in 1887, Bishop Stadler proposed that the paintings be executed by Alex-ander’s son Ludowig(12), but in the end it was Alberto de Rohden who painted them (Mutapčić, 1999, 141). Besides these two paintings, de Rohden also painted the Coronation of the Vir-gin Mary, the Ascension of Christ, and Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane and Mary Mag-dalena. Basler, however, is of the view that Alexander Seitz painted the Sermon on the Mo-unt and Moses Receiving the Ten Commandments, basing his view on a comparison with the same scenes in Đakovo Cathedral (Basler, 1989, 39).
The painting of the Sermon on the Mount is on the south wall of the apse. The top of the painting is round-arched. It shows Christ standing in the middle of scene, facing to the left, with outstretched hands. There is a crowd in front of Him, and the apostles John, Peter, James and Andrew, the Madonna and another elderly saint stand behind Him. One man is shown falling on the ground, and another, in the background, bringing his sick son to Christ to be healed. The same scene features in Đakovo in similar fashion, but in a different setting (Basler, 1989, 39).
The painting of Moses Receiving the Ten Commandments is on the north wall of the apse. The top of the painting is round-arched. In the foreground, it features Aaron and another person at the foot of a hill; his is covering his face with his left hand, and is propped on his right hand. To the right, in the background, is the Israelite camp in the desert, shown wor-shipping the golden calf. The central part of the painting features God the Father handing Moses the tablets of stone bearing the Ten Commandments. The scene is completed by a host of angels.
In the apse, above the arches of the passage to the sacristy and treasury, two motifs were painted in chiaroscuro technique(13). The painting above the sacristy door features Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane and a hand offering him a chalice, with the sleeping apostles in the background. The painting above the doors on the opposite side one can see Mary Magdalena as an anchorite in a cave, with the symbols of the life of an anchorite to her left: a skull and a cross(14).
The south wall of the church features the Coronation of the Virgin Mary. The top of the painting is arched; compositionally, it can be divided into two zones. In the upper zone are the Holy Father and the Son, seated on clouds; between them kneels Mary, facing left towards Christ, Who is holding a crown above her head. The Holy Spirit features at the top of the arch in the shape of a dove with outspread wings. In the lower zone a peasant man and woman kneel on the ground with a child, dressed in folk costume, so called ‘ala turka’ costume. St Francis of Assisi stands to the left of the peasants, and St. Dominic to the right. In the background is a view of Sarajevo from Vratnik.
The north wall features the Ascension of the Saviour. The top of the painting is arched; compositionally, it can be divided into two zones. The upper zone features Christ floating on a cloud in front of an open grave, gazing upwards towards the heavens. He is giving a blessing with His right hand and holding a white flag with a large red cross in His left. In the lower zone is an angel seated on a rock by the grave, with a sword in his hand. Opposite him are two Roman soldiers running away in fear.
The upper walls of the main nave of the church feature the figures of the Church Fathers in eight circles. These paintings are in oils on canvas, in chiaroscuro technique. Their diameter is approx. 130 cm. They are the work of Ludowig Seitz.
The south side, from west to east, features the following Holy Fathers of the Western Church:
- St. Gregory
- St. Ambrosius
- St. Augustine
- St. Jerome
The west side, from west to east, features the following Holy Fathers of the Eastern Church:
- St. Basil
- St. Gregory of Nyssa
- St. Athanasius
- St. John Chrysostom (Basler, 1989, 41)
These paintings are in fact the most valuable paintings of the items belonging to Sa-rajevo Cathedral. Their donors were Dr. Juraj Posilović, Bishop of Senj; Knight Wilhelm Sauerwald, a senior official of the Provincial Government; Alexander Poninski, a Polish prin-ce; Salom Salom, a citizen of Sarajevo; Pius Baron Lazarini, County Prefect; and Pajo Miler, Abbot of Mitrovica.
The painting of the walls with ornamental designs was executed by a native of Split, Josip Voltolini(15)(1838-1892), and his assistant Ivan Betizz, also from Split. Voltoneli’s deco-ration of the Cathedral was carried out in line with Strossmayer’s suggestions, and was in-spired by the Church of San Francisco in Assisi, as well as the Cathedral of Siena. The paint-ing of the altar was executed by painting the vault blue, spangled with small gold stars. The ribs were decorated with a border of leaves and flowers with small gold areas among them. The arches around the windows and pilasters of the central nave are painted in two colours – dark red and yellow. The free spaces by the windows were decorated with leaves in the up-per zone, and in the lower with alternating rows of yellow and red. The areas below the win-dows were painted with ‘drapes,’ designs in imitation of patterned fabrics hanging from cur-tain-rings. The vaults of the main nave and aisles were painted blue, and framed by borders. The capitals of the pillars have rows of gold acanthus leaves(16).
This decoration was replaced in 1932, the work of Kammerer, who decorated the walls above the arches with the figures of stylized angels with outspread wings, below which there was a band with a text from the Scriptures. The area of the wall by the arches was decorated with symbols on a yellow ground. The painting of the main nave was richly inter-woven with gold. The sub-arches in the aisles were painted in blue-green-yellow tone. The mouldings are emphasized in colour and gold. The vaults of the aisles were painted in the same colours as the main nave. The walls were painted light yellow-green, paler in the upper reaches to emphasize the windows, the recesses of which were framed in a band of yellow. The capitals of the main pillars were richly painted and gilded. The pilasters on which the ribs of the arch rest were divided horizontally into blue, green and gold with green tendrils on a yellow ground (Basler, 1989, 51-53).
However, during the restoration of the Cathedral between 1987 and 1988, all the paintings except Lodovich’s oils on canvas were replaced by copies(17)by Ante Martinović, in oil on canvas(18). Kammer’s decoration of the Cathedral was removed, the ceiling of the church was painted bright blue, and the walls, as well as the pillars, white. The old decoration remained on the capitals, while the arches and pilasters were painted beige.
Other items (wood carvings, clock, bells, organ)
The wood carvings in the church are by Ivan Novotny, from Vancaš’s designs.
The wrought iron railing between the nave and the sanctuary was also from Vancaš's design, as a gift from the Viennese court locksmith Anton Biro. Before being installed in Sarajevo Cathedral the railing was displayed in the Jubilee Crafts Exhibition in Vienna. Biro also made the railing for the pulpit stairs, as well as the door furniture of the main and sacristy doors.
Gilt bronze items – candlesticks, altar lamps and wall consoles for candles – were made by Hanusch & Dziedzinski company in Vienna, from Vancaš's designs.
The clock on the towers was supplied by Josef Manhardt of Munich.
Vancaš made a gallery between the towers for the choir and organ gallery. The organ case was also made to a design by Vancaš's in the cabinet-maker's workshop of Mihalj Preg-rad in Sarajevo, and the relief carving was by Ivan Novotny. The organ pipes and windchest were made in the workshop of M. Heferer's Widow and Son in Zagreb. The organ was exhibited in 1886 in Budapest, where it won an award. Funds for the purchase of the organ were collected by the wife of the Provincial Governor, Ivan Baron Appel. The organ was ma-de in 19th century style in line with economic circumstances in Sarajevo. The phonic disposi-tion corresponds to the classic type common in the southern regions of Central Europe. The focus of the sound is on the first manual and pedal, whereas the second manual is intended as accompaniment and is insufficient for individual polyphonous play. The organ thus has two manuals with 22 registers, 8 collective pedals, and a machine for crescendo and diminu-endo. The large bellows are housed in special premises in the west tower. During the resto-ration of the organ, this part was completely replaced (Basler, 1989, 59).
The cathedral towers have six bells, a gift from the faithful of Slovenia. Funds for their purchase were collected by Ljubljana's Prince Bishop Pogačar, but as he died before com-pleting the task, it was taken over by Bishop Jakob Missia. The bells were cast in the Samasse workshop in Ljubljana. They have the following characteristics:
B – Bell of the Sacred Heart of Jesus – 2.578 kg
G – Bell of St. Peter and Paul – 574 kg
D – Bell of the Blessed Virgin Mary – 1.225 kg
A – Bell of St. Cyril and Methodius – 397 kg
F – Bell of St. Joseph – 850 kg
B – Bell of St. James – 3185 kg
The bells were brought to Sarajevo and consecrated outside the Cathedral on 230 June 1887, after which they were mounted in the towers – the large one in the west tower, and the others in the east. Their sounds create a harmony of B-major, G-minor, and D-minor. However, these bells were destroyed in World War I, so in the 1920s new ones were cast in the same workshop, with same weight. On this occasion, Pope Pius XI donated the large bell.
Soon afterwards, on 6 August, the first cross was mounted on the west tower. It was made of wrought iron, from a design by Josip Vancaš, in the blacksmith’s workshop of Sara-jevo artisan A. Liese. The orb below the cross was made of sheet copper in the workshop of W. Jean. The crosses were gilded in Vienna by F. Wodwaska, and the orbs by Avdija Hajdi-nović from Sarajevo. Somewhat later a cross was mounted on the east tower as well (Basler, 1989, 59).
A sculpture of the Heart of Jesus was mounted above the church entrance portal, a gift from entrepreneur Schwarz. The sculpture was made in Vienna, of margarita stone, by the Viennese sculptor A. Hausmann.
Below this sculpture, in the tympanum, is a relief of the Holy Trinity. The relief was made to a design by A.M. Seitz, modelled by Dragan Morale, a sculptor of Zagreb Cathedral, and carved in stone by Ivan Novotny.
The baptistery is on the ground floor of the south-east tower, and the stairs leading to the entrance to gallery and bells are in the north-east tower. The the following chronogram in stone is incised in the arch above these doors:
ZA PAPE LEONA XIII, ZA CARA I KRALJA FRANJE JOSIPA I., ZA MINISTRA BENJ. PL. KALLAYA, ZA POGLAVICE ZEMLJE IV. BARUNA APPELA, ZA NADBISKUPA Dra STADLERA, BJE OVA CRKVA SAGRAĐENA PO ARHITEKTU JOS. PL. VANCAŠUU, DNE 14. RUJNA 1889. POSVEĆENA.b (Basler, 1989, 47)
(during the time of Pope Leo XIII, King-Emperor Franz Joseph I, Minister Benj. Pl. Kállay, the Provincial Governor Ivan Baron Appel, Archbishop Dr Stadler, this Church was built to a design by architect Jos. Pl. Vancaš, and consecrated on 14 September 1889 (Basler, 1989, 47).
The baptistery contains an aedicule and baptismal font of white marble. These were probably made to designs by Vancaš. The tall Gothic gable of the aedicule is supported by two small pillars of red marble, and topped by a sculpture of St. John the Baptist.
The sacristy contains a smaller decorated portal, with rich mouldings. The tympanum contains a relief Pietà with two angels. The designs were by A.M. Seitz, the modelling by Morak, and the sculpture by Novotny.
3. Legal status to date
By Ruling of the City Institute for the Protection and Preservation of Cultural Monu-ments, no. AB-824/75 dated 30 December 1975, the architectural-urban area of Fra Grgo Martić Square and the buildings surrounding it, including the Cathedral, were designated as cultural monuments and entered in the Register of immovable cultural monuments of the City Institute.
Under the heading of the Cathedral, serial no. 504, the property is on the Provisional List of the Commission for Preservation of National Monuments of BiH.
4. Conservation and restoration works
The Cathedral was restored during preparations for the celebration of the 50th anni-versary of the restoration of the secular church in BiH (1932). The roof tiles were removed, and grey asbestos tiles were laid instead. The outside walls were cleaned by a gentle re-dressing of the stone surface, and the inside walls were repainted and the frescoes cleaned in part. It may be deduced from the Report issued at that time Voltolini’s murals had became badly tarnished over the previous 50 years. This is rather strange, bearing in mind that the wall paintings in 1888/89 were executed by the same man who successfully painted the Cathedral in Đakovo.
The durability of the paint was (and remains) much affected by the materials used for the walls, hard stone plastered with a simple plaster compound. The Cathedral in Đakovo was made of bricks bonded in lime, which is of considerable importance for the preservation of wall paintings. Walls of that kind can “breathe”, which cannot be said for the Sarajevo Ca-thedral and similar stone buildings. Condensation on the cold stone walls of an unheated space, which was perhaps insufficiently aired, led to oxidation of the paints, with the colours becoming completely tarnished in 50 years. In the reports on the works of Voltolini and Betizza in Sarajevo Cathedral there is reference to “al fresco” work, but during the restoration in 1987 no such places were found except, of course, Seitz-Rohden paintings.
Between 1985 and 1989, further conservation and restoration works were carried out. It was important that the integrity of the building not be damaged during these works, so that the authenticity of Vancaš‘s work could be preserved. The Cathedral was his first work, a further reason for extreeme caution during restoration.
The roof was restored in 1985, with the asbestos tiles replaced by sheet copper. Tiles of the same kind could no longer be obtained, hence the copper sheets, which is more solid technologically, although less convenient for the maintenance of the timber structure, which needs ventilation; as a result, openings to allow for air circulation were made in the roof. Before the sheet metal was laid, a general replacement of the rotten sections of the wooden beams and boards was required. The crosses on towers were cleaned and painted gold, but parts that had fallen off in the meantime were not replaced. Plasticized aluminum grids were installed instead of the wooden blinds on the roof windows. The small metal tower, the “sanctus,” previously made of galvanized iron, was replaced by a copper one. Similarly, all the or-naments on the roof were renewed exactly according to the old model. The work was done by the Craft Association from Kreševo. The reconstruction of the floor and installation of cen-tral heating was carried out in 1986.
On that occasion the floor tiles were removed in order to level the floor, which had subsided in places by as much as 20 cm. In the right aisle a new bishop's tomb was dug and covered with a slab of red granite.
A 5cm layer of sand was specially compresssed by vibrator, and PVC foil was laid over it; reinforcement was laid with a 10cm-thick layer of concrete. Hydroinsulation with bitu-men and two welded 4cm-thick isoflex strips were laid over this. Special PVC foil, a reinfor-cement grid, and plastic heating pipes were laid over the hydroinsulation, and the whole co-vered by a 4-5cm-thick layer of concrete. The ceramic tiles were then relaid, according to Vancaš's design. The sanctuary, sacristy, and treasury were paved with the same stone slabs as those used for the stairs for access from the nave. A special room was made in the sacristy to serve as the central heating sub-station, and there are two boilers of over 100 kW of power on the first floor.
A damp course was installed in the walls by making holes at 15 cm above floor level, and filling them with a special fluid to prevent rising (capillary) damp. The lower part of walls was faced with stone slabs, 40 cm high. The electric wiring was replaced in 1987, as was the lighting system. The Cathedral Administration did not choose the type of chandeliers, so purely technical lighting was installed, with no regard for the historical style of the building. The light fittings are mass-produced halogen reflectors with a power of 250, 400, and 1,000 W, installed some on the ceiling, and a few of them on cables about 3 metres lower than the ceiling.
Once the electrical works were complete, the walls were painted in facade paint in bright, mainly warm colours. This was perhaps a technological advance, and further positive steps were taken by installing central heating and powerful ventilators in the central nave. Instead of murals, paintings (copies of frescoes) were mounted on the walls, thus enabling air to flow freely between them and the wall. The stained glass was thoroughly restored in 1988, the work being entrusted to the Staklo workshop from Zagreb. Their total area is 110 square metres. Extra windows made of shatterproof glass in aluminium frames were moun-ted on the outside. This meant not only that the original stained glass was protected, but that significant thermal isolation was achieved, which makes a major contribution to improved space heating.
In that same year (1988), a thorough restoration of the facade was carried out. The exterior surface of the walls was cleaned to remove smog deposits, restoring to the surface ets old warm ochre colour. Damaged joints were re-pointed. The parts of the architecture composed of sandstone were chiselled to give a rusticated appearance, and damaged areas filled with mortar matching the colour of the natural stone. A stone cross, much simpler than the previous one, was mounted at the top of the gable.
The stone channels that had collected water from the gable and towers were repla-ced by metal guttering. After cleaning, all the wall surfaces were given two protective coats of Cromosil. The organ was restored in 1988 and 1989, retaining the original phonic conditi-on – the old windchest, case and pipes. The interior of the instrument was modernized by reconstructing the wind system of the large bellows in the west tower, where a smaller bellows was installed with an electric-powered regulator, and a new, special, almost silent electric blower with a device for connecting and automatically filling the regulator, a protecti-ve silencer case for the blower, and a motor, were installed to replace the existing ventilator. The windchest and 51 tin pipes of the prospectus were dismantled, and the entire system thoroughly restored in the workshop of the successors to the Heferers, Ivan Faulend. Some of the pipes had been damaged over the years, their tops squashed and walls dented. Everything was restored to its original condition.
5. Current condition of the property
An inspection of the condition of the building in January 2005 revealed that it was in good condition, kept regularly maintained, and in use.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item as national monument (BiH Official Gazette, No. 33/02, and 15/03) the Commission has enacted the decision cited above.
The decision is based on the following Criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. i. quality of workmanship
C.ii. quality of materials
C. v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D.i. material evidence of a lesser known historical era
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D.iii. work of a major artist or builder
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
D. v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period
E. Symbolic value
E.i. ontological value
E.ii. religious value
E.iii. traditional value
E.iv. relation to rituals or ceremonies
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.i. Relation to other elements of the site
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
G.i. form and design
G.ii. material and content
G.iii. use and function
G.iv. traditions and techniques
G.v. location and setting
G.vi. spirit and feeling
G.vii. other internal and external factors
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
H.ii. outstanding work of art or architecture
H.iii. work of a prominent artist, architect or craftsman
I.i. physical coherence
I.iv. undamaged condition
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan;
- Proof of title;
During the procedure to designate the Cathedral (Cathedral Church of the Heart of the Jesus) in Sarajevo as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1966 Dejan Medaković, Nazarenci. Enciklopedija likovnih umjetnosti 3 (The Nazarenes, Encyclopedia of Art 3). Zagreb MCMLXIV, 536.
1967 Slavko Batušić. Seitz Alexander Maximilian. Enciklopedija likovnih umjet-nosti 4. (Encyclopedia of Art 4). Zagreb MCMLXVI, 192.
1968 Slavko Batušić. Seitz Ludvig (Ludovico). Enciklopedija likovnih umjetnosti 4. (Encyclopedia of Art 4) Zagreb MCMLXVI, 192.
1989 Đuro Basler. Katedrala u Sarajevu (Cathedral in Sarajevo). Nadbiskupski Ordinarijat Vrhbosanski (Archbishop Vrhbosnian Ordinariat), Sarajevo 1989.
1989 Božić, Jela: Arhitekt Josip pl. Vancaš, Značaj i doprinos arhitekturi Sarajeva u periodu austrougarske uprave (doktorska disertacija), Univerzitet u Sara-jevu, Arhitektonski fakultet u Sarajevu, Sarajevo (Architect Josip Vancaš, significance and contribution to the architecture of Sarajevo in the period of Austro-Hungarian rule (doctoral dissertation), University of Sarajevo, Fac-ulty of Architecture in Sarajevo)
1997 Snježana Mutapčić. Pola milenija zidnog slikarstva Sarajeva.(Half a millen-nium of wall painting in Sarajevo) Prilozi historiji Sarajeva. Sarajevo 1997. 457-467 (Contributions to the his-tory of Sarajevo)
1999 Snježana Mutapčić, Sarajevske crkve kroz povijest umjetnosti. Hrvatska misao 11-12. Matica Hrvatska, Sarajevo, 1999. 135-151. (Sarajevo churches through art history. Croatiian Thought 11-12, Matica Hrvatska)
(1) The site in question was a small Muslim cemetery, and the Austrian Army Casino was built there in 1881. The Army Club (Dom armije) now stands on the site.
(2) Vancaš came to Sarajevo as a young but very well trained and naturally talented architect. His teacher, Frie-drich von Schmidt (1825-1891), brought the skill of neo, pseudo Gothic to an enviable level, and Vancaš is said to have been one of his finest pupils. After graduating from Technical High School in Vienna in 1881, Vancaš worked for a while for Heinrich Ferstel, the famous architect of the Votive church in Ring, as a draughtsman producing plans for major buildings in the neo, pseudo Gothic style. At about the same time he worked in the studio of the entrepreneurs Fellner and Helmer as a draughtsman on the designs for some theatres, including the Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb. It was in this studio that Vancaš turned to the neo Renaissance style, which would be particularly valuable to him later in Sarajevo, but his heart remained with mediaeval architecture, at least during his time in Vienna, when he perfected his studies in Schmidt’s and Ferstel’s schools. In October 1882, awaiting permanent employment, Vancaš enrolled in the Architectural Department of the Academy of Fine Arts, where he dedicated himself to studying the Gothic style under Friedrich Schmidt.
(3) Vancaš seemed to the old professor to be the best candidate: not only a good student, but also someone who was originally from the southern part of the Monarchy, close to Sarajevo. This was how, with Schmidt’s recom-mendation, he found himself one day in the Cabinet of the Common Minister of Finance and the Minister for Bosnia and Herzegovina, who accepted him and told him to set off immediately for Sarajevo, so he could per-sonally find out about a site for the building and its size and appearance. He was also tasked with gathering in-formation on the construction program for the Palace of the Provincial Government at Musalla, which was also soon to be build.
(4) Born in Slavonski Brod on 24 January 1843. Educated in his native town, and then in the Archbishop’s or-phanage in Požega and in Zagreb, where he graduated from grammar school, and in Rome, where he became the first doctor of philosophy, and then of theology, at the Papal Gregorian University. He was ordained as a priest in 1868 in Rome, after which he returned to Zagreb, where he became a grammar school teacher in Sjemeništo, and later a university professor at the Catholic Theological Faculty. In 1881 Pope Leo XIII appointed him as first Archbishop of Vrhbosnia of the restored bishopric in Sarajevo. He built the Cathedral of Vrhbosnia, the seminary with the church of SS Cyril and Methodius, the Capitolium and the Archbishop’s Court in Sarajevo. He also built a seminary and grammar school in Travnik. He founded the Sosicety of the Sisters Servants of the Infant Jesus. He was prominent for his charitable work, as part of which he founded the Betlehem and Egipat orphanages in Sarajevo for children and almshouses for elderly women. He died in Sarajevo at the age of 75, and is buried in the cathedral in Sarajevo.
(5) Prior to the present-day Sarajevo Cathedral, there was another in the city, its distant predecessor: the Cathedral of St. Peter, founded in 1238. Little is known of its appearance, although there are relatively numerous and reli-able documents concerning it. It is known only that it stood “in Vrhbosna parish, at Brdo”, as written in a Char-ter of King Bela IV, dating from 1244. The capital of the parish was the settlement of Vrhbosna, on a place known in the 16th century as “Atik Varoš” (Old Town), the area between present-day Marindvor and Koševo brook. Brdo locality (referred to as “Burdo” in the charter) could be associated with present-day Debelo Brdo, but it is still not clear which part of Sarajevo bore that name in the mediaeval period. In the broader area of Sarajevsko Polje [plain], which is identical with mediaeval Vrhbosna, there are several places called Crkvina, or Crkvište, which was typical of places where old church buildings stood.
(6) The Head of State, Ivan Baron Appel, was first to strike the ground three times with a gold-plated shovel, fol-lowed by the Archbishop, who did the same, and then the others present.
(7) The oldest continental type of tile is in fact the plain or biber tile, the name of which derives from the German word meaning “beaver,” from the similarity in appearance of these tiles to the rounded tip of a beaver’s tail. It was also always the most expensive tile, being flat with no groove, so it requires the largest number per square metre. In addition, it is a heavy tile requiring a more robust wooden substructure.
(8) The cathedral was built in an eclectic style in which Gothic elements dominated (revived early Gothic style), and Vancaš was influenced by the church of Notre Dame in Dijon as regards the plain appearance of the façade walls of the Cathedral and the layout of the parterre or ground floor, while the towers are reminiscent of those of the Tynska church in Prague.
(9) German artist (Munich, 1811 – Rome 15 April 1888). He studied in Munich with P. Cornelius and H.M. Hess. From 1833 on he lived in Rome. There he joined the German group of artists known as Nazarenes. According to charts of F. Overbeck, he painted the frescos in Villa Torlinia in Castel Gandolfo, from cartoons by F. Overbeck. In Rome he created altar paintings for the Church of Trinita dei Monti. When J.J. Strossmayer came to Rome in search of painters who could paint frescos in Đakovac Cathedral, he met A. Aetz. On receipt of the commission, he drew cartoons, from which he painted thirteen frescoes in Đakovo between 1873 and 1875 (Batušić, 1966, 192)
(10) He used the cartoons for the murals he had previously painted for the Đakovo Cathedral.
(11) Nazarenes – a religious art brotherhood that was established in 1809 under the name Lukasbund by the paint-ers Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr and others. In the beginning the name Nazarenes was used derisively. Around 1910 they came to Rome where other German painters gathered around them in the monastery of St. Isidor, among them Peter Cornelius, Joseph Anton Koch, Carl Phillip Fohr, Julius Schorr, Joseph Furhich, and Phillip Veit. The Nazarenes «aspiration was to restore the art back to the “true path” and to revive it in the reli-gious spirit. Their role models were works by Raphael, early Renaissance artists and A. Durer. They took it uponn themselves to revive the technique of frescoes and the creation of grand monumental compositional pieces. Initially they were concentrated on the linear values of drawings, and their colour palette was pale and unexpressive. They are now regarded as predecessors of Romantism, especially German Romantism.» (Medaković, 1964, 536)
(12) Seitz Ludowig, German painter (Rome, 2 April 1984 – Albano, 2 September 1908), son and student of Alex-ander Maximilian. Worked under influence of F. Overbeck and P. Cornelius. At a later stage was more to model himself on A. Dürer. In 1887 he became supervisor, and in 1864 manager of the Pope’s art collection in the Vatican. He came to Đakovo with his father, and from 1873 painted 20 frescoes in Đakovo Cathedral. He pain-ted the figures of the Church Fathers for the church of Jesus in Sarajevo (Batušić, 1966, 192)
(13) The use of the play of light and shadow
(14) The paintings in chiaroscuro technique are based on cartoons by Friedrich Overbeck (Basler, 1989, 39)
(15) Voltolini attended schools of decorative arts in Venice and Vienna. He then painted wall decorations in many buildings around Italy and Dalmatia, the theatre in Split among them. In Vienna he acquired a reputation by pa-inting the Rotunda in Prater in 1873. There he was noticed by Strossmayer, who brought him to Đakovo the following year, where he worked until 1882 (Basler, 1989, 43-44)
(16) This motif still survives, having been painted in oils
(17) It was noted that Krammerer “cleaned and restored” Rohden’s frescoes, but nothing precise was said about it (Basler, 1998, 51)
(18) Martinović recorded on paper all six paintings in natural size, and reproduced them on the basis of old photos and taking colour samples based on the paint surviving on walls in the Sarajevo Cathedral, as well as in the ca-thedral in Đakovo. (Basler, 1989, 41)