Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 1 to 7 July 2003 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The architectural ensemble of the old fort of Bužim in Bužim, is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on cadastral plot 1322, cadastral municipality Bužim 2, Municipality Bužim, Federation of BiH, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02 and 27) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation shall be responsible for providing the resources for drawing up and implementing the necessary technical documentation for the rehabilitation of the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the lasting preservation of the National Monument the following protection zones are hereby defined:
Protection Zone I comprises c.p. 1322, c.m.. Bužim 2. This zone encompasses the old fort of Bužim.
Ÿ only conservation and restoration works, including works designed to display the monument, shall be permitted, carried out to a design project approved by the relevant Federal Ministry and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of FBiH,
Ÿ all construction, works that could have the effect of altering the site, and the erection of temporary or permanent structures not intended solely for the preservation and display of the monument are prohibited,
Ÿ the site of the National Monument shall be open and accessible to the public, and may be used for educational and cultural purposes,
Ÿ the following measures in particular shall be carried out:
- clearing the walls of vegetation representing a danger to the structure of the monument
- conservation of the monument in its current condition
Ÿ clear the pathway/walkway on the ramparts of the fort and make good the access to the entrances to the towers.
Protection Zone II comprises the area designated as c.p. 1308, 1312, 1313, 1314/1, 1314/2, 1315, 1316, 1320,1323, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1349. This zone encompasses the slopes immediately adjacent to the fort, a residential building erected at the base of the fort alongside the south-western bastion, and is separated from the outer ramparts of the fort only by the road.
No new building shall be permitted, but the rehabilitation and adaptation of existing buildings may be permitted to a maximum height of two storeys (ground plus one upper storey, 6.5 m. to the roof cornice) and maximum horizontal dimensions of 12 x 10 m with hipped roofs with a pitch of at least 40o.
In this zone the erection of industrial buildings and facilities, major infrastructure, or potential polluters as defined by regulations, is prohibited.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are to be revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument specified in Clause I of this Decision or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry of Regional Planning and the Environment, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles I-V of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH and the Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
Chairman of the Commission
2 July 2003
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
At a session held on 1 to 2 July 1999 the Commission issued a Decision to add the architectural ensemble of the old fort of Bužim, in Bužim, Municipality Bužim to the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, numbered as 162.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
Ÿ Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan and copy of land registry entry)
Ÿ Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage if any, data on restoration or other works on the property if any, etc.
Ÿ Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the site
The old fort of Bužim is on a site consisting of c.p. 1322, entitled Tower-Old Fort, Land Registry entry no. 110 1, owned by the Bužim ward of Bužim, right of use 1/1, c.m. Bužim 2, Municipality Bužim.
The Bužim fort is on a hilly site intersected by mountain riverlets and streams. The altitude of the highest hills is 600-700 m. above sea level. The mediaeval fort stands atop a hill with an altitude of 325 m. The highest peaks around Bužim are Radoč (630 m) to the north-east and Veliko brdo (463 m) to the west of Bužim. Two brooks, Bužimkovac and Pomojdan, flow into each other at the foot of the hill on which the mediaeval fort is built. The slopes of the hills surrounding the fort form narrow valleys to the south-east, west and north, while a higher hill rises to the south.
The Bužim fort appears in historical documents under two names, Čava and Bužim. The fort of Čavnik or Čavica, built at a time when the region was threatened by Ottoman incursions, stands not far from Bužim in the valley of the river Čava. Although Bužim is one of the largest mediaeval forts in the Krajina (military frontier region) and was of major importance, nothing is known of when it was first built. The system to which it was built suggests that it dates from the fourteenth century, from which time on there is rather more information:
Ÿ the Bužim parish of St Clement, which belonged to the Zagreb bishopric, is referred to as Čava in 1335 (Lopašić 1943,p. 118)
Ÿ in 1336 King Ludwig I bestowed Čava or Bužim to Grgur Galles, whose descendants later, in 1425, sold their share in Čava to the heirs of the Blagajski princes,
Ÿ at an unknown date between 1429 and 1456 the fort came into the possession of the Celjski counts
Ÿ in about 1456 Dora Blagajska, wife of Martin Frankopan, received Bužim and other holdings from King Ladislaw
Ÿ in 1464 King Matthias Corvin affirmed Martin Frankopan’s right to enjoy the property until his death, when the fort reverted to the king, in 1479
Ÿ the King bestowed Bužim on Juraj Mikuličić, who restored it in 1495 during the reign of Matthias Corvin. This is recorded in an inscription that stood above the arched entrance to the outer fort, which means that the outer fort was built in the late fifteenth century when Ottoman incursions were threatening this border region and firearms were already in regular use
Ÿ that same year, 1495, Juraj Mikuličić’s estates passed through family connections into the ownership of the Keglević’s
Ÿ in 1521 there was an insurrection of Ottoman captives in Bužim fort, but the uprising was soon quelled
Ÿ in 1523, King Ludovic granted Petar Keglević, the Jajce kapetan, the right to extract gold, silver, copper and other ores from the entire land of the fort of Bužim for 25 years, to smelt them and work the resulting precious metals, on condition that he paid the prescribed taxes to the royal chamber
Ÿ in 1501 there is reference to the parish of Čava, and in 1528 to a parish priest in Bužim. The fort of Bužim was held by a castellan, and the holdings were run by a “provisor” or special overseer
Ÿ in October 1530 the Ottomans took prisoners and set fire to the Bužim surroundings
Ÿ in 1564 the Bosnian sandžak Mustafa-beg Sokolović occupied Cazin, Bužim and Bojna, but was forced back
Ÿ in 1576 Ostrožac, Cazin and Bužim fell under the military leadership of Ferhad-paša
Ÿ the Porte was requested to return Cazin and Bužim on the grounds that they had been taken in peacetime. Grand Vizier Sokolović refused the request on the grounds that mosques had already been built in the forts (Lopašić, 1943, p. 233)
Ÿ the Ottomans stationed a large garrison of 50 cavalrymen and 130 footsoldiers in the fort (Kreševljakovič, 1953, p. 35)
Ÿ after Bužim was occupied, the fort was commanded by a dizdar. In 1620 Hasan, son of Behram, belonged to the Bužim garrison, who that year transcribed a major work and signed himself as leader of the Islamic Krajina
Ÿ another company commander in the Krajina from Bužim was Mehmed-aga, a contemporary of Mujo Hrnjica (Kreševljaković 1953, p. 35)
Ÿ during the great war, the fort was besieged by Christian armies in 1685, 1686 and 1688, but they were unable to take it
Ÿ in 1737, during the siege of Banja Luka, Christian troops also attacked Bužim, but were unable to take it then either. The Christian army left it in August that year when the Ottomans succeeded in holding Banja Luka under the leadership of Ali-paša Ećimović
Ÿ Bužim was always kept in good condition. It was repaired in 1626, and later. Reports dating from 1834 and 1838 show that the fort was still in good condition. In 1833 there were 18 cannon in the fort, which came under the Krup kapetanija
Ÿ in 1830 Ibrahimaga and mustahfiz Mahmut of Bužim were signatories to a deed in Vrnograč specifying the peace agreements between Austria and Turkey in the border regions of the Krajina (Kreševljaković, 1953, p. 34).
Legal status to date
Pursuant to the law and by Ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of SR BiH no. 200/51 dated 7 February 1951, the old fort of Bužim was placed under state protection.
By Ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of SR BiH no. 02-707-1 dated 23 December 1961 it was entered in the Register of immovable cultural monuments as no. 249.
The Regional Plan of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to 2002 listed it as a Category I monument.
2. Description of the monument
The old fort of Bužim is an interesting example of the older type of fortifications, erected before the age of firearms, with a new set of ramparts and towers built later in the early days of defensive fortifications against artillery fire. The ruins of the fort of Bužim consist of inner and outer fortifications, with the entire complex covering an area of 72 ares (1 are = 100 sq.m) and 67 sq.m. The inner, older fortifications constitute a small citadel forming a relatively regular quadrangle, with tall round towers at the angles. In the late fifteenth century the citadel was surrounded by new fortifications, trapezoid in plan, with polygonal towers at the angles. The walls and towers of these fortifications are considerably lower, and have emplacements on top for cannon. At the same time, apertures and emplacements for artillery weapons were added to the towers and walls of the inner fortifications. The erection of the outer line of defences protected the old citadel from direct artillery fire, and the defence approach was fortified, since the towers of the inner fort were taller than the walls of the outer fortifications.
The ramparts of the inner fortifications enclose an area of about 750 sq.m. At the centre of the north wall was a rectangular entrance tower (5 x 4 m) from which a platform with steps extended from the north rampart towards the north-west tower; the entrance gate was entered from this platform, and thence into the fort. The steps were 1.6 m wide and 5.6 m. long. The entrance was at a height of about 13 m. The eastern half of the perimeter ramparts, which was 2.2m thick, remained free-standing. The north rampart was 17.2 m long and about 17 m. high; the east rampart about 22 m long, 8 m high and 2 m thick; the south rampart was about 21 m long, 14 m high, and 2.2 m thick. The ramparts were topped by walkways for the defending troops, up to 1 m wide, and there were probably artillery apertures. Loopholes have survived at the top of the west rampart, set approximately 1 m apart. From the outside, the walls are about 15 m high, and from the inside about 3-4 m. The bailey of the fort is level and earth-filled, but in the middle ages the soil level was lower than now. The outside of the walls was revetted with finely worked limestone, which now survives only in part on the west wall.
The round towers at the angles projected from the ramparts, with only a quarter of the tower built into the ramparts. As a result, all the towers were entered from the inner bailey. They were basically of the same construction, but differed in detail and purpose. The outer walls of the towers are 2 to 2.8 m thick, and their height was up to 20 m. They were three-storeyed, with a ground floor (basement) and two upper floors. There were no openings on the ground floor, which was reached from the first floor by steps inside the tower. The ground floor and first floor had stone ceilings in the shape of a pointed dome.
The south-east tower is the best preserved, with an exterior diameter of 9 m. It is now 17.5 m high, almost to the roof truss above the second storey. The outer wall is vertical and faced with stone in three zones. The lower and uppermost zones were faced with hard cut stone and the middle zone, which extended to the upper storey, with finely cut blocks of tuff. The entrance, measuring 2.5 x 1.1 m, was on the second floor, 3 – 4 m above the level of the bailey, and led directly into a hall with a diameter of 5.5 m and a height of 6 m. The hall had five windows: clockwise from the door, the first three were 1.4 m apart, and the other two were a metre apart. The window apertures measured (1) 1.4 x 1.1m; (2) 2.3 x 1.7 m, (3) 1.4 x 1.1 m, (4) 2.7 x 2 m, (5) 1.4 x 1.1 m. Between the fifth window and the door wooden steps were set into the wall, 1.5 m wide, to provide access to the loft area. No trace of any window or door frames now survives, though they were still in place in the early twentieth century. To the right of the entrance is a narrow corridor, 0.6 m wide and 1.9 m high, with 22 steps leading down to the first floor, with a diameter of 3.8 m, a height of 4.4 m, and five loopholes in the wall. The entrance to the first floor measures 2 x 1 m.
The south-west tower, with an exterior diameter of about 12 m, has survived to a height of about 15 m. Its outer walls widen towards the base and are of robust appearance. Part of the facing of regular cut tuff blocks has survived. The present-day level of the bailey allows for access to the interior on the first floor (diameter 5 m, height of the ceiling 4.7 m), with its stone barrel vault and two loopholes still intact. The ground floor has been filled in and the second floor no longer survives.
The north-west tower is reinforced by a wall to the north and has survived to a height of about 17 m, with exterior diameter of about 12 m. The basement/ground floor premises have been filled in, and on the first floor, measuring 5.8 m across and with one loophole, the stone vault, which was 4.4 m high, has collapsed. The entrance to the tower was formerly at the second floor level. Truhelka found the steps still standing. It was a spacious area with a diameter of 8.3 m, with 4 large and 4 smaller windows. In the early twentieth century the fireplace was still standing, but there is now no sign of it.
All that remains of the north-east tower is part of the first floor and the earthed-up ground floor. The second storey was destroyed by lightening, as was almost the whole of the outer half of the tower. The door to the first floor (measuring 2.1 x 0.9 m) is now several metres lower than below the level of the bailey.
Between the south-east tower and the south wall of the mosque there was a cistern 40 arshins (about 28 m) deep, of which no trace now remains.
When Bužim was occupied, a large and well-built stone mosque was erected within the older fortifications. When Bužim was taken in 1576, according to Mehmed-paša Sokolović (d. 1579), the fort could not be returned to its original occupants «because a mosque had been built inside it.» The mosque occupies more than a third of the area of the bailey, lying parallel with the eastern rampart of the fort, with the entrance to the mosque in line with the main gates to the fort. The mosque thus lies with its long axis running north-south; in ground plan it forms a slightly irregular rectangle. Its external dimensions are 19 x 195 m, and the walls are 1.2 m thick from the foundations to a height of 4.5 m, where there is an outlet/vent [sic] forming the support for the wooden beams of the upper floor. Above this the upper reaches of the walls, with a height of 3 m, are 1 m thick. The walls are of quarry stone with large quantities of mortar. Traces of horizontal tiebeams can be seen. The entrance to the mosque and the small stairway below it were in the centre of the west wall. On the opposite, east wall the remains of the mihrab can be seen (a semicircular tuff monolith) at a height of about 1 m from the present floor level, which means that this was roughly the original floor level of the mosque. There is now nothing left of the windows, door and steps. It is not known where the minaret was, but the assumption is that it was built onto the roof. The mosque was used for worship until the mid nineteenth century, when a wooden mosque was built in the middle of the town below the fort.
The outer fortifications cover an area of about 4500 sq.m., with the ramparts about 15 to 20 m. from those of the inner fortifications. The western rampart is 77 m long, the northern 55.30, the eastern 44, and the southern, which has a slight break roughly in the middle, is 52 m long. The walls are 2 m thick. The western and northern ramparts survive in their entirety, the southern rampart survives in part, and the eastern has been pulled down. The ramparts are from 5 to 8 m high. There are low, polygonal, projecting bastions at the angles. The north-western bastion (approx. 10 x 9 m, and somewhat lower than the rest) and the north-eastern bastion (approx. 10 x 13 m) are hexagonal. The south-western bastion (approx 15 x 14 m, and 12 m high) is octagonal, and the south-eastern (approx 10 x 5, height 9 m) is quadrangular. The bastion walls are about 2 m thick. The northern outer side of the fort has largely collapsed as a result of weathering.
The perimeter walls of both forts were topped by walkways, cannon emplacements and loopholes. Traces of these can be seen in part on the southern ramparts of both forts. Openings for artillery weapons on the southern rampart of the outer fortifications, measuring 0.5 x 0.3 m, are set every 0.9 to 1.5 m. The entrance to the fort was in the west wall alongside the north-western bastion. There was a bihacite (local stone) transom measuring 101 x 24.5 x 20 cm) above the arched entrance, bearing the following inscription:
“Ta grad sazidal iz fudumenta izibrani knez Juraj Mikuličić. U nu vrime va vsei hrvatskoj zemlji boljega čovika ne biše, zač u kralja Matijaša u veliki počtenji biše, zač ot cara turskoga Ugarskoj zemlji mir našal biše. I car rimski, ta ga dobrim čovikom zoviše. I vsaki od tih poglavit dar dal mu biše. A Hrvati ga za nenavist hercegom Ivanišem pogubiše. Ki li se oće takim čovikom zvati, neka takov grad iz fundamenta ima izzidati, tere sebi tako...(quoted from Fučić, 1982, p. 112, no. 71).
«The fort was built with funds from the elect prince Juraj Mikuličić. . . .»
The inscription is written in careful glagolitic script, in glowing terms, and one may deduce from it that it was written after the death of Juraj Mikuličić, who was killed in 1495. The final part of the inscription is missing, and was probably incised on another stone adjacent to the first. According to Brunšmid, the inscription was removed from the wall in 1876 by an Austrian army officer who handed it over to the then National Museum in Zagreb. The slab is now in the collection of stone monuments of the History Museum of Croatia (inv. no. 6830).
Truhelka (1904, p. 36, illus. p. 35) also describes the stone transoms framing the slab. On the vertical sides symbols were carved in bas relief: to the left, an arm in armour with a mace and battleaxe, and to the right a soldier with a banner, a crescent moon above him, topped by two stars. Above there was yet another slab with an incised spear as the central image. Beneath was a bird on either side and above were two stars. These were clearly heraldic in nature, probably from the arms of various owners of the fort in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. One relief, measuring 0.7 x 0.25 x 0.25, was built into the western corner of the south-eastern bastion when the fort was repaired in Ottoman times. This is in two sections, one with a horse, the other with two birds. There is also a clumsily carved head of a man.
From a sketch made by a spy in the early nineteenth century, there were buildings inside the outer fortifications.
3. Research and conservation and restoration works
From available documentation, the Republic Institute for the Protection of Monuments surveyed the fort in the 1980s and made preparations for major conservation works. It was at this time that the facing of the lower part of the east wall and south-western tower of the inner fort were conserved.
No archaeological investigations have been conducted.
4. Current condition of the monument
By the late nineteenth century there were already reports that the fort was being plundered by the local population (Truhelka, 1904, p. 35). What Truhelka recorded in the early twentieth century no longer exists.
On site inspection revealed the following:
Ÿ the fort is in a state of some collapse, particularly the western and eastern ramparts of the inner fort, and the upper parts of the towers. The north-west tower has almost entirely lost its outer facings. The area inside the fort is tidy and passable, and there is no vegetation posing a danger to the walls
Ÿ the entire structure of the entrance gate and the steps are in ruins. The fort is entered via an embankment and through a breach in the wall where the gate formerly stood
Ÿ the steps referred to by Truhelka at the entrances to the north-west tower and the mosque no longer exist
Ÿ there are no fireplaces, door jambs and window frames in the towers
Ÿ every piece of stone slab that could have been used for building has been removed
Ÿ where the entrance gate in the west wall stood there is just a large gap
Ÿ the eastern rampart has been pulled down
Ÿ houses and a rural road have been built alongside the south-west outer angle of the fort and part of the western rampart
Ÿ although the fort has suffered considerably from the effects of time, it is still very impressive, and remains one of the best preserved mediaeval forts.
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument, adopted at the fourth session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (3 to 9 September 2002), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C. i. quality of workmanship
C.vi. value of construction
D.ii. evidence of historical change
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
D. v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period
G.ii. material and content
G.iv. traditions and techniques
G.v. location and setting
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
I.i. physical coherence
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
-Copy of cadastral plan
-Copy of land register entry and proof of title;
The documentation annexed to the Decision is public and available for view by interested persons on written request to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
- Brunšmid, Josip, Kameni spomenici (Stone monuments) Newsletter of the Croatian Archaeological Society, New Series III, Zagreb, 1912, 163-164, no.866, illus. p. 62
- Fučić, Branko, Glagoljski natpisi. (Glagolitic inscriptions) Works of the Yugoslav Academy of Science and the Arts, Vol. 57, Zagreb, 1982
- Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Prilozi povijesti bosanskih gradova pod turskom upravom (Papers on the history of Bosnian towns under Turkish rule) Papers on Oriental Philology and History of the Yugoslav Peoples under Turkish Rule, no.II, Sarajevo, 1952
- Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Stari bosanski gradovi (Old Bosnian towns) Naše starine I, Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH, Sarajevo, 1954, p. 22.
- Popović, Marko, Srednjovjekovne tvrđave u Bosni i Hercegovini .(Mediaeval forts in BiH) Collected Papers on the History of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1, Serbian Academy of Science and the Arts, Belgrade, 1995, pp.33-55
- Popović, Marko, Vladarski i vlasteoski dvor u srednjovekovnoj Bosni. (Court of the rulers and landed aristocracy in mediaeval Bosnia) Collected Papers on the History of Bosnia and Herzegovine 2, Serbian Academy of Science and the Arts. Belgrade 1997, pp.1-33
- Truhelka, Ćiro, Naši gradovi. (Our towns) Editions J. Studnička & Co booksellers, Sarajevo, 1904.
- Vego, Marko, Naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske države (Settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Svjetlost, Sarajevo 1957, p. 105