Status of monument -> National monument
Published in the “Official Gazette of BiH”,
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39
para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National
Monuments, at a session held from 4 to 10 May 2004, the Commission adopted a
C I S I O N
historic site of the Hutovo fort (Hadžibegov grad – the Hajji bey fort) in
Hutovo is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia
and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on a site
designated as cadastral plot no. 448, 449 and 450 (old survey), Land Register
entry no. 237, title deed no. 13/07, cadastral municipality Hutovo, Neum
Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection
measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the
Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of
the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official
Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia
and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be
responsible for providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and
financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and presentation
of the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation shall be
responsible for providing the resources needed to draw up and implement the
necessary technical documentation for the conservation and presentation of the
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments
(hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and
secure the funds for preparing and erecting signboards with basic details of
the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the
National Monument, the following protection
measures are hereby stipulated:
zone 1 shall apply to the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of
this Decision. In this area the following protection measures shall apply:
works are prohibited other than archaeological excavations, research and
conservation and restoration works, and works designed for the presentation of
the monument, subject to the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for
regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection
authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
all works that could
have the effect of altering the site are prohibited, as is the erection of
temporary facilities or permanent structures the purpose of which is not solely
the protection and presentation of the National Monument,
the removal of stone
and the further devastation of the site are prohibited,
dumping of waste is forbidden.
The following works shall be carried out to
ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument:
the ramparts of the fort, the walls of the towers and other areas of self-sown
vegetation that pose a threat to the structure of the monument,
structural repairs to
the towers and ramparts where cracks are appearing and threatening to cause
repair, conservation and restoration works, original materials and binders
shall be used wherever possible,
missing sections of
dressed stone must be replaced with the same material as the original,
the finish of the
repaired walls must correspond to that of the rest of the walls,
the final course or
crown of the wall must be of natural materials (stone capping or a layer of
larger cracks must be
filled with a compound of small pieces of stone and hydraulic lime mortar,
investigations shall be carried out on the area not yet examined, and any
remains found shall be conserved,
programme for the presentation of the National Monument shall be drawn up and
Protection zone 1 shall apply to the area consisting of c.p. nos. 1042, 1043
and 1044 (new survey). In this area the following protection measures shall
may be erected subject to a maximum height of 6.50 m. to the base of the roof
structure, i.e. ground floor and one upper floor, and a maximum footprint of 10
x 12 metres,
works and the construction of power-supply facilities the construction or
operation of which could result in damage to the National Monument are
dumping of waste of all kinds is prohibited.
The National Monument is an unexcavated
archaeological site. All movable artefacts found during archaeological
investigations shall be housed in the nearest museum or in the National Museum
of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, processed and suitably presented.
The removal of the movable artefacts referred
to in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision or of the artefacts referred to in the
previous paragraph (hereinafter: the movable heritage) from Bosnia and
Herzegovina is prohibited.
By way of exception to the provisions of
paragraph 1 of this Clause, the temporary removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina
of the movable heritage for the purposes of display or conservation shall be
permitted if it is established that conservation works cannot be carried out in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Permission for temporary removal under the
conditions stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be issued by the
Commission to Preserve National Monuments, if it is determined beyond doubt
that it will not jeopardize the movable heritage in any way.
In granting permission for the temporary
removal of the movable heritage, the Commission shall stipulate all the
conditions under which the removal from Bosnia and Herzegovina may take place,
the date by which the items shall be returned to the country, and the
responsibility of individual authorities and institutions for ensuring that
these conditions are met, and shall notify the Government of the Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina, the relevant security service, the customs authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the general
All executive and area development planning
acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent
authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban
and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the
National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal
Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection
authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land
registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the
measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized
Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land
The elucidation and accompanying
documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by
interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of
the Commission are final.
On the date of adoption of this Decision, the
National Monument shall be deleted from the Provisional List of National
Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02,
Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 79/02, Official Gazette of the
Federation of BiH no. 59/02, and Official Gazette of Brčko District BiH no.
4/03), where it featured under serial no. 433.
This Decision shall enter into force on the
day following its publication in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This decision has been adopted by the
following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović,
Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
of the Commission
u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law
on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National
Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement
for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public
property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a
National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General
Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on
the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official
Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the
Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time
limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has
been submitted or not.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments
issued a Decision to add the Hutovski
grad in Hutovo, Neum Municipality, to the Provisional List of National
Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02), under
serial no. 433.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the
Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision
to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4
of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to
Preserve National Monuments.
II – PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE
During the procedure preceding the adoption
of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following
documentation was inspected:
on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral
plan and copy of land register entry)
of legal protection of the property to date
on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and
photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the
architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the
bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above
documentation and the condition of the property are as follows:
1. Details of the property
Hutovo is located near the north-western end
of Popovo polje, known as Donje polje, where the Trebišnjica river disappears
underground. It is linked by road to Stolac and Neum on the Adriatic coast. The
Hutovo fort stands above the village to the south-west, on the Prešjeci pass
(altitude 472 m) through which the Neum-Stolac road runs, to the east of the
fort. It is surrounded by low rocky hills at the north-western foot of Gradine
hill (altitude 593 m), where there is a smallish and relatively level area of
ground suitable for a fortress.
Little is known about Hutovo village in the
past. It is known to have been inhabited since prehistoric times (Marijanović, 1988, 326): a prehistoric
settlement was discovered by the old fort in Hutovo in 1990. There are no
remains dating from Antiquity in Hutovo itself, but there are in Hutovo Blato (Pašalić, 1960, 64) and in Gradac, a few
kilometres to the west of Hutovo.
Hutovo (village) may be identified “with
considerably certainty” as one of three mediaeval feudal holdings in the župa (county) of Žaba, according to P.
Anđelić (P. Anđelić, 1999, 56).
Archaeological sites in Hutovo indicate that it was a local religious centre –
the ruins of an old church at Crkvina, and a necropolis of stećak tombstones in
Hutovo itself and its immediate environs, evidence of life here in mediaeval
times (Bešlagić, 1966, 55-59; P. Anđelić,
1999, 60). There is a small necropolis with seven stećci (pl. of stećak) on
a prehistoric tumulus in Karusovica, between Donje and Gornje Hutovo. Crkvina,
with a necropolis of 101 stećci, is about 400 to the north-east of this site (Bešlagić, 1966, 56). In the hamlet of
Lisće, half an hour’s walk to the south-west of Hutovo fort is another
mediaeval necropolis with 48 stećci (Bešlagić, 1966, 56). The customs post of
the Nikolić overlords was located in Zlablatko near Hutovo, known from the
Radovac Vukanović inscription carved into the living rock in the Novković
The earliest written record of Hutovo dates
from 28 June 1525, when Fr Sikst of Slano passed by on his way to Zavala (Vego, 1957, 48).
With the fall of Počitelj and Čapljina in the
latter half of the 15th century, the region came under Ottoman rule. More is
known about the region at the end of the 17th century, during the Vienna war of
1683-1699. The Venetians and Ottomans waged war in the lower Neretva region,
during which the Venetians managed to break through via Zažablje, where Hutovo,
Popovo and Trebinje are located, all the way to Novi, encircling the Dubrovnik
Republic with the lands they held. Under
the terms of the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz ending the way, however, in
recognition of Dubrovnik’s insistence on being surrounded by Ottoman territory,
the Venetians were compelled to yield everything they had conquered in Popovo,
Trebinje and part of Zažablje to the Ottomans. As a result, Hutovo came under
Ottoman rule once again. By 1715 the Ottomans had already declared war on
Venice again, and once again the Venetians managed to break through to their
own territory in the Boka Kotorska bay and approach Dubrovnik from the rear.
The letter of commendation of 16 April 1717, issued by the Venetians to Vulo
Nonković, who had become a brigadier in the Venetian army sometime before 1714,
describes his services to Venice, including the conquest of a tower in Hutovo
and extending Venetian control to Zažablje, Popovo, Ljubinje, Trebinje and
Stolac. This war was ended by the 1817 Treaty of Passarowitz when once again,
at the insistence of Dubrovnik, these lands were restored to Ottoman rule (Jerković, 1939, 19-21, et al).
The Hutovo fort is also known in reference
works as the Hajji bey fort in Hutovo, and is closely linked with the figure of
Mehmed bey Rizvanbegović, who became the first and only captain of the Hutovo
captaincy from 1802 to 1832. This was the last captaincy to be established in
Bosnia and Herzegovina, covering Hutovo and the surrounding villages, and was
founded as a result of the Rizvanbegović family’s quarrels over the Vidoška
As noted above, the substantial round tower
or keep, later surrounded by ramparts, is known to have been in existence in
1714 as a derebend tower in the
Stolac captaincy, a minor frontier tower with a small garrison of seven or
eight derebendžija soldiers
(guardians of a gorge or pass, from the Turkish derebend, a mountain pass or gorge, who also guarded the road and
collected customs duties), when it was briefly taken by the Venetians (Kreševljaković, 1991, 230). Before
becoming a captaincy in its own right, Hutovo belonged to the Vidoška captaincy
as an agaluk (a small area governed
by an aga). Customs duties on salt imports from Ston in the Dubrovnik Republic
were collected there, and the route from Klek (where there was a harbour held
by the Ottomans) to Stolac was guarded there. The garrison in the tower was
commanded from 1795 to 1802 by Hajji Mehmed bey, first as aga and later as
captain. A proportion of the taxes paid by the Vlachs of Nevesinje was under
his control. In 1802, before Hutovo became a separate captaincy, he converted
the tower into a fort. Two of the eight stone slabs erected in various places
in the fort (nos. 7 and 8) record the dates 1796 and 1806, marking the time
when a small fortified town was created by erecting ramparts around the tower.
It is clear from a bujrutlija (order)
issued by Mustafa pasha, Bosnian vali
(governor of a province), in 1805 that there was a need for masons to repair
the fort (Hasandedić, 1990, 289).
Hajji Mehmed bey Rizvanbegović, known as
Hajji bey or Hadžun, was a son of the captain of Stolac Zulfikar bey
Rizvanbegović. The Rizvanbegović family took over the Vidoška captaincy from
the Šarić family of Stolac in the 18th century. Zulfikar bey Rizvanbegović had
five sons, two (Mustaj bey and Mehmed bey) from his first marriage and three
(Omer bey, Ali aga – later known as Ali pasha Stočević – and Halil aga) from
his second. Mehmed bey, who was born in 1768, went to Syria as a young man,
spending several years there in the retinue of vizier Jezzar Ahmed Pasha, vali
of Syria, who was born in Fatnica. Tradition records that Ahmed Pasha became
aware that Mehmed bey could pose a threat to his authority, and therefore
discharged him from his service in or around 1794/95. Hajji Mehmed bey spent
three years in Istanbul, returning to Stolac in or around 1797/98, and bowing
to his father’s authority. In 1802, Zulfikar bey declined the captaincy in
favour of his two older sons from his first marriage, Mustaj bey and Hajji bey.
To avoid any disagreement between his sons, he divided the Vidoška captaincy
into two unequal halves: Mustaj bey succeeded his father as Vidoška captain and
Hajji Mehmed bey received the smaller captaincy in Hutovo, which was thus
established in the early 19th century. He remained its one and only captain
until he was killed in 1832.
In 1806 the French entered Dubrovnik “to defend
it from the combined Montenegrin-Russian army.” Hajji bey forged ties with
them, and he and the French are known to have provided each other with support
on various occasions in 1807 and 1808. When skirmishes broke out between the
combined Montenegrin-Russian troops from Boka and the French troops, Hajji bey
supported the French. In 1807 the Montenegrin-Russian army waged war against
the Ottoman authorities in Herzegovina, laying siege to Nikšić, Gacko and Korjenić
and making for Trebinje. Hajji bey set off with 800 men to defend Klobuk. While
the Herzegovina army was engaged in military operations around Trebinje, the
French joined forces with the Ottomans, and were kept informed by Hajji bey of
the moves by the Herzegovina army.
Shortly afterwards, on their return to
Hutovo, the two older brothers, both captains – Mustaj bey of Vidoški and Hajji
Mehmed bey of Hutovo – fell out with the leading figures of Stolac, who had
already set the two older brothers against their three younger Rizvanbegović
siblings, Omer bey, Ali bey and Halil bey. The rebels surrounded the Stolac
fort, with Mustaj bey in it, and the Hutovo fort with Hajji bey in it. The siege of Hutovo lasted for a year. French
troops again came to Hajji Mehmed bey’s assistance on three occasions in 1808
and 1809 (Kreševljaković, 1991, 234-235).
During the second Serbian insurrection of
1813, Hajji Mehmed bey and some of his men fought in Serbia. This was followed
by a clash between Hajji Mehmed bey and Smail bey, captain of Počitelj, over 42
villages that Smail bey had seized and annexed to his captaincy, despite
several warnings from the supreme authorities. The Počitelj captain’s troops
launched several attacks against Hutovo, twice breaching the walls and laying
waste the town and its people. These conflicts died down in 1818 and were
followed by a period of relative calm for Hajji bey and his captaincy. Ali aga
(later Ali Pasha Rizvanbegović-Stočević) became captain of Vidoški in 1813. The
brothers were on bad terms, but the final showdown did not occur until 1831,
during the uprising of Husein captain Gradašćević, when they found themselves
on opposing sides, Hajji Mehmed bey with the rebels and Ali Pasha on the side
of the central authorities. H. Kreševljaković describes how Hajji Mehmed bey
met his end: “One night, as Gradaščević’s men became more exhausted, Ali aga
laid siege to the Mahmutćehajić family house in Uzunovića mahala in Stolac,
where Hajji bey was spending the night.” Though he put up a heroic defence,
Hajji bey was unable to repel the attacks, and was killed. Another version is
that he was killed in the Mahmutćehajić konak by a servant who had been bribed.
He is buried in the large harem in Stolac, his grave marked by a tombstone
bearing 1832 as the year of his death (Kreševljaković,
1991, 236). After his death Hutovo
once again became part of the Vidoška captaincy.
Hajji Mehmed bey, Hajji bey or Hadžun, as he
was usually called, is remembered in oral tradition in particular, often in
contradictory ways (Hörmann, 1890,
170-171; Kreševljaković, 1991, 230- 233; Softić, 1996, 48-49).
When the uprising in Herzegovina began in
1875, the Ottoman army occupied the fort in Hutovo. During one of the attacks
by the insurrectionist led by Don Ivan Musić the fort was torched, and almost
everything made of wood was destroyed. During the 1875-1878 uprising the fort
2. Description of the property
The fort forms an irregular pentagon in plan,
lying east-west, with a length of 70 m and a width of about 50 m to the east
and 30 m to the west. It has nine towers (marked in Roman numerals on
the plan). Tower I, to which there is reference in the second decade of the
18th century, is in the western part of the fort, within the ramparts. This
tower is circular in plan, with a diameter of 5 m, and is still standing to a
height of about 12 m. It had at least three floors. The entrance is at
ground-floor level, to the south. About
half way up on the outside is a row of corbels with loopholes above, and there
are blind arcades with pointed arches below the roof. Seen from the outside,
the walls of the tower appear almost blind, with very few openings, but inside,
the tower is full of small openings serving as loopholes at every level. The
walls also contain numerous small niches and fireplaces. Similar fireplaces can
be seen in the buildings in the eastern part of the fort, and also in the east
walls of the towers of Blagaj fort above the Buna. All these small recesses are
surrounded by thin slabs of stone, while the larger openings are set in more
finely cut stone. Many of the loopholes had stone covers concealing them from
The ramparts around the fort were
carefully planned so that each section, however short, could be covered by
firearms from eight towers of different shape. Seven of these project outwards
in part from the ramparts and two wholly. The towers at the south-east corner
(IX), the south-west corner (IV) and the west corner (V) are substantial round
towers with two floors, with loopholes for both stages on the outside. The
entrance to the dungeon is beside tower V. Three towers are rectangular in
plan: the gate tower (II), the tower at the angle between the north and west
walls, with windows at loophole-height facing south (VI), the tower at the
north-west corner of the fort (VII) and the projecting tower midway along the
west rampart (VIII). Since the south rampart was the most important, it also
had another semi-projecting tower, semicircular on the outside of the ramparts
and straight-sided on the inside (III). The door jambs, like the window jambs
of the few surviving windows of the towers, consisted of a monolithic stone
On the inside, the north, west and south
ramparts were reinforced at the base over their entire length and up to
loophole height. The rectangular loopholes feature only in the upper reaches.
There was a row of seven rooms by the east rampart, with a walkway above them,
except at the north-west corner. Mid way
along the north rampart, a structure was built on with two semicircular niches
in the south wall, two small rectangular windows on the first floor and one on
the ground floor in the east wall, as well as a pair of openings for loopholes.
The main entrance to the fort is in
the south rampart, through a typical gate tower of rectangular plan, with the outer
entrance in the west wall. The round-arched inner entrance is in the south
rampart itself. A second entrance to the fort is located in the north wall,
opposite the main gate tower.
Five small single-storey structures
were later built by the east rampart, and another two of two storeys, either
entered from the bailey or with interconnecting doorways. Inside, these
contained the same niches as the main tower, and probably served as living
quarters for members of the garrison. At the north end of this row of buildings
is a small rectangular structure with four tall, slender towers; the east wall
of this building contains two small pentagonal niches with slits for firearms,
and has an entrance in the west wall. One tower has a recess at first-floor
level, probably a fireplace, suggesting that the walls of the building
surrounded by these towers were as high as the walls of the two buildings at
the northernmost end by the east rampart. It is not known what the purpose of
these towers was. Steps leading up to the walkway and loopholes are located in
the south-east and north-east corners of the fort; there must have been more
such steps, since the walkway is intersected by the towers. All the loopholes
and niches in the fort are framed by thin stone slabs. The entrances to the
fort itself and to the buildings along the east rampart have frames of
finely-cut stone blocks.
The fort contains a well in the north-east
corner and a cistern to the south-west of tower I. There was also a cistern
outside the ramparts, south-west of tower IV. Both cisterns had barrel-vaulted
roofs. Similar cisterns have been found
at Stjepangrad fort in Blagaj on the Buna.
In the early 20th century the moat around the
south and west walls could still be seen.
Stone slabs were erected in various places in
the fort (marked in Arabic numerals on the plan). These slabs, which are 50 cm
to 1 m in height, about 50 cm wide and 25 cm thick, were carved with some of
the names of God.
Inscription no. 1: al-Muqtadir (the Prevailer); no. 2: al-Mu’in (the Helper); no. 3: al-Ahad
(the One); no. 4: al-Fattah (the
Victor(1)); no. 5: al-Hafiz
(the Guardian); no. 6: al-Baqi (the
Enduring); no. 7: Ya Baqi wa l Qadim
(O Enduring and Eternal). This last bears the year 1221 AH (1806). Slab no. 8
bears the words Jumada 1211 (1796).
Slabs no. 1 and 3 were already found lying on the ground in 1890; three were
still extant in 1956. Not one is now
A letter ref. 02-1-403/04 sent by the Mayor
of Neum Municipality relating to the provision of information states that the
surviving slabs had been removed from the site to the Lapidarium of the
Regional Centre in Hutovo.
3. Legal status to date
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and by Ruling
of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Nr BiH no. 101/50
of 25 January 1950 and a later binding Ruling no. 02-670-3 of 23 October 1972,
the site of the Hajji bey fort in Hutovo was placed under state protection.
The property was not valorized in the
Regional Plan for BiH to 2000.
4. Research and
The monuments of Hutovo and the inscribed
slabs in the Hajji bey fort were recorded and catalogued in 1956. Three of the eight slabs
described by Hörmann (1890, 167 and
169) were still extant (Mujezinović,
experts from the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments
and Natural Rarities of Sarajevo carried out essential conservation works on
the endangered architecture of the Hajji bey fort (Naše starine XIII, 35).
5. Current condition of the
The findings of an on site
inspection conducted on 24 March 2004
were as follows:
The ramparts and towers have been
neglected for about 130 years, during which parts have fallen into ruin. The
massive ramparts have survived to a height of several metres for most of their
length. Parts of the walls of the gate tower and of towers III and VII are in a
fairly ruinous state and have been plundered for stone. The crowns have
disappeared from all the ramparts and towers. The inside walls of the five
small structures by the east rampart are quite badly damaged and no longer
survive even to ground-floor height. Four towers appear to have been recently
repaired. In places, vegetation is posing a threat to the structure of the
The immediate surroundings of the fort and
some areas within the ramparts are overgrown with shrubs and covered with a
scattering of fallen stones.
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a
decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official
Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision
The Decision was based on the following
and aesthetic value
value of details
(documentary, scientific and educational value)
evidence of historical change
evidence of a particular type, style
or regional manner
the building or group of buildings is
part of a group or site
location and setting
The following documents form an integral part
of this Decision:
of cadastral plan
During the procedure to designate the
monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works
1899. Vuletić-Vukasović, Vid. “Gavran na Počitelju
i Hadžibeg na Hutovu“ (Gavran in Počitelj and Hajji bey in Hutovo), Bosanska vila XIV, 1899, 89-90, 104-106.
1890. Hörmann, Kosta. “Hadži begova kula u Hutovu”
(the Hajji bey tower in Hutovo), Jnl of
the National Museum II, Sarajevo, 1890, 165 and 175; 268-271.
1914. Čurčić, Vejsil. “Sa Hutova Blata u
Hercegovini” (From Hutovo Blato in Herzegovina), Sarajevski list, 1914, nos. 29,30.
1939. Jerković, R. Gabela, prilog povijesti donje Neretve (Gabela, contribution to the
history of the lower Neretva). Sarajevo: 1939.
1957. Vego, Marko. Naselja srednjevjekovne bosanske države (Settlements of the
mediaeval Bosnian state). Sarajevo: 1957.
1960. Pašalić, Esad. Antička naselja i komunikacije u Bosni i Hercegovini (Antique
settlements and communications in Bosnia and Herzegovina), special edition,
National Museum. Sarajevo: 1960.
1966. Bešlagić, Šefik. Popovo, srednjovjekovni nadgrobni spomenici (Popovo, mediaeval
tombstones), Vol. VIII. Sarajevo: Institute for the Protection of Cultural
Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1966.
1982. Šabanović, Hazim. Bosanski pašaluk, postanak i upravna podjela (Bosnian Pashaluk,
origins and administrative division). Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1982.
1988. Marijanović, Bruno. “Gradac,” Arheološki leksikon Bosne i Hercegovine
(Archaeological Lexicon of BiH), vol. III. Sarajevo: National Museum of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, 1988, vol. III, 325.
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(1) As an attribute of God,
this is also translated as the Opener. Trans.