4.5 Issue 4: Traffic and Parking Management
Objective 4.1. Improvement of the traffic network
Traffic is among those important functions which must be defined by town planning documentation. The left riverbank town-approaching communication route is a main route from the direction Sarajevo towards Užice. It is directed to the Bridge, approx. 1 km downstream the Old Bridge, and, passing through the town, it exits at the eastern part of the urban area. This main route is not permanently regulated. It should be rerouted from the town to a planned by-pass in the southern zone of the urban area.
The town planning plan shall define categories of communications running through the contact zone of the Bridge, including the standing of the Bridge in the town traffic system. Giving consideration to the Bridge reconstruction and the fact that the original pavement is made by cobblestones, vehicle traffic over the Bridge is not desirable, except in special occasions (manifestations, emergency ambulance, fire-fighting vehicles, memorial processions …), which cases should be defined by special conditions. The plan outline proposes the standing of the Bridge in the town traffic system.
The zone next to the Bridge, to its right, stretches over the first-rank town communication which runs through the town centre and continues through the settlements upstream and downstream from the Old Bridge. There is a railway line to the south of the Bridge, which turns towards east and keeps to the left riverbank of the Rzav River.
In the eastern section of the town, at the left riverbank of the Rzav River, there is a railway station at the standard gauge railway line. It used to be a railway station at the narrow-gauge railway line Sarajevo-Višegrad-Užice, therefore it should be foreseen for functional reconstruction in the scope of the project for reconstruction of the narrow-gauge railway line in tourist purposes.
See Annex II, AII 21: Draft of the Višegrad town planning plan: Traffic plan - detail
The regulation plan should in more detail define vehicle traffic surfaces, parking lots and the surfaces intended for pedestrian traffic. The first protection zone, at the right riverbank, should include marked pedestrian points directed to beautiful lines of sight to the Bridge, and back. Pedestrian zones should dominate here, while the vehicle traffic should be foreseen exclusively for the purposes of effective supply of the stores and the catering services. This should make a final result of detailed analyses of needs and flows in the view of the Bridge protection and planned landscaping.
The regulation plan of extended first protection zone should define pedestrian and vehicle communications at the right riverbank to the Bridge, especially from the aspect of square characteristics,
which should be more clearly specified.
Pedestrian zones should dominate, while the vehicle traffic should be foreseen for exclusive purposes only, which should make a final result of detailed analyses of needs and flows in the view of the
Bridge protection and planned landscaping.
The town planning and technical documentation for the communications in the Bridge zone should define cross section of the carriageway and the sidewalk, including all infrastructure supplies (water, sewerage, power supply, heating, telecommunications). The ambient of the streets and the square area should be treated in the light of its illumination and urban movable property capacities (benches, information system, and the similar).
The town planning and technical documentation for reconstruction of the railway station should be as such as to improve the conditions of railway passengers’ traffic, and at the same time, enable establishment of tourist relation by reviving the narrow-gauge railway line.
The production of design for town by-pass route is a matter of urgency, as well as creating conditions for its realization, which would reduce traffic on main town communications. This is also significant from the point of view of improvement of environmental conditions, which would eventually produce more favourable conditions for existence of the Bridge.
Annex II: Maps
Annex II: AII 8: Orto -photo record of the bridge
Annex II: AII 9: Protection zone and buffer zone
Annex II: AII 21: Draft of the Višegrad town planning plan: Traffic plan - detail, the Institute for
Urbanism of the RS, 2004, Banjaluka
Annex IV: Photo documentation
Annex IV: AIV d 1: Building 2
Annex IV: AIV d 2: Building 2, 3, 4, 5
Annex IV: AIV d 3: Building 5
Annex IV: AIV d 3: Building 6
4.6 Issue 5: Access and Visitor management
Objective 5.1 Creating tourist activities and improve accommodation capacities that will facilitate
the attraction and accommodation of tourists and visitors in accordance with the standards of tourism offer based on the provisions of the World Tourism Organisation.
The number of visitors should be at a level of 2-4% from the total number of tourists and visitors in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (This percentage increases from the second to the fifth year after the adoption and implementation of the Management Plan).
In order to realise the objective, the following will be necessary:
Plan of revitalisation of existing accommodation capacities and reconstruction of the hotel on the
Drina bank and the Vilina vlas health spa / stakeholder: Višegrad Municipality, that is, the Urban Planning
Complete the process of registration and formation of a Tourist Agency / stakeholder: Višegrad
Municipality, Economic Secretariat.
Web page of Višegrad and the Bridge with information on all activities and potentials and basic information about the Bridge. The key words must be formulated so that the page is shown when searching for phrases such as: bridge, historical heritage, cultural tourism, Nobel laureate, Ivo Andric, Ottoman Empire, health spa... / stakeholder: Tourist Agency (or Bridge Agency).
Prepare information for brochures and leaflets and for guides that will be printed subsequently. Stakeholder: Tourist Agency along with the Bridge Agency and the Museum.
Motivate tourist guides / invite, assess and select potential guides / Tourist Agency and Višegrad
Educate tourist guides / Tourist Agency
Form a museum in the home of Ivo Andric / Višegrad Municipality, decision, fund, employment…
Devise tourist package deals for those interested in hunting, fishing, rafting… Stakeholder: Tourist Agency.
Clean and revitalise the area surrounding the Bridge and the riverbanks area. This activity has already been included in the plan under maintenance, but is a very important precondition for realizing tourist activities.
Plan of reimbursement to be paid to owners for the land and/or buildings located in the Protection Zone. The goal is to prepare the preconditions for protection and possible expropriation of land for the purposes of protection. / Višegrad Municipality along with the Urban Planning Service.
Presentation and Promotion Plan of the Bridge and Višegrad for the Tourism Community of FBiH, the Tourism Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, cantonal tourism communities and agencies known for inbound tourism (Fortuna in Mostar, Globtour in Medugorje…).
Plan of monitoring the number of visitors, their structure and reactions (Municipality, Bridge Agency, Tourism Community)
Plan the reconstruction of industrial capacities and prevent the operation of "dirty industry" (Municipality, private sector, NGOs)
PR action targeting the residents and aimed at motivating and inciting them to participate in preparing the preconditions for attracting and accommodating guests. (Organise round tables, discussions, "Days of the Bridge and Tourism". Stakeholders: Tourist Agency and the Municipality).
Concept for signs in the field. Tourist Agency and the Municipality are to issue a call for bids and
prepare an award for the winner.
Plan activities and organise the First Zone.
Establish an Information Centre (within the Tourist Agency) with staff (full-time or part-time).
Maps of the area to be printed as fliers and put up as posters at the location. Stakeholders: Tourist Agency and Bridge Commission.
CD with photographs and drawings of the Bridge, stories about its past and interesting details from its history in preparation for making a film. Have cassettes tapes or DVDs of the film shown at the National Museum on sale near the Bridge. Stakeholder: Bridge Agency and Tourist Agency.
For the first year of activities relating to promotional material, signs in the field, web page and maps, the necessary amount is 45.000 KM.
Depending on the number of visitors and activities organised, this amount will need to be increased in the subsequent 2/3 years. This will enable more vigorous activities and approaches to tourism.
The plan and analysis of necessary restructuring should show the necessary investment for its realisation. After the completion of the feasibility study, a type of "donors or investors meeting" will need to be held so as to determine the existence of potential investors. Special attention should be given to Bosnian-Herzegovina emigrants and companies with which they do business.
In order to protect tourism sites and prevent their destruction, past oversights must be taken into account, especially those related to the absence of signs on the nature of certain buildings, their significance and designation as national monuments. It is also necessary to secure approach roads and trails and communication between various parts of the Višegrad Municipality, which will in turn facilitate creating a network of tourist sites and increase the probability of more sites to be visited.
This will not be the first time that relatively underdeveloped or underdeveloped areas direct their developmental potential towards tourism, thus profiting in the only way possible from their lack of industrial development. The fact is that trends in contemporary society favour this orientation. It is also true that this is not sufficiently recognised in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it must not stand in the way of the Municipality's future development.
The Plan is in line with ICOMOS guidelines for managing world cultural heritage destinations. It is
based on the presumption that the conservation of a building or destination precedes the development of
tourism. This is the only way to ensure appropriate protection from potential detriment to the destination. In that case, if the planning of conservation has been successful and acceptable, a more significant and profitable development of tourism will ensue. Conservation can contribute to financial and social progress
of a destination in cooperation with tourism, but only after conservers define limits to the access of visitors to the destination can tourism professionals can help attract visitors, manage their stay and generate income that will become the basis for further conservation, protection, interpretation and maintenance of the destination.
Education and Interpretation
The problem of education and interpretation is one of the significant elements of the management Plan, especially with respect to the conditions in the Višegrad Municipality, that is, the activities it can offer to potential visitors. The diversity of contents, that is, the possibility to organise various activities will be reflected by various types of visitors, so a number of segments should be tackled at the same time.
The tourists can thus be categorised into a number of groups:
¾ “Sophisticated visitors” or visitors with considerable prior knowledge who come prepared and familiar with the history of the Bridge and the destination. Prior to arrival, they are familiar with the destination, its capacities and attractions they want to experience "first hand". This type of visitor requires comfortable accommodation at the destination and extensive possibilities for gathering information. They do not want to be disturbed, they prefer to visit the destination independently, not in organised groups, and they often spend more time on their visits taking photographs of significant elements. They are interested in purchasing special publications about the destination which cannot be found elsewhere, they area familiar with and have a critical approach to what is available through public interpretation. The usually do not use guides (written) or the services of persons acting as guides, and even if they do opt for these, the information they receive must be at a very high level.
¾ "Regular visitors" coming to the destination because they heard or red about it and the activities it offers. They require a more comprehensive presentation of the destination providing them with a general understanding of the place in its international, national and local historical context. This type of visitor represents the main segment for interpretative programmes. Namely, they are supposed to leave with the impression that they have visited a very interesting area and received important information which will make them a significant source of word-of-mouth propaganda when they encourage their friends to visit the same location.
¾ Students and pupils represent the segment that participates in organised or individual visits. Depending on their level of education, various interpretative programmes should be offered to them. The programme must focus on key elements and must include printed materials. The duration of interpretative speeches is conditioned by the ability to sustain the attention of such a group. So as not to disturb other visitor (especially those from point 1) the visits of these groups should be organised separately and at a predetermined time in relation to other segments.
¾ "Incidental visitors" make up the segment of those who happen to find themselves at the destination because it is part of the tourist package deal they are using. Although the number of such visitors is small and they are usually interested in various secondary services, they are a potential target group to be "converted", that is, whose first incidental impressions can be used to create a certain interest for future visits to the destination.
For the purpose of realising an approach to the above segments and providing interpretation of the monument, it is necessary to conduct activities on two parallel levels. It is necessary to ensure an adequate level of information, both verbal and visual, at the destination about the location and therefore available only to those who visit the site; and information available in printed form that visitors can take home with them, or that can be delivered to partners with whom cooperation has been established.
On the other hand, considering the significance of the Bridge in the cultural and historical heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is necessary to ensure appropriate information in publications in this field and in textbooks for Bosnian-Herzegovinian history.
When it comes to activities to be organised on the spot, their implementation should be easier since they are related to the area and require only a minimum of agreement between key stakeholders in the Višegrad area about what should be marked in the first phase. However, due to their location, these activities are of lesser scope in comparison to other forms and activities directed at various segments and target groups dislocated in respect to the Bridge and the Municipality. When it comes to activities organised at the location, these will require Centres for admitting and informing visitors, a sufficient quantity and quality of printed information materials of various scope and detail; the entire area should have signs including explanations of certain sites, notice boards with information of sites of interest should be put up, there should also be video presentations or VHS/CD recordings, a certain number of guides should be provided for visitors and tours in the Municipality should be organised.
Centre for admittance and information
One of the key elements at the location should be a centre for admittance and information of visitors. Considering the fact that the space where different contents are concentrated is so small, the classical infocentre must also perform an additional function of directing and advising visitors not only about how to reach the destination, but also about what other facilities they should use when staying in Višegrad. This centre, as the first place where visitors would go is a perfect place for the sale and distribution of guides and/or brochures and information about events and exhibitions taking place in the town. Upon leaving this centre, the visitor would already have a certain level of information and understanding of the destination and its events. In that sense, it would be useful to have notice boards with interpretations of contents interesting to visitors near this centre or near the historical sites and destinations where visitors are usually directed to go. Since these notice boards would be put up outdoors, they should be constructed so as to be able to withstand the impact of weather and vandalism.
Printed information are a form of interpretation and recording of information that can be distributed outside the destination and is therefore significant for distributing information and inviting visitors who have not shown up at a certain destination. This form of distribution can be realised through current visitors – they can transfer messages and invitations, or the written materials can be distributed directly through associates and mediators at other destinations.
The most important written materials are advertisements in various tourist magazines, newspapers, journals and in the electronic media (radio and television). Information distributed in this way is often the first source of information for some of the visitors and the first element of interpretative experience of visitors (this pertains to contents distributed directly at the site). The problem of this form of communication is conditioned by a high price of advertising space (but also creative solutions unless specialised advertising agencies are hired). That is why this form of education and interpretation is often unpopular among destinations and suppliers whose financial means limit the manner and quantity of activities that they can implement.
In some cases, however, space can be secured in public or private media on the basis of various
discounts, a common interest in the development of tourism at a destination and a partnership built between the public and private sectors. In that case, advertising space can be procured at a favourable price or even free of charge if companies are unable to sell within the regular timeframe.
Joint notice boards should be organised in cooperation with local chambers of commerce, national, regional or local tourist offices, large hotels located near the site or passenger transport companies.
Section 1. Brochures
Illustrated information brochures are the central point and basic form of communication for every
tourist destination. They should include basic historical information and general information on the destination, a schedule of activities and opening hours of various subjects at the destination, as well as other sites and activities the tourists can visit while staying at the destination. They must also be accompanied by a well-made, clear and precise map and a few representative photographs or drawings of the destination. They must be available in the local language, English and German (considering the majority of visitors coming to Bosnia and Herzegovina). Their size, format and quality must be such that they can easily be packed and stored with other similar publications.
Section 2. Guides - Handbooks
They are complementary to the basic brochures, much more comprehensive and illustrated and available for purchase at the destination. They should be sold at place where all visitors entering a certain
space must pass (which means in this case, on both sides of the Bridge, at the Dobrun monastery, at the art colony, Ivo Andric's home and at the spa). The guides/handbooks should also be printed in more than one language. They should be made by staff from the Museum and tourism community in cooperation with other suppliers of tourist products responsible for delivering information relevant to visitors and tourists. The publishing of these publications can also be done through a partnership between public and commercial subjects, where publishing houses would have an interest if the sale of the guides is sufficiently guaranteed.
Books are a very important source of information and education about a certain area, historical location and destination. In the case of the Višegrad Bridge, they are particularly important because the history of the bridge has been tackled by a large number of authors. In that context, the availability of all publications about the creation, history, events, damages and symbolism of the Bridge is important, especially for demanding visitors - those whose interests surpass the scope of regular or incidental visitors. It is important that various type of books (historical, interpretative) are main available, within different price categories and of different reading levels (children's books, books for adults, for the general public and professional literature). It is important that such books are made easily available to visitors upon arrival and departure, that they are exhibited in different shops.
Section 3. Maps
Visitors to the location should be provided with readable, precise maps of adequate size that can direct them to where they want to go and warn them of obstacles they may encounter. Considering the proximity of various sites in Višegrad, it is necessary to provide maps with information about directions and distances of certain sites (the health spa, the Dobrun monastery, Ivo Andric's home, art colony, road to Zlatibor, Jahorina, etc.)
Section 4. Signs
Well-designed signs are a key part of the interpretation programme for the entire destination. If possible, the destination should have a unique graphic logo related to the landmarks and sites and integrating the world heritage logo. In that way, the protection and position of the destination would be directly symbolised, as well as the efforts of world institutions to preserve the monuments and heritage of a certain destination. This logo should be used on all signs, maps, printed materials and the like related to the destination. Putting up signs is part of the comprehensive plan. The size, design, graphic appearance,
colours, materials and such should be coordinated.
Signs on main roads (throughways)
The programme of putting up signs related to the location on the roads should be developed in cooperation with local transport companies and road maintenance companies. To a certain extent, the legal regulations on the state level prescribe certain graphical standards fro this type of signs that must be adhered to. On the other hand, similar signs must be available for visitors (tourists) leaving the destination, facilitating their safe return.
Signs in the vicinity of the location or at the location
It is important to secure signs with directions for visitors arriving at the destination. This primarily means putting up signs at the main entrance to the area under protection or to the subject of interest for visitors, as well as signs for car and bus parking lots. These signs must be simple and clearly displayed to facilitate the manoeuvring of motor vehicles.
As an important interpretative means, the signs must provide basic information for visitors. They must all be carefully designed and positioned so as not to impair the area around the historical monument and so that they are not visible on recordings and photographs from the location.
National Monument Sign
The Commission has established a unique system of marking national monuments in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, in accordance with Point 2 of the decisions. The provision is as follows:
¾ “The Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.”
Annex I, AI-21: signboard appearance.
These signs pertain to marking emergency exits and routes. They must clearly identify the locations of fire protection, as well as exits from endangered locations.
Section 5. Continuous Slide Presentation
An automatic slide presentation with accompanying narration is one of the least expensive and most flexible audio-visual modes of communication with visitors. The programme can be easily complemented and modified. Introductory elements can be shown near the main entrance to the area and at adequately designed spaces. The duration of this type of presentation should not exceed five minutes.
Presentation on Video Cassettes and CDs
Video presentations are a widespread form of presenting many tourist destinations. In the case of
destinations with a wide range of contents (such as Višegrad), this is a very effective way to present all available capacities. The production of these presentations requires the services of specialised companies who provide the general concept and final recording. These presentations are more expensive, but facilitate reaching potential visitors. They can also be sent to fairs and exhibitions to directly present the potentials of a site at a much lower price than in the case of advertising through traditional electronic media. This aspect is particularly important when organising joint ventures with chambers of commerce and tourist offices on the state level.
An even more developed form of these presentations is the making of films, but this is a much more expensive option. In the case of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge, previously recorded materials can be used (including the film which premiered at the exhibition at the National Museum).
Guides - Companions
Skilful and educated guides-companions can create or destroy the reputation of a destination. They must be carefully chosen, trained, monitored, assessed and motivated. The best opportunity to employ these guides is limited to paid staff which enables maximal control and monitoring, as well as an efficient application of a motivation system. Guides would also have to be recognisable by their outfits or uniforms, and a reorganisation of duties or additional training should be administered to refresh communication skills. The guides are a significant source of feedback information on the reactions and opinions of visitors that should be used as a starting point when making future decisions.
4.7 Issue 6: Research
Objective 6.1 – to promote and encourage appropriate research to improve understanding of historical value and condition of the Bridge, and to assisst the implementation of the Management Plan Within the realisation of the Management Plan and above activities, as well as partnerships between various public institutions and private subjects, it will be necessary to ensure cooperation between tourism stakeholders and the Višegrad Municipality and the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, museums and scientific institutions involved in cultural and historical heritage, both in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the region. Joint efforts will facilitate the organisation and realisation of further research to fully illuminate various periods in the construction and history of the Bridge and its relation to similar buildings, as well as creating a cultural and historical heritage database that will be a foundation for the development of tourism in the region, that is, an integrated approach of stakeholders in this field.
In that sense, the Bridge Commission and the staff from the museum and other institutions of cultural and historical heritage would have to be the centre for distribution and inflow of information about
the Bridge and its architecture and an associate in all future research organised in this field. Of course, if the Bridge were to be entered in the World Heritage List, this would have a positive effect on the position and role of these institutions and increase their signif icance in the eyes of museums and the public worldwide.
Cooperation in realising activities
In order for potential tourism contents to become operational and available to visitors and tourists,
intensive cooperation must be established between the Višegrad Municipality tourist agency and tourism stakeholders in Višegrad.
This entails completing the process of forming and registering the tourist agency, selecting competent staff and management staff to create the tourism offer (products) along with other stakeholders on the Municipal level, coordinating and directing activities to prepare and produce education and interpretation materials and finally establishing links and presenting potentials for receiving guests among tourist agencies and potential visitors in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.
This calls for a proactive approach on the part of the tourist agency that would generate income on the basis of all overnight stays and other activities organised for visitors and tourists, as well as income from regular taxes payable in the domain of tourism. The reason for this alimentation of income is the fact that the tourist agency must secure a wide range of public services and signs relating to the destination, and that is only possible with the above explained budget.
Its operation would entail active relations with the Tourism Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Tourism Community of FBiH, the Ministry of Tourism of RS, in order to urgently introduce sites from the Municipality into the material and publications prepared for various fairs and exhibitions that representatives from BiH participate in. It is also necessary to establish direct contacts with tourist agencies and communities in Serbia and Montenegro so as to present the offer for potentia l segments in the neighbouring country.
4.8 Issue 7: Education
Objective 7.1 -Introducing all interested subjects to the significance of the Bridge, the Management Plan for the Bridge, the possibilities of sustainable development of the Višegrad Municipality where the Bridge is to play a crucial role in the development of tourism, and to the possibilities of active participation in implementing the Management Plan
Education is aimed at introducing all interested subjects to the significance of the Bridge as a national monument, the Management Plan for the Bridge, the possibilities of sustainable development of the Višegrad Municipality where the Bridge is to play a crucial role in the development of tourism, eco-tourism and organic agriculture, and to the possibilities of active participation in implementing the Management Plan.
Education will be carried out through workshops for target groups. The target groups for education are:
1. Target group: Municipal services, tourism communities, service sector, industry representatives, communal services representatives, teachers and other companies.
a. Lecturers: experts in the protection of cultural and historical monuments, urban planning,
tourism, environmental protection.
2. Target Group: non-governmental organisations, local communities
a. Lecturers: experts in the protection of cultural and historical monuments, urban planning,
tourism, environmental protection.
3. Target Group: primary and secondary school pupils
a. Lecturer: history teacher and person responsible for implementing the Bridge Management
One lesson in the school year to be dedicated to the Bridge and the role of pupils in preserving this monument.
4. Target Group: visitors and tourists
a. Method of education: lectures and discussions organised during the visit
b. Lecturers: experts from the Museum or the Tourist Agency
c. Costs: Individual fees to be secured from the tourism community funds or performed during
regular working hours.
5. Target Group: partners from tourism communities and tourist agencies
a. Method of education: organising discussions and round tables dedicated to issues of cultural
and historical heritage, bridges in BiH and their role in historical and economic development.
b. Lecturers: in the capacity of key speakers at round tables and discussions, or meetings and
open days aimed at attracting potential partners working with tourists.
6. Target Group: Members of the Municipal Council and government representatives
a. Method of education: organising discussions and round tables
b. Lecturers: experts from various fields who are to motivate support for the development of
the destination and the protection of the Bridge.
The Bridge Commission Coordinator responsible for the implementation of the Management Plan
should receive special education in managing cultural and historical monuments. The education would include:
¾ education within the country,
¾ participation at relevant seminars and workshops,
¾ study visit to a country with experience in managing similar cultural monuments.
4.9. Issue 8: Information management
Objective 8.1 – to ensure that the gathering, recording, analysis and management of information about the Bridge is undertaken in a way which assist the implementation of the Management Plan and encourage data sharing and development of compatible databases.
Effective management of this complex domain entails accessible, accurate and relevant information.
Documentation pertaining to the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge will be kept in a special collection. The collection will contain all materials related to the Bridge in hard copy or electronic form: texts, technical documentation, photographs, video documentation, nomination file, as well as all relevant
materials created during the process of introducing the site into the World Heritage List.
All minutes from meetings, correspondence and other documents dealing with this monument's WHL nomination process will also be included in the collection. All of the above materials will be categorised in accordance with international standards.
Institutions entrusted with storing and categorising the documentation are:
¾ Commission to Preserve National Monuments, and
¾ Bridge Commission at the Municipality of Višegrad
Part of the documentation, its technical items: projects, plans, maps will be stored at the documentation centre of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska in Banja Luka.
The availability of original documentation is variable. Institutions and individuals possess various
information sources and documents related to the bridge which have not been fully identified. Such material is located in a number of places and in certain cases it is not completely accessible.
A coordinated system of collecting, archiving and analysing documentation is being set up on the
The documentation stored with the Commission to Preserve National Monuments has been categorised and archived in accordance with the Commission's Rules of Library Processing and Rules on
Archiving. The documents have been processed according to standard international models for various collections with the aim of creating a database compatible with other sources and enabling the best possible exchange of data.
The existing documentation is kept in various collections of the Commission's Library and Documentation Centre: plan collection, project collection, photograph collection, monograph publications
collection, periodicals, CD collection.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments, the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage and the Višegrad Hydro-Electric Plant will deliver copies of available documentation to the Višegrad Municipality which is obliged to provide conditions for adequate storage and preservation of this documentation.
The Bridge Commissioner within the Urban Planning, Residential and Communal Affairs Department of the Višegrad Municipality, will be in charge of monitoring the implementation of the Management Plan.
Documentation of HE Višegrad:
¾ Report on hydraulic model research on impacts of HE Višegrad on the downstream area, Jaroslav Cerni Institute for Water Management, Belgrade 1982
¾ Study of deposits in the upstream portion of the Drina, Republic and Hydro-Meteorological Institute of BiH and the Hydro-Technological Institute of the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Sarajevo, 1983/84
¾ Study of the joint effect of HE Višegrad and RAHE Bajina Bašta SOUR Energoinvest, OOUR Higrainženjering, Sarajevo 1983
¾ Study of the impact of HE Višegrad on the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge, Civil Engineering Faculty of the University in Belgrade, Hydro-Technological Institute, Belgrade 1985
¾ Elaboration on the state of the foundation of the piers of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge on the Drina in Višegrad (the so-called "0" state before the start of operations of HE Višegrad), Institute of Materials and Construction of the Civil Engineering Faculty in Belgrade, 1989
¾ Elaboration on osculating measurement points for geodetic and instrumental behaviour of the Bridge with zero readings in the I series, Geodesic Institute of the Civil Engineering Faculty in Belgrade, 1989
¾ Elaboration on necessary repairs of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge over the Drina in Višegrad, Institute for Materials and Construction, Civil Engineering Faculty in Belgrade 1989
¾ Main Plan of repairs of piers of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge over the Drina in Višegrad, Institute for Materials and Construction, Civil Engineering Faculty in Belgrade 1991
Documentation of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of
¾ Digital form of graphical attachments of the Main Plan of repairs of piers of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge over the Drina in Višegrad, Institute for Materials and Construction, Civil Engineering Faculty in Belgrade 1991, 2005
¾ Report on the technological control of the Main Plan of repairs of piers of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge over the Drina in Višegrad from 1991, April 2005
¾ Design model for the plan of repairs of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge over the Drina in Višegrad, June 2005
¾ Photo-documentation on the state of the Bridge from 1995 to 2005
¾ Report on underwater survey from 1977
¾ Findings of most intensive erosion on the foundations of piers V and VI. Water erosion severed connections between stone blocks. The intensity of erosion changes over time.
¾ Underwater recording from 2004
Documentation of the Commission to Preserve national Monuments:
¾ Decision on designation of the historical monument of the Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic Bridge in Višegrad as national monument, with description of location, historical information of site as well as of the Bridge, detail description of the Bridge, information on legal status to date, research, conservation and restoration works and information on current state of the property;
¾ Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan);
¾ Data on the previous condition and use of the property, including drawings, descriptions and photographs, data of war damage, data on previous restoration or other works on the property, etc.
¾ Situation plan of the wider area,
¾ Drawings of the bridge made during research and conservation works in 1911/1912:
plans of the bridge,
plan of the piers of the bridge,
cross-sections of the bridge,
downstream and upstream facades of the bridge,
¾ Propositions of the structural consolidation of the piers of the bridge by professor Gojkovic – expert for stone constructions, made during research and conservation works in 1980/1981,
¾ Photographs on the previous condition of the Bridge, both surrounding and the bridge,
¾ Photographs on the current condition of the bridge,
¾ Movie made during underwater recording of the current condition of the foundations and piers of the bridge. This movie, made in 2004, gives only a general view of the current condition since it was not done under the leadership of bridge construction experts;
¾ Several published works relating to the bridge
¾ Expert Report: Pržulj, Milenko, "The Bridge on the Drina – main data, chronology of damages and destruction, repairs and current state of the stone bridge over the Drina river in Višegrad" –Collection of Research Papers, Institute for Research of Materials and Constructions, Civil Engineering Faculty in Sarajevo, 1990, vol. 19.
¾ Preliminary technical assessment, 2005, Commission and Council of Europe. The PTA contains an analysis of the state of the Bridge, Damage Assessment and Diagnosis, proposals for the type of interventions and priorities
4.10 Issue 9: Management structure
The preparation of the Management Plan has been led by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments and Visegrad Municipality, who forms part of an existing management structure for the Bridge. The Commission to Preserve National Monuments is an institution of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina responsible for issuing the decisions designating movable and immovable property as a national monument, following the affairs of national monuments, and responsible for international activities in the field of heritage.
Municipality Višegrad is responsible for implementation of legislative and protective measures.
Management Plan Task Group is established to carry out the process of producing the Management Plan, focusing upon specific issues including conservation, planning and transport policy, environment and ecology, tourism and economy. Management Plan Task Group form part of existing management structure: Commission to Preserve National Monuments, Institute for Protection of Cultural-Historic and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska and Visegrad Municipality; and experts from Institute for Urban Planning of Republika Srpska and experts for economy and tourism and marketing.
A key element of new management structure is the Bridge Commission.
The Management Plan for the Mehmed-paša Sokolovic Bridge requires a series of activities and a coordinated work of responsible institutions: Commission to Preserve National Monuments, Government of Republika Srpska, Ministry responsible for regional planning in Republika Srpska, Ministry responsible for culture in Republika Srpska, Institute for Protection of Cultural-Historic and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska, Visegrad Municipality and other organizations.
Upon the recommendation by the UNESCO this Management Plan recommends the establishment of the Bridge Commission. It has been envisaged that the Bridge Commission should permanently employ one person as the Bridge Commission Coordinator. The Municipality of Višegrad would bear the costs relating to office equipment and the operation of the Bridge Commission Coordinator. The Coordinator could be an architect who would be responsible for the implementation of the Management Plan and who would perform the following tasks:
¾ To assist key organizations and the local community to work together to implement the Management Plan,
¾ To establish, support and facilitate a network of groups to direct and guide the work of various organizations,
¾ To prepare and implement annual work programmes, in consultation with relevant partners, to translate the Plan's objectives into actions,
¾ To work with partners, to promote significance of the Bridge locally, regionally,
¾ To work with partners to review and update the Management Plan and proposed actions,
¾ To plan the budget in accordance to the five years projects plan,
¾ To monitor the implementation of the Plan,
¾ cooperating with the tourist association,
¾ keeping the documentation,
¾ public relations ,
¾ to report on activities and budget to the Commission to Preserve National Monuments and Visegradn Municipality,
¾ other tasks necessary for an effective implementation of the Management Plan.
The other members of Bridge Commission are part of the existing menagement structures:
¾ Commission to Preserve National Monuments responsible for international activities relating to heritage, monitor and consider the state of affairs and activities that might endanger the Bridge. Notifies the relevant Entity and other authorities (ministries, institute for heritage protection and local authority) about activities endangering the monument and proposes measures for its protection in accordance with the law.
¾ Within the existing organisation the Coordinator would have the obligation to report to the Commission, as a priority, and then also to the Municipality and the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Republika Srpska. The Commission shall request the Republika Srpska Ministry of Regional Planning to conduct inspections and implement legal measures. The Commission shall also request the Government of Republika Srpska to meet the financial conditions for the protection of the national monument, thus including its participation in financing such projects relating to the protection of the Bridge, i.e. the Protection Zone I.
¾ Institute for protection of cultural-historic and natural heritage of RS is responsible for the expert supervision, works of conservation and restoration as it is proclaimed by the Decision of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
¾ The Municipality Visegrad signs the decision adopting the Management Plan, which make it responsible for abiding by the provisions defined in the Plan and for its implementation.
The Bridge Commission Coordinator will contract other organizations, experts and services for carring out specific activities foreseen by the Management Plan.
Objective 9.1 – to ensure that the management arrangements for the Bridge are effective and appropriate for the implementation and monitoring of the Management Plan
Objective 9.2 – to encourage active community involvement in the management
4.11. Issue 10: Sources and Levels of Finance
Tourism activities associated with the Bridge might serve as a generator of income for the area. Analysing the data available for the other tourist places in Bosnia and Herzegovina with regard to the number of the tourists on the annual basis, and taking into account available tourist premises in the Višegrad, as well as other activities and preparatory work needed to be done, we can force about 20 000 visitors in the first year. We believe that number would increase gradually and stabilize somewhere between 30000 and 40000 visitors per year. This will represent a significant boost for the local and regional economy.
We can expect both primary and secondary economic benefits from the Bridge conservation. Namely the owner of the bridge as a supplier and the tourists as a consumer might derive mutual benefits in the form of seeking the satisfactions associated with the consumption of the bridge as a cultural good, which have economic value to them. The benefits should exceed costs for both parties. A visitor will pay an admission fee to an owner in order to tour the Bridge or nearby Museum. This we can call primary economic benefit – what the visitor is willing to pay, the admission prices of the Bridge and nearby Museum or income earnings of the Bridge. This benefit we may see and measure as prices paid. Any form of direct transaction such as admission fees falls into the category. The prices visitors pay will serve as a proxy statement for the value they place on the visit to the Bridge. Other purchases made at the bridge or nearby area are also forms of primary benefit, such as souvenirs, etc.
Grants or donations either from individuals or private trusts to a conservation of the Bridge might be treated as particular form of primary benefit. This is also a price paid for certain satisfactions. If the income is from private sources it is a net benefit less an opportunity cost. If it is also tax deductible, then a portion of the grant or donation benefit is offset on the cost side as a social cost, since the deduction is tax expenditure, an involuntary gift by other taxpayers.
A primary transaction sets will set off secondary spilover or external effects, many of which may have significant consequences. If such effects can be exclusively attributed to conservation of the Bridge as opposed to other development projects such secondary benefits all need consideration in the analysis of economic values. One positive effect in the case of the Bridge inscription on the list is the impact on the land values of nearby properties, as measured by net capitalized income generated after taxes. Another form of benefit is an increase to the tax base, which devolves to the municipality of Višegrad insofar as it collects a property tax.
One can also expect the stimulation of the net private investment. Such investment in community is desirable to widen the economic base, and those taxpayers, workers and others in the community Višegrad can benefit from such investments. Perhaps the easiest way to look at them is to determine which are related to the greater attraction to the Bridge, such as cafes, restaurants, souvenir shops, food, merchandise, retailing, transportation and other sectors of the local economy. These spilover effects are expected to create more employment and more income, both personal and governmental. Employment rate will increase and help returnees to make their sustenance.
All the above-mentioned can be demonstrated on the example of the Old Bridge in Mostar. The Old Bridge Museum is considered one of the key generators of the maintenance of the existing structures and promotion of the project. The rent collected in the Old City of Mostar presents an important income for preservation and development. Related to numerous implementation programmes of importance for all
owners of properties and tenants, a special tax will be introduced (like monument tax in Croatia) for the general benefit for the Old City of Mostar and each individual.
In collaboration with tourist organisations, a special system of benefits will be introduced for the activities at the highest level of international standards. All these structures will be marked.
The City of Mostar will rent the structures that belong to the Municipality and request serious intervention through open competition. Selected tenants will restore buildings with their funds based on the prepared designing project. The amount in vested by the tenants will be calculated as a pre-paid rent for several years – the investments shall not be accepted in case of a change of the used commercial facilities that had been previously occupied. This mechanism has an advantage to both owners and tenants.
1.1 Create stable and sufficient sources of financing.
1.2 Use taxes and rents as a source of financing.
1.3 Use a part of the revenues collected from tourism (income received via taxes from tour operators, hotels and restaurants for the efforts in maintaining the Bridge, income from visitors’ fees – the Bridge Museum, galleries, churches and licensed souvenirs).
1.4 Use budgets at different levels as a source of financing.
1.5 to develop arrangements for identifying and accessing external funds.
¾ Elaborate the scheme of local taxes and rents: In the Management Plan for the Old City of Mostar, for example, a proposal has been elaborated in order to improve the classification of rent values, which we think might also serve as a potential guide for the authorities in Višegrad:
a) Activity coefficient
1. Cafes and Restaurants 2,00
2. Sale of handicraft goods and peace of art 1,75
3. Commercial and Tourism Agencies 1,50
4. Authentic restaurants and Pastry-shops 1,00
5. Bookstores 0,50
6. Creative works specially of national art and handicraft 0,25
b) Location coefficient
1. Objects in the I zone 1,50
2. Others 1,00
c) Entrance position coefficient
1. Entrance form the main street 1,00
2. Entrance form the auxiliary street 0,75
d) Coefficient determined by the position in the building
1. The ground floor 1,00
2. The floors and attic 0,75
3. The basement with windows 0,50
4. The basement without windows 0,25
¾ Elaborate the scheme of contributions from other tourism revenues. One possible solution might be to introduce particular taxes (in the amount of 5% or 10%) for the following: tour operators, hotels and restaurants for the efforts in maintaining the Bridge, the Bridge Museum, galleries, churches and shops selling licensed souvenirs).
¾ Timely provide for a certain amount of money in the budgets of the local and entity governments.
¾ Undertake marketing activities and campaign in order to obtain donations and grants.
¾ Undertake necessary steps to take a credit under favourable terms with international financing institutions.
This would be the obligation of the authorities of the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina.