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Decisions on Designation of Properties as National Monuments

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60th session - Decisions

Harem of the Town Mosque

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Status of monument -> National monument

             Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 1 to 7 July 2003 the Commission adopted a

 

D E C I S I O N

 

I

 

            The harem of the Town Mosque in Kozarska (Bosanska) Dubica is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).

            The National Monument is located on cadastral plot 176 new survey, cadastral municipality Kozarska Dubica-Grad (c.p. 1/4356, c.m. Kozarska Dubica in the old survey) Municipality Kozarska Dubica, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

            The mosque being built on the site of the Town Mosque destroyed in 1992 is not subject to protection since it has not been built in conformity with the state of the building before demolition and has not been rehabilitated in compliance with the Law on the Implementation of Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Republika Srpska no. 9/02) and other valid standards and principles of protection, and thus does not meet the Criteria for the designation of property as national monuments (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03).

            The National Monument consists of the area of the mosque and the harem.

            The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina shall apply to the National Monument.

 

II

 

            The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument.

            The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the resources for drawing up and implementing the necessary technical documentation for the rehabilitation of the National Monument.

            The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.

 

III

 

            Protection measures:

Ÿ          The site of the architectural ensemble of the Town Mosque in Kozarska (Bosanska) Dubica and harem is hereby under protection.

Ÿ          The original use of the protected site may not be altered.

Ÿ          All fragments of the mosque or nišans from the harem that may be found during the course of building works being carried out on the site of the Town Mosque or in the dumps to which they were removed after demolition shall be surveyed and recorded, conserved, returned to the site of the harem and displayed appropriately within the mosque ensemble.

                                         

IV

 

            The Decision to amend the Decision the adoption of a regulating plan for the central zone of the town of Kozarska Dubica, dated 6 July 1994, is hereby revoked, as are all executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision.

 

V

 

            Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of Republika Srpska and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument specified in Clause I of this Decision or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.

 

VI

 

            The Government of Republika Srpska, the Ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska and the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II-V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.

 

VII

 

            The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba) 

 

VIII

 

            Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.

 

IX

 

            This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH and the Official Gazette of Republika Srpska.

 

            This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović,  Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.

 

Chairman of the Commission

Amra Hadžimuhamedović

No.: 07-6-554/03-3

2 July 2003.

Sarajevo

  

E l u c i d a t i o n

 

I - INTRODUCTION

            Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of  BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.

            On 29 November 2002 the Commission received a petition from the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Majlis (Council) of the Islamic Community of Bosanska Dubica.

            Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

 

II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION

            In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:

Ÿ          Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property

Ÿ          Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs

Ÿ          Decision to amend the Decision on the adoption of the regulating plan for the central zone of the town of Kozarska Dubica dated 6 July 1994

Ÿ          Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.

 

            The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:

 

1. Details of the site

Location

            The Town Mosque is in the centre of Kozarska Dubica, c.p. 176, c.m. Kozarska Dubica-Grad, municipality Kozarska Dubica. 

Historical information

            Neither the original tarih (chronogram) nor the vakufnama (deed of endowment) of the founder of the mosque has been preserved.  The first reference to the town relates to 1528, when present-day Kozarska (Bosanska) Dubica is mentioned with the name of Kastrum, the capital of the Dubica županija or district. The town came under Turkish rule in 1538, and at the end of the eighteenth century, Dubica was known as a small trading town and the seat of a kapetanija (Mujezinović, p. 44).  In a description of fortresses in the Bosnian pashaluk dating from the 1620s, Dubica is mentioned as a town of little importance, with about ten houses within and some forty houses outside the fort (Kreševljaković, Selected Works II, p. 435).

            During the Ottoman period, Dubica came under Austrian rule three times following battles in 1687, 1716 and 1788.  During the 1788 war between the Ottoman  Empire and Austria, during the reign of Joseph II, the Austrian army commanded by General Laudon occupied Bosanska Dubica which then, according to the description, had a few houses and a mosque. On this occasion the entire town was razed (Kreševljaković, Selected Works I; p. 86; Šerić, p.18-21; Aleksić, p.18).

            On a sketch made of the attack on Bosanska Dubica, it may be deduced from the position indicated for the mosque and the proximity of the river that this was the Town Mosque.  In the light of detailed information on the Dubica kapetans(1) it may be inferred that the Town Mosque was rebuilt at the turn of the eighteenth to nineteenth century.

            Between July and September 1992 three mosques in Bosanska Dubica were destroyed: the Town Mosque, the Čaršija mosque and the Puhalska mosque.

 

2. Description of the monument

Architecture

            The building had exterior dimensions of approx. 11 x 17 m (based on copy of cadastral plan issued in in 2001), with two rows of windows, and was built of Austrian format bricks.  The exterior facade of the mosque was plastered. The mosque had a hipped roof, a wooden minaret on the right hand end against the north-west façade wall level with the north-west wall of the mosque. Against the north-west entrance façade of the mosque a single-storey-height enclosed portico was built on with an abdesthana for ritual ablutions in its right hand section.   The portico was built around 1970, when a new sixteen-sided minaret was built (originally the mosque had a lower minaret emerging from the roof, as can be seen on a panoramic photograph of Bosanska Dubica in 1945).  Statistical indicators on mosques dating from 1933, published in the Herald of the Supreme Religious Council of the Islamic Religious  Community (Herald IRC I, Belgrade, 1933, no. 7, pp. 52-55), show that the original minaret was wooden. A photograph of the mosque taken before its demolition show that the roof cladding was closely overlapping plain tiles.

            The windows in the facades were set in two rows.  Each of the side facades had five windows, the mihrab wall had four upper and four lower windows, and the entrance façade had four upper windows and three lower, plus the entrance door.  All the windows were round-arched, with only the lower row of windows in the entrance enclosed portico of rectangular shape.  The window frames were emphasized on the façade.

            In the harem to the north of the mosque in line with the entrance to the mosque was a hexagonal šadrvan fountain.  On the part of the plot to the west of the mosque was a group of about 30 nišan tombstones (visible on the cover photograph of the Herald of the Supreme Islamic Council in SFRY, Vol. XXXVI, no. 1-2, Sarajevo, 1973).

 

Legal status to date

            According to data submitted by the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historial and Natural Heritage of BiH, the Town Mosque in Kozarska (Bosanska) Dubica was not a protected monument.

 

3. Current condition of the monument

            The Town Mosque was demolished in 1992.  Where the old mosque stood a new mosque has been built with exterior dimensions of 11.10 x 17.20 m.  The new mosque has retained the proportions of the mosque building prior to its demolition.  This is particularly true of the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the building, the shape and form of the roof, the proportions of the windows and their rhythm and arrangement.  Certain departures are noticeable in the case of the minaret (the old minaret was attached to the north-west wall of the building whereas the new one stands apart; the treatment of the basal plinth of the minaret and the šerefe (balcony) railing is different, there are more light shafts in the wall of the main part of the minaret, and the proportions of the cone of the minaret are different).

            No details have been found on the arrangement and appearance of the interior, the furnishings and fittings of the mosque prior to demolition, so that no comparison can be made between the new building and the old one prior to 1992.

            The new mosque has been built using modern materials and techniques. The main design project for the mosque in Bosanska Dubica was drawn up by the Gradiška Engineering services and trading company in October 2002.

            The entire area of the mosque harem is surrounded by a metal fence.  There are no visible remains of nišans on the western part of the plot (where the burial ground was prior to the demolition of the building).  Because of the building works on the new mosque, which were under way at the time of the site visit, the part of the harem to the north of the mosque building is being used as a depot for building materials, so that it was not possible to see what lay beneath them.  In the immediate vicinity of the new minaret a tree that used to stand within the harem of the mosque has been felled.

            Inspection of the Decision to amend the Decision to adopt a regulating plan for the central zone of the town of Kozarska Dubica dated 6 July 1994 and the drawings attached to the draft amendments revealed that the site of the Town Mosque was intended for a commercial building of ground floor, two upper floors and attic floor.

 

III. CONCLUSION

            Pursuant to the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments established pursant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, every national monument, and every property for which a petition has been submitted, must be restored in compliance with the approval for rehabilitation issued by the relevant Entity Ministry.  The Commission has enacted the Decision cited above, which stipulates that the new building of the Town Mosque in Kozarska Dubica is not a national monument, by applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument, adopted at the fourth session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (3 to 9 September 2002).  It was determined that the new building does not meet the following criteria:

A. Timeframe

B. Historical value

            Pursuant to the above, the provisions of the Law on the Implementation of Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina do not apply to the new mosque.

            Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument, the Commission has enacted a Decision designating the  harem of the mosque as a National Monument.

            The Decision was based on the following criteria:

B. Historical value

E.  Symbolic value

E.ii. religious value

E.iv. significance for the identity of a group of people

 

            The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:

-         Copy of cadastral plan

-         Copy of land register entry and proof of title;

-         Photodocumentation;

-         Drawings

 

Bibliography:

 

Aleksić, Dragoslav, Knežopolje i Knežopoljci (Knežopolje and its people) Bosanska Dubica, 1931

 

Bećirbegović, Madžida, Džamije sa drvenom munarom u Bosni i Hercegovini (Mosques with wooden minarets in BiH), 2nd ed., Sarajevo-Publishing, Sarajevo, 1999.

 

Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Selected works II, “Veselin Masleša”, Sarajevo, 1991

 

Mujezinović, Mehmed, Islamska epigrafika Bosne i Hercegovine (Islamic epigraphics in BiH), Vol. III, 3rd ed., Cultural Heritage Collection, Sarajevo Publishing, 1998.

 

Šerić, Hasan, Iz prošlosti Dubice, (From Dubica’s past) Novi Behar, Vol XV No 1, pp.18-21

 

Main design project for the mosque in Bosanski Dubica, drawn up by the Gradiška Engineering services and trading company in October 2002

 


 

(1) a) Džafer-kapetan.  It is known of him in the Cerića house that he was here during the Dubica war and that he was wounded in the shoulder.  He was married to a woman from the Filipović bey family from Ključ.  He died in 1234 AH (1818/19) in Dubica and is buried in the Bećirovića mezarluk (burial ground), land that Džafer-beg had bought and endowed as a burial ground, in which he was the first to be buried.  Later the land belonged to the Town Mosque.  A tombstone with epitaph on this still stands in the burial ground.   b) Hadži Mehmed-beg was Dubica kapetan after kapetan Mustaj-beg captained it from 1234 to 1242 AH (1818/19-1826).  Hadži Mehmed-beg left a vakuf and stipulated the revenue for the officials of two Dubica mosques.   In 1846 Mehmed-beg went on hajj, and from then on was known as Hajji Bey.  He died in 1869.



Bosanska Dubica, an old postcardPanorama of Bosanska Dubica, photo from 1982Town Mosque, photo from 1973Interior of the Town Mosque
Town Mosque, photo from 2003 Panorama of Bosanska Dubica from 1945Town Mosque in Bosanska Dubica in 1945 


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