Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 20 to 26 January 2004 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The historic site of the ramparts and bastions of the old fort of Jajce is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument consists of the historic site comprising the fortifications alongside the architectural ensemble of the Jajce fortress, which was designated as a National Monument by Decision of the Commission no. 06-6-504/03-1 of 21 January 2003 (Official Gazette of BiH no. 15/03).
The National Monument is on a site consisting of the following cadastral plots in cadastral municipality Jajce I, Jajce Municipality, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
a) northern perimeter ramparts as follows:
1. a line from the north-eastern corner of the fort to Mračna gatehouse-Velika tabija (bastion), c.p. 2810/2
2. Mračna gatehouse, c.p. 3239 (now a street)
3. Velika tabija, c.p. 2165/2 (c.p. 542 old survey)
4. the wall from Velika tabija to the tower at Džikovac (c.p. 1231 old survey)
5. the tower at Džikovac
6. the wall between the tower at Džikovac and Papaz tower, c.p. 2065/2 (c.p. 1234 old survey)
7. Papaz tower, also known as the Banja Luka gatehouse (c.p. 1244 old survey)
8. the wall between Papaz gatehouse (Banja Luka gatehouse) and Šamić tabija, c.p. 2165/2 (c.p. 1300 old survey)
9. the Šamić tabija
10. the wall between the Vrbas and the Šamić tabija (c.p. 1308 old survey).
b) western perimeter ramparts as follows:
1. the wall from the fort to Medvjed tower, c.p. 2830
2. the Medvjed tower (c.p. 1002 old survey)
3. the wall south of the Medvjed tower to the Pliva (c.p. 1003 old survey); the perimeter walls to the east and south with the Travnik gatehouse (c.p. 980/2 old survey)
c) parts of the south and east wall with the Travnik gatehouse (c.p. 980/2 old survey)
d) the Clock Tower, c.p. 2795 (933 old survey).
The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the resources for drawing up and implementing the necessary executive regional planning documentation for the historic urban area of Jajce.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
o ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument, the following measures are hereby stipulated:
Protection Zone I consists of the area specified in Article I para. 2 of this Decision, being the site of the fortifications consisting of the north and west perimeter ramparts with bastions and towers, the remains of the ramparts to the east and south of the fort with the Travnik gatehouse and the free-standing Clock Tower.
The following protection measures shall be implemented in this zone:
Ÿ The only works permitted are works of research and conservation and restoration, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning (hereinafter: the regional planning ministry) and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority).
Ÿ the walls shall be cleared of vegetation representing a danger to the structure of the monument
Ÿ damage to the walls resulting from long-term neglect and mechanical damage shall be made good
Protection Zone II consists of a zone 1.50 m wide along the walls and other fortifications.
All construction is prohibited in this zone.
The wider area of the National Monument will be defined by separate Decision of the Commission to designate the historic centre of Jajce as a National Monument.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
Chair of the Commission
20 January 2004
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
On 4 February 2003 a representative of Jajce municipality submitted a proposal/petition to designate the historic site of the bastions and ramparts of the mediaeval fortified town of Jajce as a national monument.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
Ÿ Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry)
Ÿ Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
Ÿ Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The town of Jajce stands on a narrow valley extending along the north-west edge of Hum mountain at an altitude of 162 m. above sea level, at the confluence of the rivers Pliva and Vrbas. The entire complex with the fortress, town ramparts and towers lies on the southern slope of a large rocky pyramid, enclosed to the south-west by the bed of the river Pliva and to the south-east and east by the river Vrbas. The perimeter of the mediaeval town of Jajce is about 1300 m, with an area of 112,000 sq.m.
The central rocky massif with the citadel dominates the town and creates the identical impression from all quarters. The part of the town lying below the citadel appears from the south and south-east to form an integral whole, but with restricted views, while from the east, particularly from the Jajce-Travnik road, the view is completely open. From the north and west the silhouettes of the perimeter ramparts and the dominant citadel are quite distinctive (Jadrić, 1970, p. 8).
Historical details of the site
(from prehistoric times to the end of Ottoman rule in 1878)
In the town of Jajce, there was much building but also much destruction over the centuries. The town here is taken to mean the area within the mediaeval walls, which existed in the mediaeval and the Ottoman periods. There are few documents on the town's past, and no major archaeological excavations have been carried out. Our knowledge of the more distant past of the town thus remains fragmentary. Almost all archaeological finds have been accidental, usually in the course of digging the foundations for a new building, when carrying out conservation works, or as spoil built into later structures. There are few finds from the prehistoric, antique and early mediaeval eras.
The most ancient traces of human habitation on the urban area of Jajce date from the Eneolithic age. Throughout the town, there are Bronze age remains in deep cuttings, and also material traces of the later Iron Age (La Tene) (Bojanovski, 1988, 294; Marijanović, 1988, 179). It is not known whether there was a prehistoric settlement on the site of the Jajce fort, but its hilltop position and the prehistoric pottery washed down at lower levels suggest this as a possibility. The present extent of research is not sufficient to make it clear whether there was continuity of settlement in the transition from prehistory to the antique era. The oldest antique remains date from the third century and later, to the end of the sixth century. Antique bricks were found in Pijavice, opposite the former railway station, and a Mithraic temple below Volukja in the Bare residential area. When the five-storey block north of the Banja Luka gatehouse was being built, two late antique tombs and one vaulted sepulchre were found (4th to 6th century). To this should be added spoil of antique provenance built into the east wall of the fortress and the wall of St Mary's church, and finds on the site of the Post Office (Basler, 1963., 40-43)
The Mithraeum, brickfield and sepulchre were on the edge of a late antique-era settlement in the valley at the confluence of the Pliva and the Vrbas, in the late mediaeval area outside the ramparts, on the plateau between the two town gates. In the antique era the site of present-day Jajce probably had a settlement with a customs post and an observation post for surveillance of the crossing over the Vrbas (Bojanovski, 1988, 296-297). The settlement was inhabited not only by the indigenous population but also by the Romanized descendants of the Pannonian tribe of Maezaei (Mezei) and foreigners, among whom were incomers from the eastern provinces of the Empire, whose community – to judge from the Mithraeum and the length of time it was in use – was a substantial one. The Romanized inhabitants respected cults, as far as is currently known from monuments to Jupiter Dolichenus and Silvanus (Pan). The surroundings of Jajce are rich in antique monuments, mostly discovered accidentally (Škegro, 2000, 14-15).
Sixteen grain pits or granaries were found on the site of the Social Centre. Based on similar finds elsewhere in Bosnia and Herzegovina, these pits were dated to the 4th to 7th century, but the absence of archaeological material means that they cannot be reliably dated. It is known that such grain pits were still in use in the late mediaeval era in the region inhabited by Slav tribes and peoples. On the edge of this site a miniature 14th-15th century stećak tombstone was found (Basler, 1963, 48; Anđelić, 1963, 38-40).
The early mediaeval history of Jajce is poorly known. It was in the early mediaeval county of Pliva, which is referred to as part of the then Croatian state by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in his De administrando imperio in the mid tenth century. The next reference to the genuine historical concept of Pliva county is not until 1366, when the Bosnian ban or ruler Tvrtko bestowed it on the Hrvatinić line, in the person of duke Vukac Hrvatinić, for his services in the defence of the town of Sokol three years early. This action, in 1363, halted the military campaign of the Croato-Hungarian king Louis I of Anjou against Bosnia (Ančić, 1999, 12-13, n.21-24).
Pliva county was in Donji Kraji, which is referred to in historical sources as a distinct administrative district in 1244. From then on, Donji Kraji is associated with the rule of the Bosnian bans, later kings. The history of Jajce is associated with the son of Duke Vukac, Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, who in 1380 had already succeeded his father in the post of Bosnian “Grand Duke“, and who first appears in historical sources some ten years earlier. From 1396 he bore the title of “Count of Jajce. “ This is also the earliest reference to the town; but to judge from this title, the town must have borne the name even before the end of the 14th century. The assumption is that there was already a fortress in Hrvoje's time, as well as St Mary's church beneath the walls. Hrvoje reached the acme of his power in 1403 when Ladislav of Anjou, the newly-crowned Hungarian king, bestowed on him the title of Herzeg of Split. He remained the most influential figure in Bosnia from the turn of the 14th-15th century until his death in 1416. During those twenty or so years, Hrvoje resided at times in Jajce, in which he also issued a charter. This was also a time of rapid growth in the importance of Jajce, which suddenly flourished. It seems that with the marriage of Hrvoje's widow Jelena to King Ostoja the town passed into royal hands, but it became a genuine royal town only during the reign of Tvrtko II. Towards the end of the Bosnian state, it became the capital of the Bosnian rulers. The earliest reference to the royal court in Jajce in historical sources dates from 1457, during the reign of King Stjepan Tomaš. Four years later, the last Bosnian king, Stjepan Tomašević, was crowned there; he held court there for two years and was killed there, probably on Carevo polje (Emperor's field) in the presence of Sultan Mehmed el Fatih in 1463 (D. Kojić-Kovačević, 1978, 127, S. Ćirković, 1964, 324). In the 15th century Jajce became an important commercial centre of western Bosnia and the political centre or state capital. Towards the end of the first half of the 15th century, there were merchants from Venice, Split, Ston and Dubrovnik living in Jajce. The exchange of goods and people was two-way. As well as merchants, various craftsmen (a cannon caster, stone masons) also lived or stayed temporarily in Jajce (Šunjić,2000, 54-59). The relocation of the court to Jajce, in the urban centre that had already taken shape within the ramparts, meant that it matched the contemporary European model.
Ottoman troops occupied the town in 1463, but held it for only six months, being forced to yield to the Hungarian army, which occupied Jajce that same year, and founded the Jajce banovina (banate) in 1464. Battles were waged around Jajce, and in 1527, after the battle of Mohács, it finally fell to Ottoman rule and lost its strategic importance as a forward stronghold as the battle zone moved further to the north. From then on a military garrison headed by a dizdar was based in Jajce.
The Ottomans conquered Jajce in December 1527, but the nahija of Jajce is not referred to until 1562. The assumption is that it existed immediately after the conquest of Jajce and that it first belonged to the Brod kadiluk and later, when the Ottomans crossed the Sava, to the Kobaš kadiluk from 1540 onwards (Šabanović, 1982, 177-178).
Sarhoš Ibrahimpaša Memibegović, who surveyed the fortresses of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1620, says that Jajce was the most important fortress in Bosnia, with around 400 houses within the walls, and that it could supply more than 400 fighting men. The town was supplied with medium-calibre artillery, and had a dizdar, a kapetan and a kadija (fortress commander, captain and judge) (Mazalić, 1952, 79).
In the second half of the 17th century there is reference to the kapetan of the Jajce captaincy. The travel writers Evliya Çelebi recounts that the town had a dizdar, a Janissary commander and 300 troops. There were no houses in the fortress other than the building the dizdar lived in, a masjid and the ruins of the court. He recounts that there were various Greek inscriptions over the old gatehouse to the fortress (probably also with the coat of arms in mind). He refers to two broken-down iron gates in the north wall, meaning the Mračna and Banja Luka gatehouses. According to him, the gate opened towards the south-east, which is the case with the Travnik gate. At that time, from his account, there were 1000 houses within the ramparts, and 80 shops on the main street leading from the Banja Luka to the Travnik gate. He says that in 1658, during the governorship of Melik Ahmed pasha, the varoš or town within the ramparts burned down and that the pasha himself built it with his army. Every aga built one imare (home), and Ahmed pasha himself built a medresa, and renovated the tekke, baths, mekteb and han. There is no trace of any of these buildings today. He also refers to the mills on the Pliva, by the ramparts, of which there were still remains in the early 1950s. There was a bridge over the Pliva from the Travnik gatehouse, and a Christian settlement with 500 houses on the right bank of the Pliva. There was another settlement outside the Banja Luka gatehouse, the present-day Haddanan mahala (Kovačka mahala). On the right bank of the Vrbas there was a settlement in Kozluk (Çelebi, 1979, 207-210). Three fires were recorded in Jajce between 1463 and 1660.
It is clear from a complaint by the citizens of Jajce to the valija in 1658 that the fortifications were in a state of ruin and that it was dangerous to go through the town gates and along the ramparts (Truhelka, 1918, 158). An Austrian secret service report dating from the early 18th century (1717) notes that the fort had not been repaired since it was taken in 1527, and that it had a small garrison with little artillery (Bodenstein, 1908, 100). The last kapetan of Jajce, until 1832, was Sulejman beg Kulenović, a supporter of Husein-kapetan Gradašćević. The Bosnian vezir Mahmut Hamdi-pasha brought in new troops from the nizam (the new regular Ottoman army established in 1826) and Albanians, who were based in Jajce from 1832 to 1833. Their carelessness led to the Sulejmanija mosque (St Mary's church), in which they were stationed, burning down. A census of weapons in the town taken in 1833 records that there were twelve cannon and four mortars (Kreševljaković, 1951, 152-153).
Battles were waged around the town between Krajina (frontiersmen) rebels and Omer pasha Latas, and again when Bosnia was occupied by Austro-Hungary in 1878. It is of interest that until 1878 there was no kasaba or town outside the ramparts (Mazalić, 1952, 62).
2. Description of the property
Jajce occupies an outstanding position among the towns of mediaeval Bosnia, as one of the few surviving fortified urban settlement with all the features of a fifteenth century urban centre.
Its architectural monuments are a persuasive illustration of the mediaeval art and diverse political situations in Jajce. In the era of Hrvoje Vukčić, the town was dominated by local builders and their stonemasons’ yard, while at the time of the last Bosnian kings, master craftsmen from Dalmatia were at work in Jajce (the late Gothic of the littoral towns and hints of the early Renaissance). Matthias Corvinus brought master craftsman from central Dalmatia and from the Magyar region to the banovina.
The complex of the fortress and defence walls of the town was constructed in several stages. Although they have not yet been fully identified, and not every part can be reliably dated, the basic chronology of construction can be ascertained. The basic elements by which the stages can be distinguished are the building techniques, the shape of the fortifications or their individual features, and the composition of the binding mortar.
Stage I is the construction of the fortress. Although there is no available evidence of its original date, the assumption is that the fortress, now the central element of a more recent defensive system, was built as early as the thirteenth century and at the latest by the mid fourteenth.
Stage II belongs to the period of Hrvoje’s rule, at the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth century. The bailey to the east of the fortress was built (on the plan, from the southern corner of the fortress to the Clock Tower, from the Clock Tower to the tower in Džikovac, from the north-eastern corner of the fortress to the tower in Džikovac. All that is now visible of that original bailey is remains in the retaining walls running along the road around the Clock Tower and from the Clock Tower to the tower in Džikovac. From these, Mazalić deduced that Hrvoje ran the wall of the bailey from the Clock Tower to the angle above Medvjed Tower as well, i.e. to the west wall (1952, 68).
Jajce was still a minor fortress at this time. The Church of St Mary and St Luke’s belltower, and the catacombs, built at this town, were still outside the town ramparts (Đ. Mazalić 1952, 65-66; M. Ančić, 1999, 98).
Stage III began with the death of Hrvoje Vukčić in 1416 and the transfer of the royal residence to Jajce, roughly from the mid fifteenth century to 1463. The walls now ran down to the natural barrier of the tufa cliffs and river banks. It was then that Medvjed Tower was built, and the line of the north rampart around Papaz gatehouse to Šamić bastion. Within the ramparts there was a Franciscan monastery, and a new church of St Catherine was built on the main square that was probably somewhere near the site where the Esma Sultana mosque and hamam were later built (M. Ančić, 1999, 99). This created a new centre in the valley on the main road through the town between the Travnik and Banja Luka gatehouses. The use of mortar with tufa dust is typical of stages II and III.
The transfer of the court to Jajce, as an established urban centre surrounded by ramparts, meant adapting to the contemporary European model, when advanced urban centres were gaining in importance.
Stage IV belongs to the period of Magyar rule, during the time when the Jajce banovina was in existence, from 1464 to 1527. At this time the entire defences of the town were repaired rather than added to. Based on individual archaeological finds of architectural features, it was assumed that the Magyar governors and King Matthias Corvinus, when visiting Jajce, resided in the fortress, in which there wa a palace - the court of the Bosnian kings – or that they themselves built a palace there, as well as the fact that no archaeological research whatsoever has been conducted. During his visit to Jajce in the 1660s E. Çelebi found a “ruined” capital (E. Çelebi 1979, 209; Đ. Basler 1959, 122).
Stage V, the period of the Ottoman Empire (1528-1878), was when the city acquired its final appearance. Inside the fortress, the towers were turned into bastions and embankments were raised within the old mediaeval walls (Đ. Basler, 1959,124); a powder magazine and a mosque were also built within the fortress. The Velika tabija bastion was built, along with the tower on Džikovac and the Šabić bastion. The church of St Mary with St Luke’s belltower was turned into the Suleyman II mosque. The perimeter walls were reinforced to a thickness of 2-5 m. The stone courses are noticeably more regular, and mortar with quite coarse gravel from the Vrbas was used as binder.
The central feature of the fortifications consisted of the fortress itself, which stands on the north-west corner of the urban area on the summit of the hill, at an altitude of 470 m above sea level. The perimeter of the fortress is 260 m, and its area 4800 sq.m. Two intact ramparts extend from the fortress to the north and west of the mediaeval town. The southern and eastern ramparts have survived in part alongside the rivers Pliva and Vrbas.(1)
NORTHERN PERIMETER RAMPART
This runs from the north-east corner to Šamić bastion, a distance of about 290 m, and traces of the mediaeval wall extended right down to the right bank of the old bed of the river Pliva. The entire length of the wall was built in two stages: mediaeval and Ottoman. The exterior revetment of the wall is mediaeval, with a thickness of 0.75 to 0.90 m. During the great Ottoman rebuilding of the late 18th or early 19th century, walls were built on the inside of the ramparts as reinforcement for the thin, ineffective mediaeval ramparts. The overall thickness of the ramparts thus ranges from 2 to 3.5m.
1. From the north-east corner of the fortress to Mračna gatehouse-Velika tabija:
This part of the wall is 50 long and up to 11 m high, and consists of two walls. In the mediaeval period a thin wall, 0.80 m thick, reducing to 0.74 m at the top, was built of mudstone and quarry stone bonded with a mortar composed of lime, tufa dust and broken brick. The stones of the exterior revetment of the wall are laid quite randomly. The exterior surface is plastered over with mortar consisting of lime with a considerable proportion of coarse sand and fine gravel. This plastering was carried out when the wall was built on, on the inside, to reinforce it – in the 18th or early 19th century. Where it joined the fortress wall it grew into a kind of small tower with a surviving section of the original breastworks of mediaeval form, identical with the breastworks topping the Papaz gatehouse, which should mean that these two sections of the north perimeter rampart – the westernmost part of the north wall and the section from the Džikovac tower to the Papaz gatehouse – were built at the same time.
The later reinforcements to the wall on the inner side are 1.6m thick, and built of mudstone and lime mortar with a high proportion of coarse sand and gravel. The face of the wall on the inside is made of roughly cut, approximately rectangular blocks. The entire wall is 2.4 thick. Part of the parapet has survived, leading to the assumption that the entire length of the wall was topped with parapets. Towards the east and Mračna gatehouse it increases in thickness to 3.5 m. Prior to conservation it had collapsed to such an extent that it was only from its steepness that one could hypothesize that the top of the built-on inner section was reached by stone steps. Close to Mračna gatehouse the exterior face of part of the wall fell off at some unknown date. It was rebuilt with rectangular stones laid in various ways, probably in the late Ottoman period. When the wall was built onto in the Ottoman period, loopholes were also built (Basler, 1967, 51). During later interventions, the stone steps and walkway were made good and part of the breastwork walls were erected.
2. Mračna gatehouse
The site of this gatehouse – the passage between Velika tabija and the wall described above – is now empty. The gatehouse was at an angle, according to people who had themselves only heard this at second-hand. It had a semicircular vault and «some sculptural signs» on the side. All that remained of it was three semicircular niches on the inner revetment of Velika tabija, which had adorned the inside of the gatehouse. Originally, the niches had pointed arches. The alteration to the shape of the arches was carried out in error during conservation works in the 1960s (Basler, 196, 57). Mračna gatehouse was narrow, and had a tower over it, which was not rebuilt during the reconstructions of the 18th to 19th century. According to the census description, the gate was similar to the lower entrance door in the Džabić house. This house was to the east of the clock tower. The entrance door had a decorative surround.
According to the locals, the gate was so narrow that the carriage belonging to the Mayor, Medžum Kulenović, who lived in the Dizdar's house, could not pass through it, and it was on his orders that the gatehouse was demolished in 1890.
Nothing can be said of its age, but the assumption is that it was built during the general reconstruction of the late 18th or early 19th century, which could not have taken place before 1717, the date of a report by an Austrian spy. Typical of the buildings of that time was regular courses of dressed stone and the use of lime mortar with a high proportion of coarse river gravel from the Vrbas. The stone for the revetment was finished in rectangular shape, usually 20 cm high and of various lengths, always laid lengthwise on the wall with very narrow joints (Basler, 1967, 52).
3. Velika tabija
Velika tabija or the large bastion is assumed to have been built on the site of a square mediaeval tower, traces of which can be seen in the embankment of the bastion. It was probably built during the period of great wars when works on the reorganization of the fortress were carried out in the late 18th or early 19th century. In position and size it was a particularly imposing building. The bastion is octagonal, with the surface of the walls of smoothly dressed stone. The inner wall is flat and joins the western and eastern corners of the bastion, a length of about 23 m. The three blind round arches from Mračna gatehouse form its surface decoration. On the outside, the bastion projects outwards, with a diameter of about 10m. It has five sections, narrowing towards the top and of different lengths, from west to east, of 9, 7, 10 (in the centre), 6 and 8 m. The lower part of the bastion walls was built with a batter, and running along the top is a simply moulded string course. Above the string course is an attic which was replaced somewhat higher than its original position during the course of conservation works in 1961. The bastion is 17 m. high.
Before the conservation works carried out between 1960 and 1966 the surrounding wall of the bastion had been rebuilt, having almost completely collapsed. Much of the north wall had been prized away. The inner walls were also in poor condition.
During conservation works, steps were built to allow access to the bastion (Basler, 1967, 52).
4. Wall from Velika tabija to the tower at Džikovac
This wall was 73 m long and 4-5 m high. The older, mediaeval wall was 0.9 m thick and built of quarry stone randomly laid. Against it, on the inside, a wall was built on in a manner similar to that on Velika tabija, making the present thickness of the walls 2.3 m. Prior to conservation the wall was barely visible. The wall is identical in every way with the wall above Mračna gatehouse, and also probably had a parapet, and was probably reached, between the mediaeval period and the great reconstruction, by a wooden terrace, and later from the inside by the wall that was built on the inside (Basler, 196, 53).
5. Tower at Džikovac
In shape this was more a bastion than a tower, a later addition built into the wall during the Ottoman period. It was squarish in section (sides 8-10 m long), and banked up with earth. It could not be very large owing to the restricted space. It was built during the 17th to 18th century. Alongside it to the east part of the wall had four breastworks built on.
This built-on section of wall is of the same date as the tower, and the stone in this wall is dressed in the same way as in the retaining walls dated to the 17th century on the south wall (Basler, 1967, 53).
6. Wall between the tower at Džikovac and the Papaz tower
This is the part of the wall that remains most intact and and is the best preserved original part of the mediaeval fortifications of the Jajce civilian settlement. The original mediaeval breastworks have survived here – four of them above the Papaz gatehouse. Each constitutes a small fortification in itself. Between the breastworks were metal covers attached to small consoles on the outer side of the breastworks. These breastworks are of the type known as minor breastworks, unlike those on the south wall of the fortress and the wall by the Banja Luka gatehouse. They were built of tufa, and every other one has an arrowslit. In the Ottoman period they were plastered over by way of maintenance. Like part of the wall from Papaz gatehouse to Šamić bastion, the wall is very solidly built of regular courses of stone over the full width of almost 4 m. This was the area most at risk from direct attack, and thus requiring the most effective defences. Part of the wall is mediaeval, with another part built on in the 17th to 18th century, making the overall thickness of the wall 2.70 m. There is access to the wall only by Papaz gatehouse, but the assumption is that when the tower at Džikovac was added, the walkway along the entire wall was interrupted (Basler, 1967, 54).
During conservation works the crown of the wall was given a new coping.
7. Papaz kula
This tower is alongside the Banja Luka gatehouse, and was a typical mediaeval structure, later twice rebuilt. Despite this, much of the existing walls of the original building have survived. The tower had a very prominent defence position, so that more care was taken over its reinforcements and maintenance than with some of the other towers. It was probably in the Ottoman period that reinforcements were added on the inside of the tower. In the 17th century the two corners of the tower on the town side were patched up. At the same time, apparently, a retaining wall was built on the outer north side of the tower. The tower is roughly square, with the sides measuring 19.95 x 10.58 m. The walls are of quarry stone, ranging in thickness from 2.40 m on the south to 5.25 m on the north. The tower was entered from the south through an arch vaulted gate. Inside the tower was a roughly square room measuring 4.65 x 4.33 m.
The tower was formerly 5-6 m higher than now, and its walls were 1-2 m higher than the breastwork on the adjoining wall. The interior construction and roof of the tower were of timber. There are signs of fire on the walls (Basler, 1967, 54).
Inside the Papaz tower the stone facing can be seen to have fallen away on the upper third of the wall.
8. Banja Luka gatehouse (Papaz gatehouse)
The Banja Luka gatehouse guarded the northern entrance to the town of Jajce. The building consists of a tower and gate – the northern entrance to the town. Outside the gatehouse there was formerly a dry fosse. The walls of the gatehouse are 4.55 m thick. The gatehouse gradually widens from north to south, with a width of 3.21 m to the north and 5.5 m to the south. The height of the entrance to the north is 4.55 m and to the south 5.35 m. The gate no longer has its original exterior door frame, which was once narrower and fitted with hingers for a metal gate. The gate could be closed with a solid portcullis lowered by a lever. The opening for the lever was between the second and third parapet and is still visible today. The doors with their iron fittings still stood until 1906, when the gate was widened to allow for the passage of wider vehicles. There is a decorative carving of a warrior on the outside of the north doorjamb, which was added in the Ottoman period, as was the custom at that time. There are similar bas relief figures on the doorframes of the gatehouses in Tešanj and Zvornik. The breastworks have been reconstructed on the crown of the wall above the gate, on the basis of a surviving drawing made in 1890 and the remaining foundations of two breastworks. The walls with parapets and loopholes around the Banja Luka gatehouse, in substructure at least, and the tower by the gate are partly built in a manner similar to the Medvjed tower, with vertically laid stone on the revetments (Anđelić, 1963, 50-52; Basler, 1967, 54).
9. Wall between Banja Luka gatehouse (Papaz gatehouse) and Šamić bastion
Much of this wall is of mediaeval origin, when the breastworks were built. Until the 1890s, the ruins of the breastworks survived, particularly in the section close to Papaz gatehouse. They were somewhat larger than those on the wall above the gate. Large sections of the wall were rebuilt during rebuilding and repairs between the 17th and 19th centuries, and these reinforcements to the wall have resulted in its being 4.7 m thick. On the outer face of the wall, facing Varoš, there are abundant traces of repairs and patching up.
On the inner side, the face of the wall is quite badly damaged, more because the locals dismantling the wall and taking the stone away. The foundations of the wall are of large stone blocks randomly laid. The interior mass of the wall is very solid, made of quarry stone laid in layers and bonded with slaked lime, without tie beams. This type of masonry is more solid than revetting the outer walls and filling with a mixture of mortar and stone. During conservation and restoration works, the walkway was paved, and stone steps were made on the steep sections of the walls. On the exterior, a row of breastworks were built, restoring the appearance of the old building, while on the inside a parapet wall was built (Basler, 1967, 54).
10. Šamić bastion
This bastion was a stronghold of major value for this place. It projects far out from the wall to allow for the positioning of the cannons that protected the Papaz gatehouse. The foundations of the bastion are therefore dug deep into the soil that forms part of the bank of the Vrbas. The polygonal bastion was created by building on to a mediaeval square tower in the late 18th or early 19th century. The mediaeval structure was built at the same time as the adjoining wall, and part of the vertical wall can still be seen where the front of the bastion meets the great wall to the north. In the middle of the east wall, north to south, is a large arch made of four courses of cut stone, like some huge portal.
During conservation and restoration works, stone steps were placed on the steep sections of the walls from this bastion to above Banja Luka gatehouse (Basler, 1967, 54).
11. Wall between the Vrbas and Šamić bastion
This section of the ramparts lies on the base of a mediaeval wall. Here Mazalić found a retaining wall 8-10 m high, and at the angle the wall forms with the Vrbas he found traces of a guardroom with the remains of a round-arched aperture in the breastworks. This very dilapidated section of the ramparts probably dates from the 17th to 18th century (Mazalić, 1952, 74; Basler, 1967, 55).
WESTERN PERIMETER RAMPART
This rampart was built in the mediaeval period, probably around the mid 15th century, when the Bosnian kings showed increased concern for the fortifications of the town. It runs from the south western corner of the fortress to the bank of the old bed of the Pliva, a distance of about 200 m. Apart from the Medvjed tower and two «knee-joints», one at the level of the clock tower, resulting from adaptations to firearms, it has no other defence features.
1. Wall from the fortress to Medvjed tower
The wall running from the fortress to Medvjed tower, with an average thickness of 0.6 to 0.9 m, is in a poor state of preservation. It seems never to have been a particularly solid structure. The upper part of the wall has retained all the features of mediaeval construction. Level with the clock tower the wall curves. It is currently completely overgrown with self-sown vegetation.
2. Medvjed tower
The Medvjed tower is very close to the Catacombs and to St Mary's church and St Luke's belltower. The tower was probably built in the mid 15th century, during the last decade and a half of Bosnia's independence (1448-1463), during which the last Bosnian kings engaged in much building. This is suggested by the increased thickness of the walls, regular horizontal lines in the revetment, and the shape of the Medvjed tower. The tower belongs to the type of massive, round defensive tower that began to be built with the introduction of firearms. The tower is in fact the only reinforcement on the western perimeter rampart, as potentially the last refuge of the defending forces; it could be defended alone, and also guarded the approach to the town from the west. From the top of the tower one could observe enemy movements from that direction. It was thus built and positioned so that the enemy could not hold position either close by or further away from the town, leaving the area free for communication with the defenders of the town.
The Medvjed tower is of more recent date than the western perimeter ramparts. The walls range in thickness from 4.70 m. on the east to 6.0 m. on the west side of the tower. The inside radius at ground floor level is 5.70 m., and on the upper floor 8.14 m. Mortar consisting of a small proportion of lime and a great deal of tufa dust was used in the construction. The south wall is vertical on the exterior, while the north wall has a slight inclination towards the interior. In addition to the entrance, located 8.50 m. above ground level, there were three openings on the first floor level of the two, two of which served as loopholes. A square window on the tower was made in the late Gothic style.
There are some places on the revetment of the Medvjed tower where the way the revetment is laid is very striking: stone blocks in the form of parallelopipedes are often laid upright in the revetment. Over the centuries these vertical blocks became rounded (the rain flowed more easily along the grooves and ate away the stone). These vertical blocks are of sedimentary limestone taken from the rocky prominence on which Jajce stands. There is no tufa. The stone is roughly dressed, without the use of more sophisticated stonemasons’ tools, came from a single workshop, and was laid in a single stage of construction. The same construction is to be seen in the north wall around the Banja Luka gatehouse, in the substructure of the gatehouse itself (Anđelić, 1963, 51).
In about 1890 an entrance was pierced and steps built alongside the tower. During World War II an entrance was pierced into the ground floor of the tower.
3. Wall south of Medvjed tower to the Pliva
Two thirds of the wall south of Medvjed tower is of old mediaeval construction. This part of the wall contains a secret passage, forming an integral part of the fortifications with the Medvjed tower. The last third of the wall, to the bank of the Pliva, was built in the Ottoman period, 17 to 18th century. The wall has a polygonal extrusion at the end making it into a bastion. The entire outside of the wall surface is overgrown with self-sown vegetation.
EAST PERIMETER WALLS (ALONG LEFT BANK OF VRBAS) AND SOUTH (ALONG LEFT BANK OF PLIVA)
The left bank of the Vrbas, down to the waterfall, is a vertical cliff of dripstone. Here and there, where there were no natural barriers, the bank has been reinforced by embankments as far as the waterfall.
The terrain along the old bed by the left bank of the Pliva, on both sides of the Travnik gatehouse, is secured partly by the naturally fortified terrain. A strong wall was probably erected in mediaeval times on the site of the tower above the Travnik gatehouse, through which the ancient road ran.
1. Travnik gatehouse
The Travnik gatehouse is the south entrance to the old town of Jajce. It is also known as the Pliva, Lower and South gatehouse. When Jajce came under Ottoman imperial rule, it lost the strategic importance it had enjoyed for so long only after the defeat at Vienna and then at Senta. A high tower was then built, square in section, and typical in form of Ottoman gatehouses of the late 17th and early 18th century. A small bastion was erected beside it. This is the only tower in the Jajce fortifications to have a stone-vaulted ground floor. To judge from its form, it was built in the late 17th or early 18th century. At little higher up than this gatehouse, a solid bridge over the Pliva was built in the 16th century. The bridge was always kept well maintained, because of its importance for troop movements from Travnik in central Bosnia (Đ. Mazalić, 1952, 76). The terrain outside both the Banja Luka and the Travnik gatehouses was probably protected by wide, deep fosses with drawbridges.
The Travnik gate is rectangular in section, measuring 8.75 x 9.10 m. It is built of quarry stone, with the thickness of the walls at ground floor level 3.30 m on the exterior or south side and 1.45 m on the interior or north side. The height of the entrance is 2.27 m. on the south and 4.37 m. on the north side. The thickness of the walls of the upper storeys is about 1.20 m. There was one first floor room entered from the west, from the ramparts area, nowadays from the courtyard of the Omerbeg house. This room measured 6.82 x 5.93 m, and probably housed the guard. To the south, north and east it had loopholes. A wooden staircase led from this room to the second storey of the tower, where there was yet another room of similar size and shape as the first floor room, but with only two windows facing inwards, on the north side. The floor joists were timber.
The Clock Tower is in the upper town, in Gornja Mahala. Although it stands within the ramparts, at one time it formed part of the fortifications. The tower was built in the mediaeval period as a tower projecting outside the fortress. The assumption is that it was built at the same time as the bailey, during the rule of Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić. The tower has retained in full the character of a mediaeval entrance tower leading to the area outside the fortifications, as is plain to see from the old Jajce residential conglomeration as well as from the nature and position of the tower itself.
The clock tower has been frequently repaired and made over. The entire upper sections have been clumsily replaced. The Ottomans breached two walls to run a road through the tower, and mounted a clock. The mediaeval door jambs have perhaps survived. The wooden floor at first floor level, the clock and the bell no longer exist (Đ. Mazalić, 1952, 67, 78). The name clock tower is unsuitable for the building, given that there is absolutely no official data on the clock that might once have stood there, nor was the tower built for that purpose. Basler, too, says that there is no evidence that there ever was a clock there (Basler, Prijedlog za konzervaciju-vlasništvo općine Jajce), although according to one Hadžo Šećerćehajić the building really was turned into a clock tower during the Ottoman period and the clock was fixed above the gate, on the arch on the east side. The family Šeherćehajić, whose house was nearby, looked after the clock. After the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austro-Hungarian soldiers took away the clock and bell (Dr. Ćurić, Hajrudin , 1972).
The clock tower in Jajce is a typical fortifications building, with a ground plan of an irregular rectangle measuring 10.50 x 9.00 metres. The walls are of quarry stone, as much as 3.50 m. thick in places. Hydraulic lime mortar was used for bonding. The building is entirely roofed over with a steep hipped roof clad with wooden shingles. It has two arch-vaulted doors, one to the east and one to the west, through which one enters the high central area. Interventions dating from various periods are visible on the wall surfaces.
The building is in good structural condition, with the latest interventions consisting of a replacement of the roof cladding. There is a problem with ivy, which grows wild and has almost completely covered over the west and south walls.
3. Legal status to date
During the procedure prior to the adoption of a final decision to designate the site as a National Monument, documentation on legal protection to date was inspected and the following was ascertained:
Ÿ the Regional Plan for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2002 listed and valorized the urban entity of Jajce, which includes the mediaeval fortifications, as an ensemble of 0 category – of international significance
Ÿ of all the fortifications, only the Fortress in Jajce is on the Provisional List of National Monuments under serial no. 274; although they form a single ensemble, the other buildings are not on the List
Ÿ In the draft Town Plan for Jajce Municipality (drawn up in 1988 by the Town Planning Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina) the monument was registered on a list of 74 individual monuments and minor ensembles to which the protection regime previously stipulated applied.
Ÿ the draft Regulation Plan, which provided for the revitalisation of the historic nucleus of Jajce, drawn up on the basis of a survey by the architect Radivoje Jadrić, also covered the fortifications.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
The first person to study Jajce was Ćiro Truhelka, in about 1890.
Ÿ 1951-1953 – conservation works carried out on the ramparts.
Ÿ 1951 –start of repairs to ramparts on the old fort. Travnik gatehouse roofed over.
Ÿ 1957-1961 – conservation works carried out on the ramparts of the fortress.
Ÿ 1963 – conservation works carried out on the north rampart between Velika tabija and the castle.
Ÿ 1964 – repairs carried out to the west ramparts.
Ÿ 1965-1967 – works continued on repairs and reconstruction of the ramparts. The works were carried out by experts from the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH.
Ÿ 1966 – repairs to the ramparts of Jajce fort, conservation of the Travnik gatehouse, repairs to Papaz tower and the Šamić bastion.
Ÿ 1969-1971 – conservation of the ramprts of the old fort, repairs to the west ramparts. All works on the ramparts from 1951 to 1971 were carried out by experts from the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH, Sarajevo. The following works were carried out on the ramparts: the damaged sections of the walls were removed, the footings were stabilized, and the stone was then returned to the same place. In some areas of the wall stone slabs and steps were laid on the walkways of the walls and the access to Velika tabija. Cement mortar was used when carrying out these works. At the same time, the breastworks were repaired, using lime cement mortar.
Ÿ 2002 the company Marušić of Jajce carried out repairs to the roof of the Clock Tower to a blueprint drawn up by experts from the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which also supervised the works. During these works the dilapidated shingles were removed and replaced by new ones. The boards on which the shingles were laid were also replaced. The roof structure was damaged by fungus. The upper parts of the walls of the tower were also cleared of self-sown vegetation over a distance of a metre as measured from the eaves.
Ÿ 2002 the company Trišnik carried out repairs to the timber roof of the Travnik gate. The investor and project supervisor were Jajce Municipality and the Jajce Tourist Association. As on the Clock Tower, boards were laid over which shingles were laid. The dilapidated shingles were replaced by new ones.
5. Current condition of the property
An on site inspection conducted on 27 November 2003 ascertained the following:
Ÿ the area is exposed to rapid deterioration as a result of lack of maintenance and failure to implement even minimum protection measures. Parts of the ramparts are overgrown with self-sown vegetation;
Ÿ the area is at risk from the effects of the elements and vegetation; which has led to material and the exterior facing falling away on part of the north rampart between the tower at Džikovac and the Papaz tower. This damage is worst in the upper reaches as a result of many years’ lack of maintenance and damp caused by precipitation water penetration;
Ÿ the surroundings, particularly within the ramparts, are at risk from the construction and extension of residential buildings.
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. i. quality of workmanship
C.ii. quality of materials
C. v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D.i. material evidence of a lesser known historical era
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D.iii. work of a major artist or builder
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
E. Symbolic value
E.iii. traditional value
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/landscape value
G.v. location and setting
H. Rarity and representativity
I. Completeness (groups, areas, collections)
I.i. physical coherence
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Copy of land register entry and proof of title;
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1904. Truhelka, Ćiro, Kraljevski grad Jajce. (Royal town of Jajce) Sarajevo, 1904.
1908. Bodenstein, Gustav, Povijest naselja u Posavini. (History of settlements in the Sava valley) Jnl of the National Museum in Sarajevo XIX, Sarajevo, 1908, 95-112.
1916. L. Thalloczy, Povijest Jajca (History of Jajce) Zagreb, 1916.
1918. Truhelka, Ćiro, Pabirci iz jednog Jajačkog sidžila. (Gleanings from a Jajce sicil) Jnl of the National Museum in Sarajevo XXX, Sarajevo, 1918, 157-175.
1951. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom upravom.(Contributions to the history of Bosnian towns under Turkish rule) Supplements for oriental philology and the history of the Yugoslav peoples under Turkish rule II/1951, Sarajevo, 1952, 119-184.
1952. Mazalić, Đoko, Stari grad Jajce.(Old town of Jajce) Jnl of the National Museum in Sarajevo, n.s. vol VII, Sarajevo, 1952, 59-100.
1953. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Stari bosanski gradovi.(Old Bosnian towns) Naše starine I, Sarajevo, 1953, 7-47.
1957. Vego, Marko, Naselja srednjevjekovne bosanske države. (Settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Sarajevo, 1957.
1957. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Sahat-kule u Bosni i Hercegovini. (Clock towers in BiH) Naše starina IV, Sarajevo, 1957, 17-32.
1959. Basler, Đuro, Konzervacija južnog zida tvrđave u Jajcu. (Conservation of south wall of the fortress in Jajce) Naše starine VI, Institute for the protection of monuments of N.R. BiH, Sarajevo, 1959, 121-134.
1960. Pašalić, Esad, Antička naselja i komunikacije u Bosni i Hercegovini. (Antique era settlements and communications in BiH) Special publication by the National Museum, Sarajevo, 1960
1962. Basler, Đuro, Klesarski majstori i radionice u srednjovjekovnom Jajcu. (Master stonemasons and workshops in mediaeval Jajce) Collected papers of the Krajina Museum I, Banja Luka, 1962, 98-108.
1963. Anđelić, Pavao, Srednjovjekovna žitna jama u Jajcu. (Mediaeval grain pits in Jajce) Collected papers of the Krajina Museum II, Banja Luka, 1963/1964, 38-40.
1963a. Anđelić, Pavao, Jedna etapa izgradnje Jajca. (A stage in the building of Jajce) Collected papers of the Krajina Museum II, Banja Luka, 1963./1964., 50-52.
1963. Basler, Đuro, Manji nalazi iz starije prošlosti Jajca. (Minor finds from the ancient past of Jajce) Collected papers of the Krajina Museum II, Banja Luka, 1963./1964., 40-49.
1964. Ćirković, Sima, Istorija srednjovjekovne bosanske države. (History of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Belgrade, 1964.
1967. Basler, Đuro, Sjeverni dio gradskih utvrda u Jajcu.(Northern part of the town fortifications in Jajce) Naše starine XI, Institute for the Protection of Monuments of S.R. BiH, Sarajevo, 1967, 51-58.
1972. Kujundžić, Juraj, Srednjovjekovne crkve u Jajcu (Mediaeval churches in Jajce), Dobri pastir, vol. I-IV, godina XXI-XXII, Sarajevo, 1972.
1978. Kojić-Kovačević, Desanka, Gradska naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države. (Urban settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Sarajevo, 1978.
1979. Çelebı, Evliya, Putopis.(Travelogue) Sarajevo, 1979.
1982. Šabanović, Hazim, Bosanski pašaluk. (The Bosnian pashaluk) Svjetlost, Sarajevo, 1982.
1988. Bojanovski, Ivo, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba. (BiH in the antique era) Academy of Science and the Arts in BiH, Monographs, vol. LXVI, Sarajevo, 1988.
1988. Anđelić, P. Jajce, In: Arheološki leksikon, vol 2, 179-180 Sarajevo, 1988
1995. Popović, Marko, Srednjovekovne tvrđave u Bosni i Hercegovini (Mediaeval fortresses in BiH). in: Collected papers for the history of BiH I. Serbian Academy of Science and the Arts, Belgrade, 1995, 33-55.
1997. Popović, Marko, Vladarski i vlasteoski dvor u srednjovekovnoj Bosni.(Rulers' and landowners' mansions in mediaeval Bosni). Collected papers for the history of BiH II. Serbian Academy of Science and the Arts, Belgrade, 1997, 1-33.
1999. Ančić, Mladen, Jajce, portret srednjovjekovnog grada. (Jajce, portrait of a mediaeval town) Museum of Croat Archaeological Monuments. Split, 1999.
2000. Škegro, Ante, Jajačko područje u prapovijesti i antici. (Jajce area in prehistory and antiquity) In Jajce 1396-1996. Collected papers from symposium to mark the 600th anniversary of reference to the name of the town of Jajce, Jajce 5-7.12.1996., Jajce, 2000, 9-16.
Documentation from the Archives of BiH, Jajce Municipality and the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and National Heritage of BiH
(1) The Decision to designate the fortress in Jajce as a National Monument was adopted at the Commission's 6th session held from 27 to 27 January 2003.